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3D Animation: SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission leading to COVID-19

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  • 3D Animation: SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission leading to COVID-19

    1:32

    Thanks to the brilliant team at Helix Animation for this 3D animation outlining the most common ways of transmitting the coronavirus SARS=CoV-2 based on the latest relevant scientific research available (March 2020).

    Please note that the knowledge of this infectious disease and its transmission, as well as on this novel coronavirus, is still incomplete and evolving. Facts may change over time as the outbreak is ongoing with the latest updates found at:

    As typical for 3D visualizations, the overall virus representation is an artistic depiction, and the surface proteins density and distribution have been simplified, in order the entire audience to easily grasp the most prominent features of this virus.

    In light of the united global effort, we would like to provide free usage of this video and/or any of the imagery shown, as long as it is properly credited (including the logo and the full text in the lower left corner). Thus, if you’d like to use it, please drop us a line via our contact section at (Video/Imagery Usage) and we’ll get back to you with the video/imagery files.

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  • COVID-19 Animation: What Happens If You Get Coronavirus?

    7:28

    For Employees of Hospitals, Schools, Universities and Libraries: Download 8 FREE medical animations from Nucleus by signing up for a free trial:

    Biology students: Subscribe to the Nucleus Biology channel to see new animations on biology and other science topics, plus short quizzes to ace your next exam:

    This video 3D animation on COVID-19: What Happens If You Get Coronavirus is a collaboration between Nucleus Medical Media and our friends at the What If Channel. To watch super interesting hypothetical scenarios on the human body, humanity, the planet and the cosmos, please visit the What If Channel at
    #covid-19 #coronavirus #omicron

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  • SARS-CoV-2 Infection Process

    2:21

    SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) Infection Process
    Video of scientific popularization. Animation.

    In this animation, a process in which a multitude of actors intervene (Enzymes, polysaccharides, cell organelles ...) is exposed, in a very simplified way.
    It is not a scientific video, but an outreach video that tries to explain, in the simplest possible way, a very complex process.
    I hope you like it.
    Guillermo Corrales Morales
    Music: Carlos Estella

  • Coronavirus outbreak explained through 3D Medical Animation

    6:09

    This video is available in different language subtitles English, Korean (
    Our dedicated microsite-
    The 2019 nCoV Novel Coronavirus is fast threatening to become a pandemic. This 3D medical animation explains the story so far, covering what is a pandemic, current rates of infection and tips to protect against infections. It also delves into the biology and mechanism of action MoA that coronavirus uses to infect and destroy human cells. Though the exact MoA for this coronavirus is not known.

    Check back daily for more information as it develops. Alternatively, see our website: , or our dedicated microsite above. The PDF in the video is available for free download also. It is provided under a Wiki CC4.0 creative commons license.

    For those of you leading government or private institutions or in the medical community , and if you think our visualizations can help in any way, please feel free to reach out.

    Also, any voice over artists, translators, that can offer to support our effort, please contact us on info@scientificanimations.com .

    Link to the 3D structure mentioned in the video:

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  • How the COVID-19 virus is transmitted

    1:39

    The COVID-19 virus spreads mainly between people in close contact with each other. It spreads most easily in crowded settings, closed spaces with poor ventilation or through prolonged contact with an infected person. Learn more on:

  • 3D Animation Of COVID-19

    27

    We created this animation of the corona virus and have made it freely available to download, share and use. We ask that you credit Fusion Medical Animation if you do have a use for the visuals. High resolution images can be downloaded here:

    These images have been now downloaded over 5 millions times!

    Since sharing these images we have been contacted by people who intend to use them in very different ways; from university lecturers wishing to use them as part of their (now) virtual teaching while the college is shut to a firms creating apps to help people to know how to act during this pandemic.

    The making of the Covid-19 model:
    This model was created by assembling together parts from related 3 coronavirus structures that are available in public databases, such as RCSB PDB.

    The components that we used:
    1) S protein (PDB code – 6CRV)
    2) E protein (PDB code – 5X29)
    3) M protein (PDB code – 3I6G)

    The M protein shown is complexed with HLA-A*02 (human leukocyte antigen serotype A*02). The distribution of these proteins on the surface of the virus was aligned by a random algorithm. The overall representation surface protein density has been reduced to help show spike, envelope, and membrane proteins.

    The lipid membrane itself was generated using a particle system to produce a random and organic result. The current Covid-19 visualisation represents the surface structure of the virus. At the time of writing the inner structures are being sourced and incorporated into a new visualisation. Models were imported and distributed in 3d Studio Max, rendered with Redshift and composited in Nuke.


    We have cross-referenced these models with:
    3d Form: Structures provided by Korkinlab:
    Visuals Refs:

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  • Understanding the Virus that Causes COVID-19, Animation

    4:36

    Overview of coronavirus family, origin of SARS-CoV-2, viral structure and life cycle, pathophysiology. This video is available for instant download licensing here :
    ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved.
    Voice by: Ashley Fleming
    Support us on Patreon and get early access to our videos and FREE image downloads:
    All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
    Coronaviruses are a large family of enveloped, RNA viruses. There are 4 groups of coronaviruses: alpha and beta, originated from bats and rodents; and gamma and delta, originated from avian species. Coronaviruses are responsible for a wide range of diseases in many animals, including livestock and pets. In humans, they were thought to cause mild, self-limiting respiratory infections until 2002, when a beta-coronavirus crossed species barriers from bats to a mammalian host, before jumping to humans, causing the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS, epidemic. More recently, another beta-coronavirus is responsible for the serious Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, MERS, started in 2012. The novel coronavirus responsible for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic, COVID-19, is also a beta-coronavirus. The genome of the virus is fully sequenced and appears to be most similar to a strain in bats, suggesting that it also originated from bats. The virus is also very similar to the SARS-coronavirus and is therefore named SARS-coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV 2. At the moment, it’s not yet clear if the virus jumped directly from bats to humans, or if there is a mammalian intermediate host.
    Coronavirus genome is a large, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA molecule that contains all information necessary for the making of viral components. The RNA is coated with structural proteins, forming a complex known as nucleocapsid. The nucleocapsid is enclosed in an envelope, which is basically a LIPID membrane with embedded proteins. From the envelope, club-like spikes emanate, giving the appearance of a crown. This is where the “corona” name came from.
    The integrity of the envelope is essential for viral infection, and is the Achilles’ heel of the virus, because the lipid membrane can easily be destroyed by lipid solvents such as detergents, alcohol and some disinfectants. In fact, enveloped viruses are the easiest to inactivate when they are outside a host.
    In order to infect a host cell, the spikes of the virus must BIND to a molecule on the cell surface, called a receptor. The specificity of this binding explains why viruses are usually species specific – they have receptors in certain species, and not others. Host jumping is usually triggered by mutations in spike proteins which change them in a way that they now can bind to a receptor in a new species.
    The novel coronavirus appears to use the same receptor as SARS-coronavirus for entry to human cells, and that receptor is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, ACE2. Infection usually starts with cells of the respiratory mucosa, then spreads to epithelial cells of alveoli in the lungs.
    Receptor binding is followed by fusion of the viral membrane with host cell membrane, and the release of nucleocapsid into the cell. The virus then uses the host machinery to replicate, producing viral RNAs and proteins. These are then assembled into new viral particles, called virions, by budding into intracellular membranes. The new virions are released and the host cell dies.
    Uncontrolled growth of the virus destroys respiratory tissues, producing symptoms. Infection triggers the body’s inflammatory response, which brings immune cells to the site to fight the virus. While inflammation is an important defense mechanism, it may become excessive and cause damage to the body’s own tissues, contributing to the severity of the disease. In an otherwise healthy person, there is a good chance that the virus is eventually eliminated and the patient recovers, although some may require supportive treatments. On the other hand, people with weakened immune system or underlying chronic diseases may progress to severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome, which can be fatal.

  • 3D Animation SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission leading to COVID-19

    09

    Coronavirus is better known as sars corona virus2, is a spiked virus, with many spokes that used it to enter the human host through receptor protein,
    corona virus#corona#structure of coronavirus#Corona virus video# movement of corona virus# Corona virus animation

  • Biology of SARS-CoV-2: Infection | HHMI BioInteractive Video

    2:43

    This animation describes the structure of coronaviruses like SARS-CoV-2 and how they infect humans and replicate inside cells.

    To view the rest of this series on SARS-CoV-2, go to the full playlist at:


    To view the other three animations in the series, use the following links:
    Biology of SARS-CoV-2: Evolution

    Biology of SARS-CoV-2: Detection

    Biology of SARS-CoV-2: Vaccination


    To download these animations and discover related materials, visit HHMI BioInteractive:

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  • Coronavirus Animation: High Impact Demonstrates How COVID-19 Impacts the Body

    1:56


    Coronavirus, which causes COVID-19, originated in the city of Wuhan, China, and has since spread across the globe at an alarming rate. We produced this 3D coronavirus animation to show how COVID-19 is believed to be transmitted while educating the public on the symptoms that may be caused by COVID-19.

    Follow the World Health Organization for updates about the international spread of Coronavirus and how to protect yourself from COVID-19:


    Follow the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to learn how the coronavirus outbreak is currently spreading across the United States, and recommendations for improving your safety and resilience.


    If you are currently leading government or private efforts to combat the coronavirus outbreak and you think our visualizations could help in your mission to educate the public or relevant stakeholders about this virus, we encourage you to visit our website, view some of our medical work, and reach out to learn how we can help.

  • SARS-CoV-2 Life Cycle

    4:21

    Overview of Viral Life Cycle

  • 3D Animation: How Do I Protect Myself From Coronavirus, COVID-19?

    1:34

    COVID-19 is a disease caused by a new coronavirus that was identified in China. It is thought to spread from person to person when people are close together, and through droplets produced when a sick person coughs or sneezes.

    #Coronavirus #COVID-19 #Pandemic

    Currently, there is no treatment for COVID-19. The best way to keep yourself from getting sick is to avoid being exposed to the virus. One way to protect yourself is to clean your hands often. Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least twenty seconds. If soap and water aren’t available, use a hand sanitizer. It should contain at least sixty percent alcohol. Avoid touching your face with unwashed hands. Another way to protect yourself is to avoid close contact with other people. This includes avoiding contact with sick people. And, put distance between yourself and others by staying home as much as possible. If you have to go out, aim to keep a minimum of six feet between yourself and others when possible. For more information, visit the website for the Centers for Disease Control.

    ANH20235

  • Animation of SARS-CoV-2 entry into human host-cell.

    1:55

    How does the Coronavirus enter a human cell to insert the viral-RNA into the host? Which mechanism makes this possible? This animation bei Janet Iwasa in cooperation with the Coronavirus structural taskforce gives an insight to this interesting yet complex topic.

    Want to learn more about this?


    Give scientific feedback and help us to improve the accuracy of the animation:


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Animation by Iwasa-Lab, University of Utah:

    In cooperation with the Coronavirus structural taskforce:

    English narration by Sam Horrell:

    Background music: Meditative Space by MaxKoMusic


    If you would like to use this animation for reserach & education, we are happy to discuss it: insidecorona@uni-hamburg.de

    This animation is kindly sponsored by:

    German Federal Ministry of Education and Research [Förderkennzeichen 05K19WWA]:

    National Science Foundation:

  • The Coronavirus Explained & What You Should Do

    8:35

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    A huge thanks to the experts who helped us on short notice with the video. Especially “Our World in Data”, the online publication for research and data on the world’s largest problems – and how to make progress solving them. Check out their site. It also includes a constantly updated page on the Corona Pandemic.

    In December 2019 the Chinese authorities notified the world that a virus was spreading through their communities. In the following months it spread to other countries, with cases doubling within days. This virus is the “Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2”, that causes the disease called COVID19, and that everyone simply calls Coronavirus.

    What actually happens when it infects a human and what should we all do?

    Sources & further reading:


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  • MOA of Messenger RNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines

    1:54

    This animation demonstrates the mechanism of action of Messenger RNA based vaccines for COVID-19 (SARs-CoV-2) from companies such as Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Arcturus Therapeutics.

  • Understand COVID-19: Novel Coronavirus Mutations and Variants

    4:41

    Learn more about the Yale School of Medicine's response to COVID-19, visit:

    Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists knew it was a matter of time before new variants of the novel coronavirus, SARS-Cov-2, began to emerge in our communities. For a virus that mutates relatively slowly – picking up an average of two to three new mutations a month – how quickly these distinct variants took root would depend on how well we stopped the spread of the virus. Viruses rely on our cellular equipment to reproduce; mutations can only continue if it keeps infecting people. This particular virus gains access to our cells using its “corona” – a layer of protein spikes that fit into our cellular receptors like a lock and key. But, says Akiko Iwasaki, PhD, “When viruses enter the host cells and replicate and make copies of their genomes, they inevitably introduce some errors into the code.” SARS-Cov-2 is an RNA virus. Unlike many other RNA viruses, though, the novel coronavirus has some ability to check for transcription errors as it replicates. Iwasaki, who studies the mechanisms of immune defense against viruses, compares these errors to a faulty spell-checker. Some of these random errors that get passed on are either neutral or detrimental to the virus. But some errors are beneficial to the virus – making it more contagious, for example – and allow it to proliferate and spread to more people. Over time, the cumulative effects of these mutations may be enough to change how the virus behaves. These “better fit” versions of the virus become the “building blocks of selection,” says Nathan Grubaugh, PhD. These constellations of viral mutations – known as variants – may take hold if there is evolutionary pressure for them to do so. But the novel coronavirus is highly contagious and has spread almost unchecked throughout the world for the last year. It remains a bit of a mystery as to why these variants are emerging now – and what it will mean long-term for vaccination programs. Currently, scientists are optimistic that the three main vaccines available in the US – Pfizer, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson – will continue to provide good immunity. “There are certain mutations in some of these variants that seem to decrease the effectiveness of really important antibodies,” says Grubaugh. “But luckily with vaccines, you don’t just create one antibody, or two or three, you create many different antibodies that recognize all different parts of the virus.” “The mRNA technology is very flexible and can accommodate new mutations,” says Iwasaki. And even if the effectiveness of vaccines dropped to, say, 75 or 85 percent, that would still provide important protection and prevent severe cases of the disease that bring people to the emergency room. Questions about the vaccine remain, however, like whether a fully-vaccinated person could still transmit the virus to another person without being sick themselves. That’s why Iwasaki says it’s still important to continue wearing masks, avoid crowds, and practice good hygiene.

    “We have all the tools needed to stop the transmission and the spread of these new variants,” Grubaugh emphasized. “If we all put a lot of effort into doing our part, these variants won’t be able to take a foothold in our community at all.”

  • The Story of Coronavirus , English

    3:59

    Produced by Global Health Media Project in collaboration with Yoni Goodman. Download link:

    Content review provided by experts from CDC, IFRC and UNICEF.

    The full version of this animation includes Part 1 (transmission and protection) with the addition of a second part on staying safe while caring for a sick person at home.

    The film starts by following two people who go to a market and shows how they spread the virus to others. Eventually, their whole neighborhood gets infected. The film then explains ways we can protect ourselves and those around us. The story continues as a woman gets sick with the virus. Her family stays home so they don’t infect others, and learn the rules that they need to follow to stay safe while caring for her.

    The film makes the invisible coronavirus visible, and helps people grasp transmission in a simple and visual way. Through our experience with our animated films on cholera and Ebola, we learned that the image of the visible germ stays with people, helping them make the necessary behavior changes to protect themselves and others and prevent the disease from spreading.

    This film is intended to help meet the need for better education and awareness that is critical in slowing the spread of this disease worldwide.

    Director & Animator: Yoni Goodman

    Producer & Story: Deborah Van Dyke

    Associate producers: Peter Cardellichio, Mark Binder

    English narration: Ayesha Casely-Hayford
    Recording Technician: Tashomi Balfour
    Music, Sound FX and Mix: Uri Kalian, Sweetsound

    This animation was produced with support from TEPHINET (Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network), LDSC (Latter-day Saint Charities), IFRC (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies), and our individual and family donors from the Mad River Valley, Vermont, and beyond.

    Copyright © 2020 Global Health Media Project

  • How Contagious is COVID-19?

    3:31

    Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurs via droplet transmission, contact transmission, and aerosol transmission. Droplet transmission occurs when respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes are inhaled by a person nearby. Contact transmission occurs when a person touches a contaminated surface and then their mouth, nose, or eyes. Aerosol transmission occurs when respiratory droplets containing the virus mix into the air and then are inhaled. COVID-19 is stable for up to 24 hours on cardboard, 2-3 days on plastic and stainless steel and up to three hours in aerosols, which include fog, mist, dust, air pollutants, and smoke. Therefore, it is possible to get infected by touching contaminated objects or through the air.
    The incubation period is the time between infection and symptom onset for an illness. Estimates for COVID-19’s incubation period vary from 2-14 days, but it is generally assumed to be around 5 days. There is more debate about the latent period, which is the time between infection and infectiousness. It is now thought that people can be infectious before showing symptoms, and so the latent period is shorter than the incubation period.
    An imported case occurs when a traveler is infected in one area and is reported as sick in another area. Local transmission occurs if that traveler infects others, or if there is a cluster of cases locally and the spread is easily traced. Community transmission occurs when there is no clear source of infection.
    Infectivity can be measured using R0. R0 is important epidemiology jargon, short for reproduction number. It is the number of cases, on average, that an infected person will cause during their infectious period. So if R0 =2, then an infected person will infect an average of 2 other people while they are infectious. There are two important variants of the R0. The basic reproduction number represents the maximum potential of a pathogen to infect people – basically what would happen if an infectious person entered a community with no prior immunity. The effective reproductive number describes the current vulnerability of a population based on whether people have immunity thanks to vaccination or prior exposure. The effective R0 decreases over the course of the outbreak. Note that both basic and effective reproduction number depend on factors such as environment and demographics in addition to the pathogen’s infectiousness. The goal of public health interventions is to bring R0 down to less than 1, as this would cause the disease to die out over time.
    The seasonal flu has an R0 ranging from 0.9 – 2.1. There is a lot of debate about the R0 of COVID-19, with estimates from more recent data ranging from 2.7-4.2. The variance in these estimates is largely due to differing model assumptions and a lack of data. For example, models which assume the possibility of being infectious before symptom onset have estimates that are around 0.5 higher.
    These high R0 estimates mean there is much greater potential for spread of COVID-19 than for the flu. How much greater? For the purpose of this example, let’s say that the flu has an R0 of 1.5 and COVID-19 has an R0 of 3. After three cycles of infection, 11 people have had the flu, and 40 people have been infected with COVID-19. After ten cycles of infection, this becomes 171 people with the flu, and over 88,000 people with COVID-19.

    3D Models from:

  • Infrared video shows the risks of airborne coronavirus spread | Visual Forensics

    6:12

    Subscribe to The Washington Post on YouTube:

    As winter approaches, the United States is grappling with a jaw-dropping surge in the number of novel coronavirus infections. More than 288,000 Americans have been killed by a virus that public health officials now say can be spread through airborne transmission. The virus spreads most commonly through close contact, scientists say. But under certain conditions, people farther than six feet apart can become infected by exposure to tiny droplets and particles exhaled by an infected person, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said in October. Those droplets and particles can linger in the air for minutes to hours.

    To visually illustrate the risk of airborne transmission in real time, The Washington Post used a military-grade infrared camera capable of detecting exhaled breath. Numerous experts — epidemiologists, virologists and engineers — supported the notion of using exhalation as a conservative proxy to show potential transmission risk in various settings. The highly sensitive camera system detects variations in infrared radiation that are not visible to the naked eye. The technology is more typically used in military and industrial settings, such as detecting methane gas leaks in pipelines. In 2013, it was deployed by law enforcement during the 20-hour manhunt for the Boston Marathon bombers. But fitted with a filter that specifically targets the infrared signature of carbon dioxide, the camera can be used to map in real time the partial path of the nearly invisible particles we exhale. Watch the video to learn more.

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    #WashingtonPost #VisualForensics

  • Coronavirus COVID-19 | Viral Structure & Pathogenesis

    13:00

    Welcome to this video on the COVID-19 disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. In this tutorial we will discuss:

    - Structure of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its structural glycoproteins
    - ACE-2 receptor interaction and mechanisms of host cell entry
    - Pathogenesis and mechanism of ARDS
    - Typical chest radiograph and CT appearances

    We hope you have found this video informative - see references below for further reading.

    Peter & Jack

    References used in the making of this video:

    1. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet. 2020 Feb 15;395(10223):497–506.
    2. Schoeman D, Fielding BC. Coronavirus envelope protein: current knowledge. Virol J. 2019 May 27;16(1):69.
    3. Weiss SR, Navas-Martin S. Coronavirus Pathogenesis and the Emerging Pathogen Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2005 Dec;69(4):635–64.
    4. Lin L, Lu L, Cao W, Li T. Hypothesis for potential pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection–a review of immune changes in patients with viral pneumonia. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Jan 1;9(1):727–32.
    5. Frieman M, Baric R. Mechanisms of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Pathogenesis and Innate Immunomodulation. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2008 Dec 1;72(4):672–85.
    6. Li X, Geng M, Peng Y, Meng L, Lu S. Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19. J Pharm Anal [Internet]. 2020 Mar 5 [cited 2020 Apr 2]; Available from:
    7. Rabi FA, Al Zoubi MS, Kasasbeh GA, Salameh DM, Al-Nasser AD. SARS-CoV-2 and Coronavirus Disease 2019: What We Know So Far. Pathogens. 2020 Mar;9(3):231.
    8. Walls AC, Park Y-J, Tortorici MA, Wall A, McGuire AT, Veesler D. Structure, Function, and Antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein. Cell [Internet]. 2020 Mar 9 [cited 2020 Apr 1]; Available from:
    9. Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. J Autoimmun. 2020 Feb 26;102433.
    10. Guo Y-R, Cao Q-D, Hong Z-S, Tan Y-Y, Chen S-D, Jin H-J, et al. The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status. Mil Med Res. 2020 Mar 13;7(1):11.
    11. Jin Y, Yang H, Ji W, Wu W, Chen S, Zhang W, et al. Virology, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Control of COVID-19. Viruses. 2020 Apr;12(4):372.

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  • Medical Animation explaining Coronavirus Mechanism of Action - How Coronavirus attacks a human body

    1:23

    our latest video-
    While the exact mechanism of action for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus is still unknown, the 3D structure has been published; This structure shows that the virus is very similar to other coronaviruses and so we show the mechanism of action of how coronavirus gains cell entry, coopts the human cell into producing copies of itself, and causes apoptosis or cell death.

    For more info on the biology, the spread and the response to 2019 nCoV see our microsite:


    The 3D ribbon structure was taken from Innophore who have created the structure based on the genome sequencing data published by Chinese researchers. You can find it here:

  • How the Novel Coronavirus Infects a Cell: Science, Simplified

    1:40

    An animated look at how the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19 enters the body and infects cells. Illustrated by a Scripps Research scientist, this installment of Science, Simplified gives an overview of the entire infection process.

    Science, Simplified is a new series from Scripps Research highlighting key scientific concepts in short, easy-to-understand videos.

    Video Script:

    Due to its unique features, the novel coronavirus is particularly good at infecting new cells, both in the upper respiratory tract, as well as deeper down in the lungs. Here’s a look at how the process takes place.
    1. The microscopic virus enters through the nose or mouth, where it begins its infection of our airways.
    2. The outer spike protein of the coronavirus latches onto specific receptors on the surface of cells in our respiratory tract. In the case of COVID-19, the virus latches on to the ACE2 receptor.
    3. This binding triggers the process by which the virus fuses into human cells. The viral envelope merges with the oily membrane of our own cells, allowing the virus to release its genetic material into the inside of the healthy cell.
    4. The genetic blueprint of the virus is RNA (instead of DNA), which acts as a molecular message, instructing our host cell machinery to read the template and translate it into proteins that make up new virus particles.
    5. The hijacking persists, as the human host cell continues to generate more copies of the virus, assemble these copies into viable particles and traffic them to the outer edges of the cell for release.
    6. Each infected cell may produce and release millions of copies of the virus, which can then go on to infect other neighboring cells, as well as neighboring people when they are expelled from the airways in droplets via coughing and sneezing.

  • How do Covid-19 vaccines work? Animation.

    2:57

    This animation explains briefly how Covid-19 vaccines work to protect you and why it is important to get vaccinated.

  • COVID-19 , coronavirus life cycle, treatment

    28:20

    The World health organization (WHO) has declared COVID-19 a pandemic. COVID 19 stands for coronavirus disease 2019 and is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.

    Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in people and many different species of animals including cats and bats. Common human coronavirus typically causes a URTI, like the common cold. Most people get infected with one or more of these viruses at some point in their lives. The human coronavirus infection typically resolves on its own with basic rest while feeling miserable.

    Rarely, the coronaviruses that infect animals can evolve and become a new human coronavirus which then infect and spread between people. Important examples of these type of coronavirus include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS CoV for short in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus also known as MERS.

  • How COVID-19 Affects Your Lungs

    2:20

    COVID-19 is a disease caused by a virus called SARS-CoV-2. The virus – and your immune system’s reaction to it, inflammation – can damage your lungs, causing them to scar and stiffen or fill with fluid.

    This video is by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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  • How Viruses Like The Coronavirus Mutate

    7:25

    Genetic mutations aren’t as scary as they sound. With RNA viruses, like the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19, they’re happening constantly — basically every time it replicates. But not all mutations stick, and not all the ones that stick are bad. In fact, mutations are actually necessary for tracking and containing COVID-19. Here’s how viruses mutate and why you shouldn’t be worried when you hear about them.

    MORE CORONAVIRUS COVERAGE:
    What Could Be The Fastest Way To End The Coronavirus Crisis?

    Will Warm Weather Stop COVID-19?

    Why COVID-19 Death Predictions Will Always Be Wrong


    ------------------------------------------------------

    #Coronavirus #Mutation #ScienceInsider

    Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more.

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    How Viruses Like The Coronavirus Mutate

  • How Coronavirus Kills? Medical 3D Animation

    12:44

    How Coronavirus Kills? Biological & Medical 3D Animation (60FPS): With the help of 3D Animation, in this video, we will mainly learn What happens inside our body once Coronavirus enters or How Coronavirus Kills?

    Whether visible to us or not, but when a person coughs, he releases 3000 saliva droplets. And, when a person sneezes, 40,000 saliva droplets are released. The shocking part is that a single saliva droplet can contain as many as 20 Lakh Coronavirus Particles. And, when these droplets are released, they can easily go up to 1 meter with a speed of 300 Kilometers per hour.

    But before learning about How Coronavirus Kills, the most important part to learn is, can it float in the air? The first answer is Yes. Coronavirus can float in the air. But in a special case. If the virus or the droplet stays afloat on the dust particles. Then, it can easily enter the body of the person passing by via. inhaling the dust particles. But, Scientists have to date not found any proof that Coronavirus is floating from one person's body to another.

    As you know, our whole body is made up of cells. Obviously, Alveoli, Lungs, Bronchioles, Bronchi, Trachea, Stomach, Brain, etc. are all made up of cells. The cell which we're talking about is already shown in the video above. Our body contains a total of 37.2 trillion cells. Actually, these are the ones that help Coronavirus Kill and also which allows Coronavirus to kill a human.

    As per the latest Coronavirus Update, Vaccine might still take 6 months at least to come into existence. Needless to say, the Coronavirus Death toll is rising day by day. With the USA or the United States of America being the number 1 country to have a maximum number of Active Coronavirus Cases and Maximum Number of Death Tolls. Various portals have already released Coronavirus Maps. Indian Government has also tried it's level best to release a Mapping of Coronavirus with the help of the Arogyasetu App.

    In my upcoming or next videos, We might be able to learn, What is the science and Technology behind Ventilators. And, even when the mechanism of How Coronavirus Kills is already known to scientists, researchers are saying it might take more than a year for the world to release the Coronavirus Vaccine.

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  • Biology of SARS-CoV-2: Evolution | HHMI BioInteractive Video

    2:47

    This animation describes how coronaviruses like SARS-CoV-2 evolve and discusses positive, negative, and neutral mutations.

    To view the rest of this series on SARS-CoV-2, go to the full playlist at:


    To view the other three animations in the series, use the following links:
    Biology of SARS-CoV-2: Infection

    Biology of SARS-CoV-2: Detection

    Biology of SARS-CoV-2: Vaccination


    To download these animations and discover related materials, visit HHMI BioInteractive:

  • COVID MUTATION AND VACCINE EFFICACY

    5:25

    Viruses constantly change through mutation, and new variants of a virus are expected to occur over time. Sometimes new variants emerge and disappear. Other times, new variants emerge and persist. Multiple variants of the virus that causes COVID-19 have been documented in the United States and globally during this pandemic.

    The virus that causes COVID-19 is a type of coronavirus, a large family of viruses. Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surfaces. Scientists monitor changes in the virus, including changes to the spikes on the surface of the virus. These studies, including genetic analyses of the virus, are helping scientists understand how changes to the virus might affect how it spreads and what happens to people who are infected with it.

    Multiple variants of the virus that causes COVID-19 are circulating globally:

    The United Kingdom (UK) identified a variant called B.1.1.7 with a large number of mutations in the fall of 2020.

    This variant spreads more easily and quickly than other variants. In January 2021, experts in the UK reported that this variant may be associated with an increased risk of death compared to other variant viruses, but more studies are needed to confirm this finding. It has since been detected in many countries around the world. This variant was first detected in the US at the end of December 2020.

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    In South Africa, another variant called B.1.351 emerged independently of B.1.1.7. Originally detected in early October 2020, B.1.351 shares some mutations with B.1.1.7. Cases caused by this variant have been reported in the US at the end of January 2021.
    In Brazil, a variant called P.1 emerged that was first identified in travelers from Brazil, who were tested during routine screening at an airport in Japan, in early January. This variant contains a set of additional mutations that may affect its ability to be recognized by antibodies. This variant was first detected in the US at the end of January 2021.

  • Global COVID-19 Prevention

    2:30

    This short animated video from Stanford Medicine's Maya Adam illustrates how the novel coronavirus — the virus that causes the respiratory disease COVID-19 — is transmitted among people and how transmission can be prevented.

    Get the latest news on COVID-19 testing, treatment, and tracking data:

  • How Coronavirus Invades the Lungs

    1:29

    To learn more about coronavirus, please visit

    The coronavirus rapidly hijacks healthy cells in the respiratory tract and lungs. This can lead to pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). See how coronavirus takes over the lungs in this informative video.

  • What is a coronavirus? - Elizabeth Cox

    5:16

    Dig into the science of coronaviruses and find out how they cause diseases such as SARS, MERS, and COVID-19.

    --

    For almost a decade, scientists chased the source of a deadly new virus through China’s tallest mountains and most isolated caverns. They finally found it in the bats of Shitou Cave. The virus in question was a coronavirus that caused an epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, in 2003. So what exactly is a coronavirus, and how does it spread? Elizabeth Cox explains.

    Lesson by Elizabeth Cox, directed by Anton Bogaty.

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    Thank you so much to our patrons for your support! Without you this video would not be possible! Boytsov Ilya, Steven Razey, Javier Aldavaz, Nathan Giusti, Mada Arslan, Joichiro Yamada, Ritul Raghavan, Aline de Paula Zillig, Yambu Ganesh Shaw, Abeer Rajbeen, John Hong, Minh Tran, Helen Lee, Anthony Benedict, Turine Tran, Mathew Samuel, Karthik Balsubramanian, Lee, Livia-Alexandra Sarban, Annastasshia Ames, João Henrique Rodrigues, Sebastiaan Hols, Aries SW, SANG HAN, Amy Lopez, ReuniteKorea, Vinh-Thuy Nguyen, Liz Candee, Clovis Norroy, Danielle Downs, Nik Maier, Angel Pantoja, Nishant Suneja, 张晓雨, Srinivasa C Pasumarthi, Kathryn Vacha, Anthony Arcis, Jeffrey Segrest, Sandra Fuller Bocko, Alex Pierce, Lawrence Teh Swee Kiang, BRENDAN NEALE, Jane White, Karmi Nguyen, John C. Vesey, Yelena Baykova, Harshita Jagdish Sahijwani, Won Jang, Nick Johnson and Tariq Keblaoui.

  • How Corona Virus Affects Your Body? | COVID-19 | The Dr Binocs Show | Peekaboo Kidz

    9:09

    Pandemics Explained | How Pandemics Occur | Corona Virus Pandemic | Epidemics | Wuhan Coronavirus | What Is Pandemic | Influenza Pandemic | SARS | Small Pox | Corona Pandemics | World Health Organisation | WHO | Covid19 Pandamics | Flu | Spread Of Pandemics | Pandemics Information | Best Kids Show | Dr Binocs Show | Dr Binocs | Peekaboo Kidz

    How Pandemics Spread? -
    CoronaVirus Video -
    Stay Home, Stay Safe -

    Hey kids, in this video, Dr Binocs will explain, Pandemics | What is Pandemics? | Coronavirus Pandemics | Spread Of Pandemics | Epidemics

    Make sure you watch the whole video to know all the answers to your curious questions!

    Leave your ideas, suggestions and questions for Dr. Binocs at this Email Id: peekabookidzfeedback@gmail.com

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  • Targeting ACE2 Receptors to prevent SARS-CoV-2 virus from Attacking Human cells

    1:55

    The Coronavirus that causes COVID-19 attacks human cells to reproduce.

    ACE2 is a membrane protein with an enzymatic domain located on the outer surface of human cells and is the primary target and receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19.

    While many treatments and cures are seeking to address the virus itself, some researchers are intent to find ways to exploit the ACE2 and prevent the spread of Coronavirus ACE2 play a crucial role in host cell invasion by SARS-CoV-2 and efforts are underway to develop drugs that can block its function in this capacity.

    To date, no small-molecule drug has been approved via drug repurposing for this application. New biologic drugs have been developed recently that may achieve the goal of keeping the virus from connecting with the ACE2 receptor, preventing infection.

    Human recombinant soluble ACE2 (hrsACE2) shows some promise as it connects with the spike proteins surrounding SARS-CoV-2, making it more difficult to connect with human cells.

    CAS published a blog article titled Targeting ACE2 – Closing COVID-19’s cellular doorway that can be access here:

    This blog compliments CAS other research efforts to provide researchers with COVID-19 target proteins and additional research.

    Visit for more information

  • MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2

    5:49

    After learning about the SARS-CoV that hit in 2003, it's time to learn about MERS-CoV, which hit in 2012, and SARS-CoV-2, the one responsible for COVID-19 and the current pandemic. Let's compare these three viruses and talk about our current understanding of SARS-CoV-2.

    Script by Kellie Vinal

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  • How Community Spread Happens Fast - Coronavirus Updated 4-7-2020

    3:07

    UPDATED VERSION 11/24/2020:

    Justin, a millennial, brings a box of donuts to the office and unknowingly spreads the coronavirus to his colleagues who further spread throughout the community. A motion graphic animation to show how healthy people are so crucial in curbing the spread and how community spread of Coronavirus (COVID-19) occurs - sometimes unknowingly by seemingly healthy people spreading the disease rapidly in socially dense environments.

  • Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 structure

    2:17

    As of March 17, there are over 180.000 people infected worldwide by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which can cause the coronavirus respiratory disease COVID-19. Recently the WHO named the outbreak a pandemic and now globally cases are rising sharply, outstripping the Chinese cases.
    As the outbreak of the disease is reaching a high number of countries all over the world, the general public awareness and scientific interest are also on the rise. Currently, the virus virulence, how it is transmitted between humans and the possible treatments of the disease are being actively studied. As there is already a lot of information available, we have here gathered the known information on the molecular organization and structure of the virus, thus creating a dynamic and scientific accurate 3D animation of SARS-CoV-2!
    We hope you like it! If so, please support our work by subscribing to our channel and visit our website focused on 3D animations of diverse biological processes:
    Thank you!

    Correction:
    The video mentions that ACE2 cleaves the spike protein, however a publication published on March 5, 2020 showed that cleavage by the protease TPMSSR2 is required for priming the spike protein for viral entry:
    Thanks to Mikail Dogan, norm1124 and Levent Cavas for pointing this out!
    We also apologise for referring to the hemagglutinin protein, which is of SARS-CoV. Instead SARS-CoV-2 contains a so called M Protein in the envelope. A correct Figure is here:
    Thanks to colicinK and Mike Sauder for pointing this out!

    Please feel free to get in touch with us if you are interested in scientifically accurate high-quality animations. Email: office@biolution.net //

    The structures used for the video can be found here:
    M-protein: PDB ID 3cl4
    E protein pentameric ion channel: PDB ID 5x29
    Nucleocapsid: PDB ID 2GIB
    Spike protein: PDB ID 5i08

    Here some links with regularly updated information about the new coronavirus:
    - World Health Organization – WHO:
    - Johns Hopkins Center for Systems Science and Engineering:
    - American Centers of Disease Control and Prevention:

    #coronavirus, #covid19, #SARS

  • Transmission of COVID-19

    2:47

    Learn about the method of transmission of COVID-19 coronavirus and the difference between droplets and aerosols.
    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2 #Coronavirus

  • Coronavirus Anatomy Explained: Science, Simplified

    2:02

    An animated look at the inner workings of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Illustrated by a Scripps Research scientist, this installment of Science, Simplified gives an overview of the key elements of SARS-CoV-2. From spike proteins to viral RNA, learn what structures make up the novel coronavirus, and what roles they play.

    Science, Simplified is a new series from Scripps Research highlighting key scientific concepts in short, easy-to-understand videos.

    Video script: What are the parts of a coronavirus?

    Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, some of which infect humans. The coronavirus at the root of COVID-19 is the newest known member of this family. And like other coronaviruses that infect people, the new coronavirus causes respiratory disease, among other symptoms.

    At their core, coronaviruses contain a genetic blueprint called RNA, similar to DNA. The single-stranded RNA acts as a molecular message that enables production of proteins needed for other elements of the virus.

    Bound to this string of RNA are nucleoproteins—proteins that help give the virus its structure and enable it to replicate.

    Encapsulating the RNA genome is the viral envelope, which protects the virus when it is outside of a host cell. This outer envelope is made from a layer of lipids, a waxy barrier containing fat molecules. As well as protecting the precious genetic cargo, this layer anchors the different structural proteins needed by the virus to infect cells.

    Envelope proteins embedded in this layer aid the assembly of new virus particles once it has infected a cell.

    The bulbous projections seen on the outside of the coronavirus are spike proteins. This fringe of proteins gives the virus its crown-like appearance, from which the Latin name corona is derived. The spike proteins act as grappling hooks that allow the virus to latch onto host cells and crack them open for infection. Like all viruses, coronaviruses are parasites that are unable to thrive and reproduce outside of a living host.

    Illustrations by Hailee Perrett, Ward Lab, Scripps Research.

    Learn more at:

  • I animated my Covid survival story - BBC

    5:59

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    'Once the Covid was gone, my immune system started attacking everything.'

    Animation graduate Oliver Pratt was just 20 when he fell severely ill with complications following Covid-19. This is his story.

    For more amazing animations head to BBC Ideas ????

    #BBC #BBCIdeas #BBCiPlayer

    All our TV channels and S4C are available to watch live through BBC iPlayer, although some programmes may not be available to stream online due to rights. If you would like to read more on what types of programmes are available to watch live, check the 'Are all programmes that are broadcast available on BBC iPlayer?' FAQ ????

  • COVID-19 Infection and Vaccine Development | Scientific Animation

    3:45

    In this video, we explore how COVID-19 vaccines work; first by understanding how SARS-Coronavirus-2 spreads and infects the body, and how vaccines expose our immune system to parts of the virus in order to trigger an antibody response.

    Please note that facts may change over time as the outbreak is ongoing. Updates can be found at:

    If you would like to use this video or any of the scientific imagery shown, for media and/or other purposes, please contact us at info@random42.com.

    The creation of this video was made possible due to Random42 receiving an Epic MegaGrant towards the end of 2020. This was used to enhance our medical animation and interactive capabilities utilising Epic Games’ Unreal Engine; the world’s most open and advanced real-time 3D creation tool.

    With this rare opportunity, our team could develop a new real-time approach to our animations that has expanded the possibilities of what we can achieve creatively. The MegaGrant was used to create this educational animation on COVID-19 infection and vaccine development. The animation is a follow-up to our hugely successful Coronavirus Outbreak Animation, which received close to 2 million views and has been featured in various news programmes and documentaries around the world -

  • Showing Coronavirus Structure using 3D Medical Animation

    24

    Our latest video-
    our dedicated microsite-
    This medical animation describes the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Structure. It depicts the characteristic S spike proteins that give the virus the Crown or corona look, giving the virus its name.

    For more info, including a video on the mechanism of action of Coronavirus , tracking the spread of the virus, how the world is responding and how to protect yourself, see our newly launched microsite at:-

  • The coronavirus outbreak explained through 3D Medical Animation

    3:35

    PLEASE NOTE the Latest video -
    Updated data with complete MoA available at:

    --------------------------------------------------
    The 2019 nCoV Novel Coronavirus is fast threatening to become a pandemic. This 3D medical animation explains the story so far, covering what is a pandemic, current rates of infection and spread and tips to protect against infections. It also delves into the biology and mechanism of action MoA that coronavirus uses to infect and destroy human cells. Though the exact MoA for this coronavirus is not known.

    Over the coming days and months we will continue to post medical animation videos as well as launch a microsite. Check back daily for more information as it develops. Alternatively, see our website:

    For those of you leading government or private institutions or in the medical community , and if you think our visualizations can help in any way, please feel free to reach out.

    Also, any voice over artists, translators, that can offer to support our effort, please contact us on info@scientificanimations.com .

    Link to the 3D structure mentioned in the video:

  • COVID-19 virus variants and transmission

    1:11

    The way in which the new COVID-19 virus variants transmit hasn't changed. So therefore, all the measures we already have in place like:

    -hand hygiene
    -physical distance
    -ventilation
    -masks
    are the things that still work.

    Dr Mike Ryan, WHO Executive Director of Health Emergencies Programme

    Learn more:

  • Biology of SARS-CoV-2: Vaccination | HHMI BioInteractive Video

    4:31

    This animation describes the different types of vaccinations and how they prevent disease.

    To view the rest of this series on SARS-CoV-2, go to the full playlist at:


    To view the other three animations in the series, use the following links:
    Biology of SARS-CoV-2: Infection

    Biology of SARS-CoV-2: Evolution

    Biology of SARS-CoV-2: Detection



    To download these animations and discover related materials, visit HHMI BioInteractive:

  • How coronavirus spreads outdoors vs. indoors

    6:03

    Can a runner give you Covid-19?

    Subscribe to our channel!

    If you want to stay totally safe from Covid-19, and eliminate the risk of either getting it or transmitting it, you have to stay home. But as the weather gets warmer, public places start to open up, and many places enter their fourth month of life under coronavirus, that’s becoming less and less realistic.

    At the same time, we know that coronavirus can be transmitted through the air -- and that raises some pretty big questions. Is it safe to go the beach? What about a park? Is a heavy-breathing runner going to infect you as they pass you? In short: How do you go outside safely?

    Read Vox reporter Sigal Samuel’s article about the risks of transmitting Covid-19 outdoors:

    A helpful chart for thinking through the risks of different scenarios when it comes to Covid-19:

    The CDC’s study about the Guangzhou restaurant where one person transmitted the virus to several others:

    And the study of the 318 outbreaks in China:

    Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out

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  • Explaining the Coronavirus Outbreak through 3D Medical Animation

    3:35

    our latest video-
    Jan 30 Update - The MOA portion of the video is complete, and we have created a new model based on the electron microscope image released by the CDC .

    Microsite launches today :

    The 2019 nCoV Novel Coronavirus is fast threatening to become a pandemic. This 3D medical animation explains the story so far, covering what is a pandemic, current rates of infection and spread and tips to protect against infections. It also delves into the biology and mechanism of action MoA that coronavirus uses to infect and destroy human cells. Though the exact MoA for this coronavirus is not known.

    Over the coming days and months we will continue to post medical animation videos as well as launch a microsite. Check back daily for more information as it develops. Alternatively, see our website:

    For those of you leading government or private institutions or in the medical community , and if you think our visualizations can help in any way, please feel free to reach out.

    Also, any voice over artists, translators, that can offer to support our effort, please contact us on info@scientificanimations.com .

    Link to the 3D structure mentioned in the video:

  • COVID-19: The Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2; virus anatomy, life cycle, replication

    4:10

    A brief explanation of what the SARS-CoV-2 is, how it infects human lung cells, and its life cycle. Hope this is helpful! Feedback and suggestions for future videos welcome :D

  • 2019 Novel Coronavirus - SARS CoV 2

    4:20

    In this video we'll be discussing about the 2019 Novel Coronovirus (SARS-CoV-2).

  • Introduction to Coronaviruses : Hosts, Symptoms, History of SARS and MERS

    7:21

    Lesson on Coronaviruses (SARS, MERS, COVID-19): Viral subtypes, Coronaviruses are a family of RNA viruses that are important viral pathogens in animals and humans. There are four classifications of coronaviruses, with two that are important causes of infections in humans. Coronaviruses can cause both respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal infections in adults and children. Signs and symptoms are variable dependent on the coronavirus involved. Animals can be both infected and be hosts for the coronaviruses. Transmission of these viruses between species can lead to mutations and development of novel coronaviruses, which can lead to human epidemics and outbreaks. In this lesson, we also discuss a brief history of past human outbreaks and epidemics involving coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and the new Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV).

    I hope you find this lesson helpful. If you do, please consider liking, subscribing and clicking the notification bell to help support the channel.

    JJ

    ****EXCLAIMER: The content (ex. images) used in this lesson are used in accordance with Fair Use laws and are intended for educational/teaching purposes only.****

    REFERENCES FOR INFORMATION FROM THIS LESSON:

    1) The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2 (2020). Nature Medicine.
    2) Review of Bats and SARS (2006). Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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    Nephrology Playlist


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    **MEDICAL DISCLAIMER**: JJ Medicine does not provide medical advice, and the information available on this channel does not offer a diagnosis or advice regarding treatment. Information presented in these lessons is for educational purposes ONLY, and information presented here is not to be used as an alternative to a healthcare professional’s diagnosis and treatment of any person/animal.

    Only a physician or other licensed healthcare professional are able to determine the requirement for medical assistance to be given to a patient. Please seek the advice of your physician or other licensed healthcare provider if you have any questions regarding a medical condition.

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    *Although I try my best to present accurate information, there may be mistakes in this video. If you do see any mistakes with information in this lesson, please comment and let me know.*

    I am always looking for ways to improve my lessons! Please don't hesitate to leave me feedback and comments - all of your feedback is greatly appreciated! :)

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    JJ

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