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All Types of COVID-19 Vaccines, How They Work, Animation.

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  • All Types of COVID-19 Vaccines, How They Work, Animation.

    5:56

    How it works. mRNA vaccine (Pfizer, Moderna), DNA & Viral vector vaccines (Johnson & Johnson (J&J, JNJ), Oxford-AstraZeneca, Inovio, Sputnik V); protein/peptide vaccine (Novavax, EpiVacCorona), conventional inactivated (CoronaVac of Sinovac, Covaxin, Sinopharm). Mechanism of each type of coronavirus vaccines explained. Vaccine-induced immune response as compared to natural immunity.
    This video is available for instant download licensing here:
    ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved.
    Support us on Patreon and get early access to videos and free image downloads: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia
    During a natural viral infection, infected cells alert the immune system by displaying pieces of viral proteins on their surface. They are said to present the viral antigen to immune cells - cytotoxic T-cells, and activate them.
    Debris of dead cells and viral particles are picked up by professional antigen-presenting cells, (dendritic cells...). Dendritic cells patrol body tissues, sampling their environment for intruders. After capturing the antigen, dendritic cells leave the tissue for the nearest lymph node, where they present the antigen to another group of immune cells - helper T-cells. Viral particles also activate B-cells.
    These cells mount 2 types of immunity specific to the viral antigen: cell-mediated immunity and antibody-mediated immunity.
    Vaccines deliver viral antigens to trigger immune responses without causing the disease. The events of a vaccine-induced immune response are similar to that induced by a natural infection, although some types of vaccines may induce only antibody-mediated immunity (B cell immunity, not T cell (cellular) immunity).
    Many existing vaccines contain a weakened or an inactivated virus. Because the whole virus is used, these vaccines require extensive safety testing. Live attenuated vaccines may still cause disease in people with compromised immune systems. Inactivated vaccines (Sinovac/China, Covaxin/India) only induce humoral (B cell) immunity.
    Subunit vaccines contain only part of the virus, usually a spike protein (peptide - EpiVacCorona/Russia). These vaccines may not be seen as a threat to the immune system, and therefore may not elicit the desired immune response. For this reason, certain substances, called adjuvants, are usually added to stimulate the antigen-presenting cells to pick up the vaccine.
    Nucleic acid vaccines contain genetic information for making the viral antigen, instead of the antigen itself. Naked DNA vaccines (Inovio, phase 2/3 clinical trials) require a special delivery method to reach the cell’s nucleus (electroporation). Alternatively, a harmless, unrelated virus may be used as a vehicle to deliver the DNA. In this case, the vaccine is also known as viral-vector vaccine (Sputnik V/Russia, Oxford-AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson's). For example, the Oxford-AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine uses a chimpanzee adenovirus as a vector. The adenoviral genome is modified to remove viral genes, and the coronavirus spike gene is added. This way, the viral vector cannot replicate or cause disease, but it acts as a vehicle to deliver the DNA. Why a non-human adenovirus is used?
    Do DNA vaccines change human DNA?
    mRNA vaccines (Pfizer, Moderna) are delivered within a lipid covering that will fuse with the cell membrane. The mRNA is translated into viral antigen, which is then displayed on the cell surface. mRNA vaccines are extremely unlikely to integrate into human genome.
    All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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  • There are four types of COVID-19 vaccines: here’s how they work

    4:10

    The fight against COVID-19 has seen vaccine development move at record speed, with more than 170 different vaccines in trials. But how are they different from each other and how will they protect us against the disease?

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  • RNA Vaccines - Basis of Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, Animation

    3:19

    The basis of upcoming Pfizer and Moderna coronavirus vaccines. How it works? Pluses and minuses. For comparison of different vaccines, as well as events of immune response, role of different immune cells (T-cells, B-cells, APC), see this video:
    This video is available for instant download licensing here:
    ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved.
    Support us on Patreon and get early access to videos and free image downloads: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia
    All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
    Vaccines prepare the immune system, getting it ready to fight disease-causing organisms, called pathogens. A vaccine is introduced to the body to mimic infection, triggering the body to produce antibodies against the pathogen, but without causing the illness. Conventional vaccines usually contain a weakened or inactivated pathogen; or a piece of a protein produced by the pathogen, called an antigen.
    RNA vaccines are a new generation of vaccines. Instead of the antigen itself, RNA vaccines contain a messenger RNA – mRNA - that encodes for the antigen. Once inside the body’s cells, the mRNA is translated into protein, the antigen, by the same process the cells use to make their own proteins. The antigen is then displayed on the cell surface where it is recognized by the immune system. From here, the sequence of events is similar to that of a conventional vaccine.
    Some RNA vaccines also contain additional mRNA coding for an enzyme, which, after being translated in host cells, can generate multiple copies of the antigen-encoding mRNA. This essentially amplifies the production of antigen from a small amount of vaccine, making the vaccine more effective. These are called self-amplifying RNA vaccines.
    RNA vaccines are easier and safer to produce than conventional vaccines. This is because mRNA molecules can be synthesized in a cell-free system using a DNA template with a sequence of the pathogen; while conventional vaccines usually require a more complicated and risk-prone process of growing large amounts of infectious pathogens in chicken eggs or other mammalian cells. Without the risks of being contaminated by infectious elements or allergens from egg cultures, RNA vaccines are also safer for patients.
    Because protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm, RNA molecules do not need to enter the nucleus, so the possibility of them integrating into the host cell genome is low. RNA strands are usually degraded by cellular enzymes once the protein is made.
    The relative simplicity of the production process makes it easier to standardize and scale, enabling rapid responses to emerging pandemics. Other advantages include lower production costs, and the ease of tweaking RNA sequences to adapt to rapidly-mutating pathogens.
    On the minus side, it can be challenging to deliver mRNA effectively to the cells, since RNA sequences and secondary structures may be recognized and destroyed by the innate immune system as soon as they are administered intravenously. These limitations can be overcome by optimizing codons, using modified nucleosides to avoid recognition, and packaging RNA into protective nanoparticles.
    Another disadvantage is that most RNA vaccines require uninterrupted refrigeration for transportation and storage, which can be a hurdle for vaccine distribution. Research is ongoing to engineer thermostable vaccines.

  • How do Covid-19 vaccines work? Animation.

    2:57

    This animation explains briefly how Covid-19 vaccines work to protect you and why it is important to get vaccinated.

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  • How vaccines work against COVID-19: Science, Simplified

    2:16

    After we have been exposed to an infection, our immune system remembers the threat, in particular by producing antibodies. These are proteins that circulate in the blood and throughout the body; they quickly recognize and disable the invader upon contact, thereby preventing or minimizing illness. This is why we usually do not get sick with the same bug twice; we are immune. Vaccines mimic this process, encouraging the immune system to make antibodies without us having to go through the illness.

    Some of the leading SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates are “mRNA vaccines,” based on incorporating the genetic blueprint for the key spike protein on the virus surface into a formula that when injected into humans instructs our own cells to make the spike protein. In turn, the body then makes antibodies against the spike protein and they protect us against viral infection.
    This strategy is faster than more traditional approaches, which often involve generating weakened or inactivated forms of a live virus or making large amounts of the spike protein to determine whether they can prompt an antibody response.

    Once a potential vaccine is discovered, a number of checkpoints exist before it can be administered to people. First are preclinical tests, which involve experiments in a laboratory and with animals. Scientists must ensure the vaccine candidate is not only effective, but also safe. For example, an antibody response to an imperfect vaccine could, under extremely rare circumstances, end up increasing the danger of becoming infected.
    When the potential vaccine achieves the necessary preclinical results, clinical trials can begin in a small group of people. As the vaccine candidate advances, it is tested on increasing numbers of people, with scientists and doctors closely monitoring safety, efficacy and dosing. Upon successful completion of clinical trials, the vaccine candidate must be reviewed and approved by regulatory agencies such as the FDA before large-scale manufacturing and distribution gets underway and the licensed vaccine is administered widely.

  • How J&J COVID-19 Vaccine Works, Animation

    1:41

    Johnson & Johnson’s COVID-19 Vaccine, How it works. Mechanism of JNJ coronavirus vaccine (same as Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine).
    For comparison of different vaccines, as well as events of immune response, role of different immune cells (T-cells, B-cells, APC), see this video:
    Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine is a viral vector vaccine. It can also be classified as DNA vaccine or recombinant vaccines. It uses a modified adenovirus as a vehicle to deliver the coronavirus DNA. The adenoviral genome is modified to remove adenoviral genes, so it can no longer replicate or cause disease. The gene coding for coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) spike gene is then added. After being injected, the adenovirus vector delivers the coronavirus DNA to the nucleus of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The DNA is transcribed into mRNA, which exits to the cytoplasm, where it is translated into coronavirus spike protein. This protein is then cut into pieces and presented on the surface of APC as antigens for the immune system to detect. APCs move to the nearest lymph node, where they present the antigen to T-helper cells, which play central role in immune response. Helper T-cells activate cytotoxic T-cells, leading to cell-mediated immunity, and induce B-cells to produce antibodies, resulting in antibody-mediated immunity. Both of these branches produce long-lived memory cells that will respond immediately upon viral infection.
    This video is available for instant download licensing here:
    ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved.
    Support us on Patreon and get early access to videos and free image downloads: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia
    All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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  • How do mRNA COVID-19 vaccines work?

    2:28

    The first COVID-19 vaccines represent an incredible record-breaking achievement in vaccine development. Not only were the Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech vaccines created in record time, they also harness a never-before-used technology: immunization through mRNA. But how do these vaccines protect us and how do they differ from other vaccines? These first mRNA vaccines may pave the way for faster, more efficient vaccine development in the future.

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  • How COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines Work

    1:57

    COVID-19 mRNA vaccines deliver directions to make a protein that educates our immune system, so it will neutralize the virus in future encounters. The mRNA-containing lipid particles are taken up by specialized immune system cells. See more:

    Animation created by and for the Vaccine Makers Project.
    The Vaccine Makers Project gratefully acknowledges the ongoing collaboration and partnership with XVIVO, creator of medical animations and scientific media:
    Copyright © 2021, Medical History Pictures, Inc. All rights reserved.

    The Vaccine Makers Project (VMP) is the classroom-based program of the Vaccine Education Center at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (VEC at CHOP). The Center’s team is composed of scientists, physicians, mothers and fathers devoted to the study and prevention of infectious diseases. The Center was launched in October 2000 to provide accurate, comprehensive and up-to-date information about vaccines and the diseases they prevent. The VMP program is committed to public education about vaccine science via scientifically supported, historically accurate, and emotionally compelling content.

    Access the VMP’s free classroom materials:

    Find information and resources related to vaccines and their safety:

    Learn more about the award-winning documentary for which the original animations were created. The documentary tells the compelling story of one of the world’s most accomplished scientists, Maurice Hilleman:

  • MOA of Messenger RNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines

    1:54

    This animation demonstrates the mechanism of action of Messenger RNA based vaccines for COVID-19 (SARs-CoV-2) from companies such as Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Arcturus Therapeutics.

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  • Vaccines 101: How vaccines work

    5:31

    As the world waits for a potential COVID-19 vaccine, we delve into how vaccines actually work. What are the different types of vaccine? How do they trigger and train the immune system, and what is the role of herd immunity?

    Read more in

    This Nature Video is editorially independent. It is produced with third party financial support. Read more about Supported Content here:

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  • COVID-19 vaccines – How vaccines work

    1:13

    This video describes how vaccines work in the body after you receive a vaccination.

    Safe, effective COVID-19 vaccines will offer protection against the virus, helping to prevent death and serious illness.

    But how do they actually work?

    Like other vaccines, such as the flu shot, COVID-19 vaccines will be given with a needle.

    This triggers an immune response in the body – which is the body’s natural way of defending itself.

    The vaccine will strengthen your immune system by training it to recognise and fight against the virus that causes COVID-19.

    Vaccines may contain either killed or weakened versions of the virus that causes the disease – or a small part of the virus, such as a protein.

    There is no risk that you will get the disease from a vaccine.

    When your immune system recognises this virus, or parts of it, in the vaccine as being foreign, it responds by creating memory cells and antibodies that will protect you against future infection or disease.

    As a result, you will be less likely to have severe COVID-19 symptoms after a vaccination.

    To learn more, visit health.gov.au

    The Department of Health is closely monitoring the COVID-19 pandemic. Stay up to date with the latest information, resources and advice.



  • Understanding COVID-19: How Vaccines Work

    3:33

    Vaccines are one of the most effective tools we have in preventing and reducing the burden of infectious diseases. In the midst of the current pandemic, vaccines are once again poised to change the tide in our favor in the fight against a deadly virus. But how exactly do vaccines work? And are they safe?

    “You can think of your body’s immune system like an orchestra,” says Yale immunobiologist Akiko Iwasaki. “The different functions of the immune response are like different instruments. And vaccines work like sheet music for the orchestra, telling the immune system what to do and how to do it.”

    Different viruses require different types of immune responses in order to confer protection. Some of them can be quite complex. But in the case of SARS-CoV-2, the simplest type of response is all that’s needed to prevent infection. “You just need to trigger an antibody response where the antibodies bind to the surface of the virus and prevent it from entering our cells,” says Ruslan Medzhitov, professor of immunobiology. “And these types of vaccines tend to be extremely safe.”

    In addition to the inherent safety of this kind of “training” for the immune system, experts emphasize that the expedited timeline of COVID vaccine development is not a reflection of lax safety standards. “Before a vaccine is approved, it goes through a rigorous amount of testing for safety and efficacy,” says Iwasaki. “So, once a vaccine is made to be publicly available, we should be lining up.”

  • Coronavirus Update 118: AstraZeneca DNA COVID 19 Vaccine Explained

    14:12

    Professor Roger Seheult, MD discusses the AstraZeneca and Oxford DNA COVID-19 Vaccine: How it works, and what we know about the safety, efficacy, and side effects at this time.

    Dr. Seheult illustrates the differences and similarities between the AstraZeneca / Oxford vaccine candidate and those from Moderna and Pfizer / BioNTech.

    The complete data from each of these SARS CoV 2 vaccine trials have not been released nor peer-reviewed at this time, and none of the COVID 19 vaccines have received FDA authorization to date.

    Dr. Sheult explains some of the potential advantages of the AstraZeneca Oxford vaccine candidate including a lower cost and that it only requires regular refrigeration. (This video was recorded on November 24, 2020).

    Roger Seheult, MD is the co-founder and lead professor at
    He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine and an Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    Johns Hopkins Tracker |

    Worldometer |

    AstraZeneca press release |

    AstraZeneca-Oxford Covid-19 Vaccine Up to 90% Effective in Late-Stage Trials (Wall Street Journal) |

    Why the AstraZeneca-Oxford Covid-19 vaccine is different (Vox) |

    Why the Pfizer and BioNTech vaccine is a cause for optimism — and skepticism (Vox) |

    AstraZeneca Registered Trial in US |

    Pfizer claims its Covid-19 vaccine is 90 percent effective so far. Here’s what we actually know. (Vox) |

    These Covid-19 vaccine candidates could change the way we make vaccines — if they work (Vox) |

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  • How the COVID-19 vaccines were created so quickly - Kaitlyn Sadtler and Elizabeth Wayne

    5:08

    Discover how mRNA vaccines help your immune system fight viral infections and how this decades-old technology was used to create COVID-19 vaccines.

    --

    In the 20th century, most vaccines took over a decade to research, test, and produce. But the vaccines for COVID-19 were cleared for emergency use in less than 11 months. The secret behind this speed is a medical technology that’s been developing for decades: the mRNA vaccine. So how do these revolutionary vaccines work? Kaitlyn Sadtler and Elizabeth Wayne dig into the science of mRNA technology.

    Lesson by Kaitlyn Sadtler and Elizabeth Wayne, directed by Igor Ćorić, Artrake Studio.

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  • How mRNA Vaccines Work - Simply Explained

    4:26

    mRNA vaccines have to potential to end the COVID19 pandemic. How do they work? Are they safe? And how could they've been developed so quickly?

    The main idea of mRNA vaccines is to trick our bodies to produce part of a virus. This kickstarts our immune response, without getting us sick. All that's needed is a part of the virus's DNA or RNA, packaged into mRNA. Cool!

    (mRNA is the technology behind the vaccines from Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna & CureVac)

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  • Vaccines and the Immune Response: How Vaccines Work

    3:37

    Vaccines and the Immune Response: How Vaccines Work
    This animation provides an overview of vaccines and the immune response, and how influenza vaccines work. Influenza vaccines are able to trigger an immune response by mimicking viral infection. They are usually manufactured using inactivated or killed virus particles taken from various circulating influenza strains.

  • COVID-19 vaccines development times

    2:16

    This video describes how COVID-19 vaccines have been able to safely be developed and rolled out quicker than other vaccines.

    Vaccines are an effective way to protect us from diseases like COVID-19, preventing death and serious illness.

    Vaccines can take a long time to develop, because they must undergo multiple phases of clinical trials.

    Researchers around the world have been working hard to develop COVID-19 vaccines from the very early stages of the pandemic. They have been able to speed up development of vaccines without compromising safety and effectiveness.

    Thanks to the collaboration between scientists, researchers, manufactuers and distributors, the development and implementation planning phases have been run side-by side, instead of one after the other.

    Research into how to respond to a pandemic has been ongoing, long before COVID-19.

    This research looks at data from previous coronavirus’ such as SARS in 2002 and MERS in 2012, giving researchers a head start to build the COVID-19 vaccines.

    Thanks to our community maintaining COVIDSafe behaviours like good hand hygiene and physical distancing, we have had more time to test vaccines for use in Australia while still keeping us safe from the virus. Our scientists are still working quickly and have been able to deliver our first vaccine, but no corners have or will be cut.

    In Australia, the Therapeutic Goods Administration, or the TGA, has been rigorously assessing the potential COVID-19 vaccines for safety, quality and effectiveness. They will continue to do this with the remaining vaccines before they will be approved and made available to Australians this year.

    Once approved, each batch must also be checked to make sure it meets the same quality standards.

    All these steps are important before the vaccinations begin.

    To learn more visit health.gov.au


    The Department of Health is closely monitoring the COVID-19 pandemic. Stay up to date with the latest information, resources and advice.



  • COVID-19 Vaccine: How Does It Affect Your Body?

    5:42

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    This video explains what happens in your body when you get the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, including how the vaccine helps your immune system recognize and fight the COVID-19 virus, possible side effects from the vaccine, and how long before you are fully-vaccinated against the virus after receiving the vaccine.

    Hash tags: #CoronavirusVaccine #COVID19Vaccine #CoronavirusImmunization

  • Biomanufacturing a COVID-19 vector vaccine

    2:13

    Learn about approaches to vaccine development to help combat COVID-19 and how an adenoviral vector vaccine is made and manufactured at scale.

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  • What is a Vaccine?

    7:24

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    #immunization #vaccines #viruses


    Immunization is the process of becoming immune to or protected against a disease usually by receiving a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate your immune system to protect you from certain diseases so you won't get sick or get an infection. Normally, the organs and cells of your immune system defend your body from harmful germs, such as bacteria and viruses. Immune cells are constantly circulating through your body. They monitor certain substances on the surfaces of cells called antigens. Healthy cells have different antigens than diseased body cells or foreign invaders in the body. Immune cells usually ignore the antigens on healthy cells. But when immune cells come across antigens on germs, they destroy the germ. Afterward, the immune cell displays the germ's antigen on its surface. This activates other types of immune cells to help get rid of the infection. For example, some activated immune cells recognize the antigen on infected body cells and then destroy them. Other activated immune cells, called plasma cells, make molecules called antibodies. These antibodies travel through your body and lock on only to germs that have its specific antigen. This marks the germ for destruction. Then other immune cells attack the germs that have these antibodies. Once the infection is gone, some of the immune cells that were exposed to the antigen become memory immune cells. In the future, if the same type of germ infects your body again, the memory immune cells will be ready to destroy it so you don't get sick. This is called natural immunity. In many cases, it will last your whole lifetime. The problem with getting natural immunity from having the disease itself is that some naturally acquired infections can cause serious complications or may even be deadly. For example, polio can result in permanent paralysis or death. Measles can cause swelling of the brain resulting in permanent brain damage or death, especially in children under age 5. And whooping cough also known as pertussis can cause complications such as pneumonia, slowed or stopped breathing, and death, especially in babies under 1 year of age. While symptoms may not be severe in all people, it's not possible to know who will be affected enough to become very ill or even die. Vaccines can protect you from getting these diseases and their harmful symptoms. Vaccines often contain a small amount of weakened or killed germs, but some contain genetic material such as RNA or DNA that provide instructions for your body's own cells to make the germ's antigen. Usually, you receive a vaccine as a shot. Inside your body, the germ particles in the vaccine teach your immune cells to attack these germs. This process doesn't make you sick, but it does cause your body to make memory cells and antibodies for those germs. As a result, if that germ infects your body later in life, your immune system is ready to fight the infection so that you don't get sick. The main types of vaccines include: live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, toxoid vaccines, subunit and conjugate vaccines, mRNA vaccines, and viral vector vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines use alive but weakened germs. They're most like a natural infection and provide a strong disease immunity, examples are the measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, and flu nasal spray vaccines. Inactivated vaccines use inactive or killed germs. You may need several doses or booster shots over time. Examples are the hepatitis A, flu, polio, and rabies vaccines. Toxoid vaccines protect against harmful substances made by germs called toxins. They use weakened versions of the toxins called toxoids. You may need booster shots to maintain protection against diseases.

    ANH20241

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  • The COVID-19 Vaccines from Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca: Whats in Them and How Do They Work?

    11:20

    Learn about the composition and delivery mechanism for the new classes of COVID-19 vaccines based on adenovirus from Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca with Dr. Jonathan Genzen, COO of ARUP Laboratories and an Associate Professor at the University of Utah School of Medicine.

  • mRNA Vaccines and how they work - Pfizer/Biontech, Moderna and co.

    2:43

    Hey Friends,

    You should have heard about Biontech/Pfizer or Moderna? Maybe you are already vaccinated. SARS-Cov-2 / Covid-19 brought a new technology into the spotlight.
    Now everyone talks about the new era of mRNA vaccines. But how do they work in our body? What is so special about the RNA molecule? This animation shows how mRNA vaccines work.

    References:


    If you want to have a detailed lecture about the new COVID-19 vaccines:

    Antigen Rapid Tests:

    Cheers
    Henrik

  • COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine: Will It Change My DNA?

    4:01

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    #mRNAvaccine #COVID19Vaccine #COVID19

    mRNA Vaccines for COVID-19. Vaccines are substances that protect you from harmful diseases. Most vaccines contain parts of weakened or dead germs that trigger your immune system to fight the disease. But mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 are different. They contain a substance, called mRNA, that teaches your cells how to make a protein that triggers an immune response. In order to understand how these vaccines work, it’s important to know what mRNA is and how it normally makes proteins your body needs. Most cells in your body have a “command center” inside them, called the nucleus. It contains genetic material, called DNA, that consists of instructions for building and maintaining your body. Proteins are one of the building blocks of your body. When a new body protein needs to be built, instructions for building it are copied from your cell’s DNA and converted into a “message,” called messenger RNA, or mRNA. Then, the mRNA travels out of the nucleus to a protein-building machine in your cell, called a ribosome. As the ribosome “reads” the “message” from the mRNA, it builds the protein your body needs. mRNA vaccines take advantage of this process to help give you immunity to COVID-19. Each vaccine contains special mRNA that provides instructions for your cells to build a harmless piece of the virus, called the spike protein. The spike protein is found on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Each piece of the mRNA from the vaccine is wrapped in a protective coating. The vaccine is given as a shot in the upper arm. In the body, the mRNA particles enter your cells. Once inside the cell, the mRNA travels to a ribosome. Using the mRNA from the vaccine, the ribosome makes only a piece of the spike protein from the virus. After making the piece of the spike protein, your cell destroys the mRNA from the vaccine. It’s important to know that the mRNA from the vaccine never enters the cell’s nucleus or changes its DNA in any way. Next, your cell presents the piece of the spike protein on its surface. This allows your immune cells to detect the protein and recognize that it doesn’t belong there. As a result, your immune cells begin making antibodies as part of an immune response to the virus. In the future, if you catch the virus, the antibodies recognize and attach to the spike protein pieces on infected cells and the spike proteins on the virus. This marks them for immediate destruction by other immune cells. Like all vaccines, the benefit of these mRNA vaccines is that they give vaccinated people protection from the virus without having to get sick with COVID-19. Most mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 require you to get a second shot within a few weeks. Sometime after getting the vaccine, you may have symptoms, such as a fever. This is normal. It means the vaccine is working to make you immune to the virus. Vaccines protect you, your family, and your community from diseases that can be dangerous, or even deadly. For up to date information about vaccines for COVID-19 visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website at CDC.gov.

    ANH21248

  • mRNA Vaccines - Layman’s version , plus some FAQs, Animation.

    4:48

    The basis of upcoming Pfizer and Moderna coronavirus RNA vaccines. How it works? Plus some FAQs: Does mRNA vaccine change my DNA? Why do people want me to take the vaccine?
    For comparison of different vaccines, as well as events of immune response, role of different immune cells (T-cells, B-cells, APC), see this video:
    This video is available for instant download licensing here:
    ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved.
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    All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
    The purpose of a vaccine is to mimic an infection, activating the body’s immune response, but without causing the illness. Conventional vaccines usually contain a weakened or inactivated virus; or a piece of a viral protein, called an antigen. These viral elements do not cause disease, but they trick the immune system into thinking that an infection has occurred so that it responds by producing antibodies against the virus. RNA vaccines are a new generation of vaccines. Instead of a protein antigen, they contain mRNA, meaning messenger RNA. As its name suggests, mRNA is basically a messenger, carrying genetic message from DNA to protein. In order to function, a human cell needs to constantly produce proteins based on genetic information in its DNA. Because DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell, and protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm, an intermediate molecule is required to transmit the information. mRNA copies the information from DNA and brings it to the cytoplasm, where it is translated into protein. mRNA consists of 4 basic building blocks called A, U, C and G. The information it carries is the sequence of these letters. RNA vaccines contain mRNA strands that have the information for making the viral antigen, usually a viral spike protein. Once inside the body’s cells, the mRNA is translated into protein, the antigen, by the same process the cells use to make their own proteins. The antigen is then displayed on the cell surface where it is recognized by the immune system. From here, the sequence of events is similar to that of a conventional vaccine. RNA vaccines are easier and safer to produce than conventional vaccines. Conventional vaccines typically require growing large amounts of infectious viruses, usually in chicken eggs, and then inactivating them. Vaccines produced this way are at risks of being contaminated with LIVE viruses and allergens from egg culture. Such risks do NOT exist with RNA vaccines because mRNA molecules can be synthesized in a CELL-FREE system using a DNA template that contains information for making the viral protein. The mRNA is made from the same building blocks as natural mRNA, so it has the same chemical composition as natural mRNA. The relative simplicity of the production process makes it easier to standardize and scale, enabling rapid responses to emerging pandemics. In case the virus MUTATES, it’s also simple to change the mRNA sequence to match the mutation. Will RNA vaccines change my DNA? RNA vaccines do NOT change your DNA. This is because in order to do so, the mRNA must convert into DNA, enter the nucleus, and integrate into the cell’s DNA. This is a complex multiple-step process requiring action of several enzymes that the cell does NOT have. Instead, the cell has plenty of enzymes that can readily destroy the mRNA, so the mRNA is usually degraded after the protein is made. Why do people try so hard to convince others to take vaccine? The answer is herd immunity. When enough people in a community are vaccinated, the whole community, including the individuals that were not vaccinated, is protected against the disease. This phenomenon is known as herd immunity. Herd immunity is possible because a pathogen cannot spread without a sufficient number of vulnerable hosts. An analogy is the spread of wildfires. A wildfire only spreads where there is vegetation, or fuel, for it to burn; it would stop at a river, or a large open space. These are called firebreaks. Vaccinated individuals essentially serve as firebreaks, preventing spread of infections caused by pathogens. Herd immunity is important because not everyone can be vaccinated. Often, the very young, very old, and immunocompromised people must rely on vaccinated individuals to stop disease outbreaks. To note, however, that the number of vaccinated individuals must be great enough for community protection to occur, just like a firebreak must be large enough to stop a fire.

  • mRNA vaccines, explained

    6:48

    Why some Covid-19 vaccines were developed faster than any vaccine ever.

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    Researchers working on Covid-19 vaccines have smashed speed records, bringing new vaccines from development to distribution in less than a year. They did this with the help of billions of dollars of unprecedented global investment -- but also, in some cases, with a new type of vaccine technology.

    There are four traditional types of vaccines, and they all require the growing and handling of live pathogens in a lab, a time-consuming process than can add months or years to development. But two new types of vaccines skip that step altogether by moving that work from the lab to our bodies. mRNA vaccines, like the ones from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna; and Adenovirus vaccines, like those from Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca; do this by sending genetic instructions directly into our cells, which then produce the harmless protein the body needs to learn to fight Covid-19. Because these proteins are produced from within cells rather than injected from the outside, they may be less likely to provoke adverse reactions in the recipient.

    The result has been a host of vaccines developed faster than ever. But it's also ushered us into a new age of vaccine technology, one in which we can send our own bodies the instructions on how to protect themselves. That technology is already being used to drive research on vaccines for HIV and cancer. These new types of vaccines are weapons we developed to fight the coronavirus - but their real impact is just beginning.

    Note: The headline on this video has been changed.
    Previous title: How the newest vaccines fight Covid-19

    Further reading:
    Our original article on Vox.com by Umair Irfan:

    A breakdown of the types of vaccines:

    Infographic on the differences between mRNA vaccines and traditional vaccines:

    The New York Times has a really wonderful in-depth breakdown of how each of the vaccines work:

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  • Mayo Clinic Insights: How the the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine works

    4:01

    Mayo Clinic Insights: Dr. Swift discusses what an adenovirus is and how the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine works. For more up to date information about COVID-19, visit

  • ANIMATION shows how vaccines work against viruses like COVID-19

    1:35

    (16 Mar 2020) LEAD IN:
    U.S. researchers gave the first shot to the first person in a test of an experimental coronavirus vaccine today - leading off a worldwide hunt for protection even as the pandemic surges.
    Millions of dollars are being spent to enable scientists worldwide to fast track a vaccine for COVID-19.
    Pharma companies and researchers are taking different approaches to how they develop a vaccine. Here is an illustration of how they work.

    STORY-LINE:
    Vaccines train our bodies to recognize and fend off germs before they make us sick.
    Traditionally, vaccines are made using viruses that have been killed or weakened, like vaccines against the flu or measles. But growing viruses is labor-intensive and sometimes risky.
    Now scientists are using newer and faster technologies to create different types of vaccines against COVID-19.  
    There's no chance people could get infected from the shots because they don't contain the virus itself.
    The target: a spikey protein that covers the new coronavirus. That protein lets the virus invade human cells. If the body's immune system recognizes the spike and blocks it, people won't get infected.
    One way is to copy a section of the virus' genetic code that instructs cells to make the spike protein. Stick that messenger RNA into a vaccine. The person's own cells will make the harmless protein.
    Then the immune system will spot the foreign proteins and make antibodies to attack them.
    Another method is called a DNA vaccine. Genetic code for the spike protein is put into what's called a plasmid, a circular piece of synthetic DNA, and used as a vaccine.
    Both approaches prime the immune system to attack again if the real virus ever comes along.
    Whatever type of vaccine ultimately works, it likely will be 12 to 18 months before it's ready for widespread use.
    ==================
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  • Coronavirus Vaccines - An Introduction

    9:54

    Leading COVID-19 vaccine candidates rely on new technologies that have fast-tracked development and testing. Vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna have completed early phase 3 clinical trials and are reportedly under review at the US FDA for emergency use authorization (EUA) although safety surveillance continues. This video explains the principles underlying the leading DNA, messenger RNA (mRNA), and viral vector vaccine candidates, and how they might induce immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

    0:00 Introduction
    1:21 Traditional vaccines
    2:00 COVID-19 vaccine types in development
    2:18 Making vaccines from a genetic sequence
    2:45 Target antigen: the S protein
    3:32 Genetic vaccines (DNA and mRNA)
    4:18 Moderna/NIH and Pfizer/BioNTech vaccines
    4:52 Viral vector vaccines
    5:42 Adenovirus vectors (University of Oxford/AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson/Janssen Pharmaceuticals)
    6:32 rVSV vector vaccine (Merck/IAVI)
    7:15 Previous experience with next generation vaccines
    7:50 Importance of Phase 3 Trials

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  • COVID-19 Vaccines: MODERNA | PFIZER/BIONTECH | ASTRAZENECA

    43:41

    Official Ninja Nerd Website:
    Ninja Nerds!

    During this lecture Professor Zach Murphy will be discussing COVID-19 vaccines including Moderna, Pfizer/BioNTech, and Astrazeneca/Oxford.

    We are NOT sponsored and/or endorsed by Moderna, Pfizer/BioNTech, or Astrazeneca. We are presenting on RESEARCH and in no way is any of the information provided our own view or opinions.

    This will be a lecture packed with the process vaccine developers must go through; which includes a preclinical phase and phases I-III. Including information about OPERATION WARP SPEED and how this has expedited the normally lengthy vaccine process.

    We will then discuss how Moderna, Pfizer/BioNTech, and Astrazeneca vaccines work in the human body, preventing the SARS-CoV-2 virus and hopefully, ending this global pandemic.

    Finally-- Zach presents on all of the most current data that each of the vaccine companies have released outlining the vaccine procedure and how it will be administered, the vaccine efficacy (as a percentage), optimal storage temperature of the vaccine in order to remain viable, and the number of vaccine units these companies are capable of producing. We hope you enjoy this lecture and be sure to support us below!

    IMPORTANT INFO (MUST READ):
    One thing to emphasize that wasn’t harped on enough from this lecture is when these vaccines lead to an immunogenic reaction as we described above, which leads to formation of Memory B cells and Memory T cells. This is important because if we are exposed to the virus those memory cells are now primed and able to recognize and mount a powerful immune response against the virus.

    LASTLY, one additional point and clarification is when those cytotoxic T cells produce destructive molecules that damage host cells it’s important to realize that those are memory cytotoxic T cells primed by the Vaccine that damage host cells that ARE INFECTED with the SARS-COV-2 virus, NOT CELLS processing the vaccine.

    Big Takeaway:
    1. Vaccine stimulates antibody production to protect against virus IF INFECTED.
    2. Vaccine stimulates development of memory T and B cells to protect against virus IF INFECTED.

    References |
    Regulatory Affairs Professionals Society (RAPS) COVID-19 Tracker


    Outline:
    00:00 - Intro and Overview
    01:00 - Vaccine Development Phases Overview
    05:08 - Pre-Clinical Phase
    06:32 - Phase I
    08:29 - Phase II
    12:36 - How the Vaccines Work (Moderna and Pfizer/BionTech)
    21:16 - How the Vaccines Work (AstraZeneca/Oxford)
    25:33 - Vaccine Data (Moderna)
    30:30 - Vaccine Data (Pfizer/BionTech)
    35:21 - Vaccine Data (AstraZeneca)
    43:02 - Wrap-Up

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  • How Vaccines Work, Herd Immunity, Types of Vaccines, Animation

    5:10

    This video is available for instant download licensing here:
    Voice by: Ashley Fleming
    ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved.
    Support us on Patreon and get early access to videos and free image downloads: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia
    All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
    To understand how vaccines work, we must first learn how our immune system responds to invading pathogens.
    When a new pathogen enters the body, it meets with the body’s first-line defense, the innate division of the immune system. The innate response is immediate, but non-specific. If this fails to contain the infection, the adaptive immune system comes into play. The adaptive response is more effective, but it may take many days to activate, during which time the person is being sick. The adaptive response produces the so-called antibodies, which specifically bind to a component on the surface of the pathogen, labeling it for destruction. This component is called an antigen and is the one that has triggered the production of antibodies against it.
    Remarkably, the adaptive response also leaves the body with a “memory” of the pathogen, so it can react faster the next time the same pathogen attacks. In fact, pathogen-specific antibodies are produced so fast upon reexposure to the pathogen, that no signs of illness are visible. This is called immunity, and it explains why most people get diseases such as chickenpox only once, even though they may be exposed multiple times in their lifetime.
    A vaccine is basically an altered form of a pathogen, or part of it that acts like an antigen. It is introduced to the body to trigger production of antibodies, mimicking the first infection, but without causing the illness. The immune system now has the antibodies, and is ready for a fast response whenever it is exposed to the real pathogen.
    When enough people in a community are vaccinated, the whole community, including the individuals that were not vaccinated, is protected against the disease. This phenomenon is known as herd immunity. Herd immunity is possible because a pathogen cannot spread without a sufficient number of vulnerable hosts.
    There are several types of vaccines:
    - Live, attenuated vaccines are live pathogens that have been weakened so they don’t cause disease in people with healthy immune systems. Being the closest thing to a natural infection, they are most effective and can provide life-long immunity with a single dose. However, weakened pathogens can still be strong enough to cause illness in people with compromised immune systems, and therefore cannot be used for this group of people.
    - Inactivated vaccines are pathogens that have been completely inactivated by heat or chemicals. They are safer than attenuated vaccines but less effective, and multiple doses may be required to achieve and maintain immunity.
    - Subunit vaccines use only part of a pathogen, usually a peptide. These vaccines are very safe as they cannot cause disease, but to make such a vaccine, scientists must first identify the part of the pathogen that can elicit a good immune response, and this can be a difficult task.
    - Toxoid vaccines: Some bacteria cause illness by releasing toxins. These toxins are inactivated and used as vaccines. Inactivated toxins do not cause disease, but can induce production of antibodies against the natural toxins.
    - Conjugate vaccines: Some bacteria have a protective coat that helps them evade the immune system. This is because the coat is a weak antigen, it does not provoke a strong production of antibodies. Vaccines based on weak antigens will not protect the person effectively. To overcome this problem, the weak antigen is combined with a strong antigen from another source as a carrier, in a conjugate vaccine, to boost the immune response.

  • How do vaccines work? - Kelwalin Dhanasarnsombut

    4:36

    Learn the science behind how vaccines trigger an immune response and teach our bodies to recognize dangerous pathogens.

    --

    The first ever vaccine was created when Edward Jenner, an English physician and scientist, successfully injected small amounts of a cowpox virus into a young boy to protect him from the related (and deadly) smallpox virus. But how does this seemingly counterintuitive process work? Kelwalin Dhanasarnsombut details the science behind vaccines.

    Lesson by Kelwalin Dhanasarnsombut, animation by Cinematic.

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  • How do the leading COVID-19 vaccines work?

    4:44

    As countries like the United States and United Kingdom inoculate their residents with never-before used vaccine technology, others, including Russia, China, and India, are investing in more traditional approaches, like inactivated coronavirus vaccines. But no matter the technique, together they have the potential to create multiple lines of defense against SARS-CoV-2. Science senior correspondent Jon Cohen explains how each of these vaccines can protect us from severe illness—and what understanding the details of our immune responses could mean for the future of human trials.

  • A kids guide to Covid-19: How vaccines work

    1:44

    Whether for flu, COVID, measles, or something else, our kid-friendly video explains how vaccines work.

    For more Covid-19 resources visit:

  • Animation: Why is COVID-19 vaccine so important?

    3:30

    For more:


    COVID-19 is still ravaging the world. As winter comes, the rate of infection is rising. But the world is exhausted with months of compulsory mask wearing, social distancing, curfews and lockdowns. A vaccine is now the most powerful way to curb the disease.

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  • How Effective Is Sinovac? Inactivated Virus VS mRNA Vaccine | Talking Point | COVID-19

    22:29

    As of 9th August, over 81,000 in Singapore have gotten their first dose of the Sinovac vaccine. Why are some choosing it over the mRNA vaccines which have an efficacy of over 90%? Join Steven Chia as he speaks to experts to find out everything there is to know about Sinovac. Steven also follows a 32- year-old veterinarian on her Sinovac vaccine journey to find out why the vaccine’s 51% efficacy doesn’t concern her at all.

    Watch more #TalkingPoint:

    About the show: Talking Point investigates a current issue or event, offering different perspectives to local stories and revealing how it all affects you.
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  • How do the new mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 work?

    1:41

    UCSF professor of medicine, Joel Ernst, MD, explains how the new mRNA vaccines work.


    En Español:

  • Im a Vaccine — How a Hypothetical COVID-19 Vaccine Came to Be, Schoolhouse Rock!-Style

    2:30

    How does a vaccine go from an idea into reality? In this video, inspired by Schoolhouse Rock's iconic I'm Just a Bill cartoon, we explain the steps through Phase 3 clinical trials—and show how a hypothetical vaccine against COVID-19 gets developed.


    Learn more about COVID-19:

  • COVID-19 Vaccines Explained in 4 Levels of Difficulty | UNICEF

    8:18

    Join @Doctor Mike as he discusses how COVID-19 vaccines work on four levels understandable to a child, parent, student and vaccine expert.

    Find out more about COVID-19 vaccines by visiting the UNICEF website:

    This year, UNICEF is making over 2 billion COVID-19 vaccines available to countries across the world through COVAX. We’re calling on governments to work together to ensure safe and effective vaccines are affordable and accessible to all. #OnlyTogether, can we end this pandemic. #VaccinesWork

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  • WATCH: How the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine works

    1:37

    Johnson & Johnson's COVID-19 vaccine was the third to be authorized in the United States, but it was the first to deliver full protection with one shot. Also different from the mRNA-based vaccines developed by Pfizer and Moderna, this one uses a viral vector -- in this case, an adenovirus -- to inoculate recipients against the coronavirus.

    On Thursday, Johnson & Johnson announced that new data from small studies suggest that its vaccine protects recipients against the more transmissible delta variant of the virus, and that overall protection lasts for at least eight months.

    Here’s a look at how it works.

    Video by Megan McGrew and Isabella Isaacs Thomas/PBS NewsHour

    Editor’s note: Johnson & Johnson is a funder for the PBS NewsHour.

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  • Singapore’s 3 COVID-19 Vaccines – And Is One Better Than The Others?

    3:40

    Singapore has ordered the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Sinovac vaccines as the first three of its portfolio in the fight against the coronavirus pandemic.

    ALSO WATCH: Is the vaccine safe? Your questions answered

    Both the Pfizer-BioNTech (also in use in Britain and the US) and Moderna (used in the US) vaccines use messenger RNA (mRNA) technology that involves injecting snippets of the COVID-19 genetic code, triggering an immune response without actually exposing the patient to the virus. Both vaccines are said to have an efficacy rate of about 95%.

    The China-made Sinovac vaccine uses an inactivated COVID-19 virus to trigger an immune response. There is a lack of specific results on its efficacy at the moment. As of January 7, 2020, the Sinovac vaccine has not been used in any country.

    Co-chair of the COVID-19 multi-ministry task force Lawrence Wong tells #TalkingPoint why the Singapore Government convened an expert panel as early as April 2020 to look into early purchases of COVID-19 vaccines based on early-stage clinical information.

    Director of communicable diseases at the Ministry of Health (MOH) Vernon Lee said “all the vaccines approved in Singapore are safe and efficacious”, but that some may be more suited to certain subpopulations. The Pfizer vaccine for instance - the only one in use in Singapore as of Jan 8 - is not for use in those with severe allergic reactions.

    ALSO WATCH:
    The Search For A COVID-19 Vaccine:
    Inside Coronavirus Human Vaccine Trials In Singapore:
    Is A Safe COVID-19 Vaccine By 2021 Really Possible?:


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  • How Do mRNA Vaccines Work?

    6:23

    Two of the vaccines we have for COVID-19 have the distinction of being the first mRNA vaccines to see widespread use in humans. But how do they work, and how are they different from the litany of immunizations you probably got as a kid?

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  • How the various Covid-19 vaccines work

    2:34

    CNBC's Meg Tirrell reports on just how a Covid vaccine works, as well as the companies in the running to develop one. For access to live and exclusive video from CNBC subscribe to CNBC PRO:

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  • COVID-19 Animation: What Happens If You Get Coronavirus?

    7:28

    For Employees of Hospitals, Schools, Universities and Libraries: Download 8 FREE medical animations from Nucleus by signing up for a free trial:

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    This video 3D animation on COVID-19: What Happens If You Get Coronavirus is a collaboration between Nucleus Medical Media and our friends at the What If Channel. To watch super interesting hypothetical scenarios on the human body, humanity, the planet and the cosmos, please visit the What If Channel at
    #covid-19 #coronavirus #medicalanimation

  • How Does an mRNA Vaccine Work?

    1:08

    What is an mRNA Vaccine? How is it manufactured? How does it protect against an infection? This short animation answers all of these questions.

  • The Coronavirus Explained & What You Should Do

    8:35

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    A huge thanks to the experts who helped us on short notice with the video. Especially “Our World in Data”, the online publication for research and data on the world’s largest problems – and how to make progress solving them. Check out their site. It also includes a constantly updated page on the Corona Pandemic.

    In December 2019 the Chinese authorities notified the world that a virus was spreading through their communities. In the following months it spread to other countries, with cases doubling within days. This virus is the “Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2”, that causes the disease called COVID19, and that everyone simply calls Coronavirus.

    What actually happens when it infects a human and what should we all do?

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  • How Vaccines Fight Viral Infections

    4:10

    Vaccines help us develop immunity to COVID-19, by training our bodies to recognise the virus and produce antibodies to protect us from the virus. With more of us vaccinated, the harder it will be for the virus to spread.

    Here’s an animated guide to how vaccines work. The illustrated explainer is produced by our Curriculum Planning and Development Division.

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  • Understanding Different COVID-19 Tests, Animation

    3:01

    Coronavirus testing: diagnostic tests - rapid antigen test versus molecular tests (nucleic acid amplification test, NAAT) for viral RNA (RT-PCR, LAMP,…); and antibody (serology) test for past infection. Nasal swab versus nasopharyngeal swabs, false positive and false negative rates. Accuracy of tests, sensitivity, detection limits, turnaround time and relative costs.
    This video is available for instant download licensing here:
    ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved.
    Support us on Patreon and get early access to videos and free image downloads: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia
    All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
    There are 2 major types of COVID-19 tests: diagnostic tests for active infection, and antibody tests for past infection.
    Diagnostic tests look for components of the virus in a sample taken from the nasal cavity, throat, or saliva. Sample taken from the nasopharynx, the upper part of the throat behind the nose, is preferred when higher accuracy is required.
    There are 2 types of diagnostic tests: molecular tests detecting viral RNA, and antigen tests (best for pre-travel screening) detecting viral proteins.
    Antigen tests use a technology similar to that of a pregnancy test. Some are made available as at-home test kits. The test is fast and less expensive, but is less sensitive. Antigen test gives positive results only with high viral loads, when the person is near the peak of infection, so it’s more likely to miss an active infection. In other words, the rate of false negative – a test that says you don’t have the virus when you actually do, is high. Symptomatic patients who test negative with rapid antigen test must be confirmed with a more sensitive molecular test. On the other hand, positive results are highly accurate, but false positive – a test that says you have the virus when you actually don’t, can still happen, most commonly due to errors in sample handling.
    Molecular tests detect viral RNA. They are also called nucleic acid amplification tests, NAAT, because they amplify viral nucleic acids until there are detectable levels. Different tests are based on different technologies, with polymerase chain reaction, PCR, being just one of them. PCR is the gold standard for diagnostic testing but it requires specific equipment and takes longer to deliver results.
    Molecular tests are much more sensitive than rapid antigen tests, but they can still produce false-negative results early in the infection. On the other hand, the high sensitivity may sometimes pick up the low viral load in a patient who has recovered and is no longer contagious. Positive results are highly accurate, most false positives are due to lab contamination or other errors with sample handling.
    Antibody tests, also called serology tests, detect antibodies that the body produced in response to the infection. A blood sample is taken for this test. Because antibodies can take a couple of weeks to develop and may stay in the blood for weeks or months after recovery, a positive test result only proves that the person has been exposed to the virus. It gives no indication about active infection and should not be used to diagnose COVID-19.

  • How do COVID-19 vaccines work? Animated explainer with english speak

    2:47

    This animated explainer describes the mechanisms of mRNA-based and vector/DNA-based vaccines against COVID-19. Made by Ann-Louise Bergström and Lasse Folkersen. See more on

  • COVID-19 vaccines – priority rollout

    2:02

    This video describes how vaccines will be rolled out, and who they will go to first.

    Protecting Australians, including our most vulnerable communities from the exposure of COVID-19, is critical.

    COVID-19 vaccines will be safe and effective, helping to prevent death and serious illness. Now that our first vaccine has been approved, it will be made available to those most in need of protection first.

    These groups have been identified based on expert medical advice.

    People at increased risk of exposure, infection and transmission of COVID-19, include:

    • Health, aged care and the disability care workforce;
    • Aged and disability care residents; and
    • People in other higher risk settings, such as quarantine and border workers

    And…

    People who have an increased risk of developing serious illness from COVID-19 include:

    • Older people
    • People with pre-existing, medical conditions; and
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    Priority access will also be given to:

    People working in critical services, such as:

    • Emergency services providers, defence force personnel, other health care workers; and
    • People supplying and distributing essential goods and services, such as meat processing,

    The delivery of COVID-19 vaccines to those most in need will continually be reviewed based on medical data and evidence.

    Once the COVID-19 vaccines have been rolled out to priority groups, doses will be made available to all other adults.

    Research from the pandemic has shown that young people are less likely to have severe illness from the virus.
    If evidence supports the decision and the vaccines are approved for young people, they will then receive the vaccine.

    To learn more, visit health.gov.au


    The Department of Health is closely monitoring the COVID-19 pandemic. Stay up to date with the latest information, resources and advice.



  • What are the different types of vaccines?

    3:09

    Vaccines teach the immune system to fight off disease by helping it learn what a pathogen looks like. What kinds of vaccines are out there, and how do they differ from one another?
    __
    Sources:



    __
    This video was filmed on October 29, 2020, and its content was reviewed by Kathleen Mullane, DO, PharmD, on October 6, 2020.
    For the most up-to-date information and vaccine recommendations, please visit the CDC’s website,
    For more news and views from UChicago Medicine, visit To learn more about our providers and schedule an appointment, visit

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