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DNA-free PCR Reagents Manufactured by Single-Use Technology

  • PCR


    Join The Amoeba Sisters as they explain the biotechnology PCR. This video goes into the basics of how PCR works as well as two examples of its potential use.

    Table of Contents:
    00:00 Intro
    1:34 How does PCR work?
    4:31 Why use PCR?
    5:10 rRT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19)
    Factual References (and excellent for learning more detail about this topic):

    Clark, Mary Ann, et al. “17.1 Biotechnology - Biology 2e | OpenStax.” Biology 2e, OpenStax, 28 Mar. 2018,

    *General length of a primer in base pairs from NIH

    On RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2:

    On Fluorescent Probes in PCR:

    What about limitations or disadvantages of PCR?

    What about more uses for PCR (as well as more info about Nobel Prize):

    The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching biology at the high school level. Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. Learn more about our videos here:

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    Our intro music designed and performed by Jeremiah Cheshire.

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    Thank you so much to our amazing translators!
    Turkish subtitles by Kardelen Ünalleylioğlu

    While we don't allow dubbing of our videos, we do gladly accept subtitle translations from our community. Some translated subtitles on our videos were translated by the community using YouTube's community-contributed subtitle feature. After the feature was discontinued by YouTube, we have another option for submitting translated subtitles here: We want to thank our amazing community for the generosity of their time in continuing to create translated subtitles. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.

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  • PCR - Polymerase Chain Reaction Simplified


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    DNA Replication :

    Dna Structure :

    Using PCR, copies of DNA sequences are exponentially amplified to generate thousands to millions of more copies of that particular DNA segment. PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical laboratory and clinical laboratory research for a broad variety of applications including biomedical research and criminal forensics. PCR was developed by Kary Mullis in 1983 while he was an employee of the Cetus Corporation. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1993 (along with Michael Smith) for his work in developing the method.

    Typically, PCR consists of a series of 20–40 repeated temperature changes, called thermal cycles, with each cycle commonly consisting of two or three discrete temperature steps. The cycling is often preceded by a single temperature step at a very high temperature (90 °C (194 °F), and followed by one hold at the end for final product extension or brief storage. The temperatures used and the length of time they are applied in each cycle depend on a variety of parameters, including the enzyme used for DNA synthesis, the concentration of bivalent ions and dNTPs in the reaction, and the melting temperature (Tm) of the primers.

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  • Realtime PCR presentation


    This video explains the principle, workflow and application of real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction). More information:

  • VIASURE Real Time PCR Detection Kits. Nucleic acids extraction & Initiation Protocol


    Real Time PCR is a high sensitive and specific tool for molecular diagnostic. It has been designed for the diagnosis of infectious diseases caused by different pathogens in human samples.

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  • Multiplex qPCR: Criteria for Success


    Current best practices for gene expression analysis by qPCR recommend the use of multiple normalizers and, potentially, a second gene of interest (GOI) assay. For samples with limited nucleic acid content, such an experiment may only be achieved by performing multiplexed qPCR assays. Even when working with abundant nucleic acids, multiplexing can save time and money. Achieving successful multiplex assays depends upon several criteria, including using robust assays, correct reagent and target concentrations, and appropriate cycling parameters. Using data from several assays, we demonstrate how PrimeTime® qPCR Assays simplify a 4-plex assay system, and discuss factors that influence the success of using these assays in a multiplex format. We also compare the use of master mixes assembled de novo to commercially available reagents and discuss their effects on multiplex assays.

    About the Speaker:
    Scott Rose, PhD, is the Director of Molecular Genetics at Integrated DNA Technologies. He leads a group of scientists involved in numerous projects and research collaborations in areas such as qPCR, RNAi, antisense, RNase H2--based detection, and synthetic biology. The focus of his postdoctoral research was transcription-based gene regulation using the pancreas as a model system. For his PhD in Biochemistry, he studied RNA processing, concentrating on RNA splicing and polyadenylation.

  • Rapid mRNA manufacturing for Vaccine Development


    Activity and duration of expression tailored to the specific application​

    Financially attainable costs​

    Template design for ease of manufacturing​

    Immunogenicity/lack of immunogenicity dictated by the application​

    Synthesis and purification processes that enable consistent high-quality compound​

    Plan for scale-up of your mRNA drug

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  • Automated RNA extraction and DNA isolation technologies from QIAGEN


    What makes QIAGEN so popular for RNA extraction and DNA isolation? What kinds of samples can you process with QIAGEN kits? How much evidence does QIAGEN have to support its product performance?

    Dr. Michael Kazinski, Head of Sample Technologies at QIAGEN, answers all these questions. He also introduces two of QIAGEN’s most popular sample processing instruments. Meet the magnetic-bead–based QIAsymphony and the spin-column–based QIAcube Connect.

    Learn more about QIAGEN´s automation solutions:

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  • Expression vectors: how to choose, or customize, vectors for gene & protein expression


    Do you make new DNA constructs only using the old expression vectors you're most familiar with? This webinar will help you make your experimental design more efficient and powerful by learning how to select or design an expression vector that is optimized for your experiments. We will walk through how to read a plasmid map and what key features to look for in an expression vector depending on your research goal. Using case studies from published literature, we'll discuss why and how you might want to make custom changes to elements already included in commercial available vectors (e.g. RBS or tags). Along with handy reference guides for popular vectors used in different eukaryotic and prokaryotic species, this webinar will introduce you to GenScript's gene synthesis and cloning services that can help you get expression-ready clones most efficiently to accelerate your research.

  • DNA sequencing | Biomolecules | MCAT | Khan Academy


    Visit us ( for health and medicine content or ( for MCAT related content. These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read or seen in any Khan Academy video. Created by Ronald Sahyouni.

    Watch the next lesson:

    Missed the previous lesson?

    MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions!

    About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content.

    For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything

    Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel:
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  • DNA-free PCR Reagents Manufactured by Single-Use Technology


    Thermo Fisher Scientific have pioneered the use of Single-Use Systems to manufacture DNA-free PCR enzymes. With these enzymes, the probability of DNA contamination has been reduced to a negligible risk level for your molecular DNA-based assays.

  • Single-Use Technology for Biologics Manufacturing in St. Louis, Missouri


    Learn about Thermo Fisher Scientific’s expansion of its biologics site in St. Louis, Missouri. The facility will be the single largest single-use technology CDMO in the United States.

    Learn more about our St. Louis site here -

  • Single Use technology in Manufacturing of Biologics


    The presentation highlights details of use of Single Use Disposables in the Manufacturing of Biologics. The details discussed include types of SU/disposables, Qualification Requirements, Advantages, Validation and Environmental issues

  • Illumina DNA PCR-Free Prep, Tagmentation: Introduction


    Illumina DNA PCR-Free Prep, Tagmentation library preparation kit is a new automation compatible whole-genome sequencing library prep kit. In this webinar, we will cover the following topics: library preparation workflow, sequencing considerations, and tips and success for next-generation sequencing.

    Timestamp Topic
    1m 15s Advantages of Illumina DNA PCR-Free Prep
    3m 06s Consumables and Equipment
    6m 11s Input and workflows
    13m 53s Library prep protocol
    21m 14s Library evaluation and quality control
    25m 14s Sequencing
    36m 26s Analysis
    37m 52s Resources

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    A global genomics leader, Illumina provides comprehensive next-generation sequencing solutions to the research, clinical, and applied markets. Illumina technology is responsible for generating more than 90% of the world’s sequencing data.* Through collaborative innovation, Illumina is fueling groundbreaking advancements in oncology, reproductive health, genetic disease, microbiology, agriculture, forensic science, and beyond.

    *Data calculations on file. Illumina, Inc., 2015.

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  • PCR Reagents Used in Polymerase Chain Reaction


  • Single-Use Technologies BioProcess Container Recruitment Video


    Thermo Scientific BioProcess Containers, or BPCs, are one of the most widely used, single-use, flexible container systems.

  • Mindrays Reagents Production Base | Healthcare within reach


    Mindray's Fully Automated Reagent Factory Production Base of IVD Reagents - Mindray (healthcare within reach)

    Founded in 1991, Mindray is one of the leading global providers of medical devices and solutions. Firmly committed to our mission of “advance medical technologies to make healthcare more accessible”, we are dedicated to innovation in the fields of Patient Monitoring & Life Support, In-Vitro Diagnostics, and Medical Imaging Systems.

    Mindray possesses a sound global R&D, marketing and service network. Inspired by the needs of our customers, we adopt advanced technologies and transform them into accessible innovations, bringing healthcare within reach. While improving the quality of care, we help reducing its cost, making it more accessible to a larger part of humanity.

    Today, Mindray’s products and services can be found in healthcare facilities in over 190 countries and regions. In China, Mindray’s products and solutions can be found in nearly 110,000 medical institutions and 99% of Class A tertiary hospitals.

    Learn More:

  • Diagnostic Reagents Production ADALTIS


    Diagnostic Reagents Production ADALTIS -
    Adaltis S.r.l. is an international IVD company headquartered in Rome, Italy.

    Adaltis develops, manufactures and markets in-vitro diagnostic systems and reagents to detect viral infections, diagnose immune system diseases and measure human hormone responses.

    Adaltis develops fully automated systems and wide range of RT-PCR testing reagent kits for the Molecular Diagnostic / RT-PCR testing and extraction and purification platform RCR systems.

  • The power of Rapid DNA results


    In this webinar, OCDA forensic scientist Anna Dadhania explains how their program works, including case examples and best practices for successful partnerships with local law enforcement and their crime lab to solve crimes faster.

  • 2) Next Generation Sequencing - Sample Preparation


    What is covered in this video:
    ➜ The first video in our Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) series ( describes the theory and technology that allow NGS platforms to sequence thousands to millions of DNA molecules simultaneously. In this installment we show in detail the steps of library preparation for Whole Genome Sequencing, Exome Sequencing, RNA Sequencing and Methyl Sequencing on the Illumina platform.

    For more information on this topic, please visit:
    ➜ Knowledge Base:

    Want to learn about RNA Sequencing? Watch our FREE webinar, The Beginner's Guide to RNA-Seq

    Watch the other videos in this series on NGS:
    ➜ Introduction:
    ➜ Coverage & Sample Quality Control:
    ➜ NGS Playlist:

    Check out our other video series:
    ➜ CRISPR Cas9:
    ➜ Adeno Associated Virus:

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  • The Power of Partitioning: The World of Droplet Digital™ PCR Applications


    For more info, visit
    Since its introduction two years ago, Droplet Digital PCR has transformed multiple fields of research, including infectious disease, cancer biomarker analysis, and genomic variation analysis. This webinar introduces the concept, workflow, and performance of Droplet Digital PCR and highlights the diverse applications in showcased in recent journal publications.

    The QX200™ Droplet Digital PCR system, Bio-Rad's second-generation digital PCR system, provides absolute quantification of target DNA or RNA molecules using EvaGreen or TaqMan hydrolysis probes, yielding unmatched sensitivity and precision for a wide variety of applications.

    Presenter: Dr. George Karlin-Neumann, Director of Scientific Affairs, Bio-Rad Digital Biology Center
    Dr. Karlin-Neumann received his PhD in molecular genetics in 1990 from UCLA. After postdoctoral studies with Dr. Ronald Davis in Stanford's Biochemistry Department, he left in 2001 to cofound ParAllele BioScience, which was acquired by Affymetrix in 2005. Dr. Karlin-Neumann joined QuantaLife in 2010. He has since transitioned to his current role as Director of Scientific Affairs at the Digital Biology Center at Bio-Rad Laboratories, where he is responsible for establishing and over-seeing research collaborations exploring new directions for digital PCR technology.

    We Are Bio-Rad.

    Our mission: To provide useful, high-quality products and services that advance scientific discovery and improve healthcare. At Bio-Rad, we are united behind this effort. These two objectives are the driving force behind every decision we make, from developing innovative ideas to building global solutions that help solve our customers' greatest challenges.

    Connect with Bio-Rad Online:
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    Snapchat: @BioRadLabs

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  • CRISPR and Covid-19


    One key to stopping the spread of Covid-19 is knowing who has it. A delay in reliable tests and Covid-19 diagnostics in the United States has painted an unreliable picture of just how many people are infected and how the pandemic is evolving. However, with new testing options becoming available, the information from these diagnostics will help guide public health decisions. Omar Abuddayeh ’12, PhD ’18 and Jonathan Gootenberg ’13, who have been developing CRISPR technologies to rapidly diagnose Covid-19 and other infectious diseases, talk through the advances in their lab at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research.

    The MIT Campaign for a Better World is all about rising to meet humanity’s urgent global challenges through the vision and talent of the people of MIT. Learn more:

  • Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction


    Created by Shivani Baisiwala, BS, MS, MD Candidate 2021
    Full protocols for all assays available at

    This video provides an overview of the theory and practice of quantitative PCR, a widely used technique in molecular biology laboratories in order to measure the mRNA expression of genes or to measure activation of gene transcription for specific genes. Here, we go through both the theory behind it and the practical aspects of getting primers, designing them appropriately, planning out your experiment, and interpreting and troubleshooting results.

    This work is coming from the Ahmed Lab at Northwestern supported by funding from the NIH/NINDS.

  • What is Ion AmpliSeq Chemistry? - Seq It Out #6


    “What is Ion AmpliSeq™ Chemistry & how does it work?” Let’s find out what this new technology can do for you.

    Next Generation Sequencing is now producing more sequence, faster than anyone had ever envisioned just 10 years ago making it now possible to sequence a genome in days rather than months or years.
    However, for many applications this large amount of data becomes overkill, creating processing and informatics headaches, and adds additional cost with little to no benefit.
    Rather, for many of the more standard questions being asked in the lab, a focused approach, or targeted sequencing method, that zeroes in on specific genomic regions of interest, can result in significant savings in terms of time, effort, and money. And, perhaps most importantly, can speed up getting to that answer you’re looking for. So what is targeted sequencing and how does Ion AmpliSeq™ chemistry fit into the picture? , Simply put, using current genomic knowledge, a targeted sequencing approach introduces a sequence enrichment step focusing in on genes or even genetic variants of interest - A good example might be the targeting of oncogenes and tumor suppressors in a cancer research study.
    Early approaches, using hybridization based techniques, enabled specific regions to be pulled out of the genome. However, these methods were limited in their specificity resulting in representation of regions of no interest. Additionally, relatively large amounts of starting genomic DNA were required for these traditional hyb methods. Leveraging over ten years in PCR assay design and preamplification methods developed by our Applied Biosystems colleagues, Ion AmpliSeq™ targeted enrichment offers a vast improvement over these early approaches delivering a unique, highly multiplexed PCR based workflow with clear specificity and uniformity benefits. Additionally, extremely low DNA input amounts can be amplified through the PCR process, as low as 10 ng.
    So what is the Ion AmpliSeq™ approach, how does it work, and what makes it so remarkable?

    Let’s take a look at our lab book

    At its most basic level, an Ion AmpliSeq™ panel consists of a pool of oligonucleotide primer pairs, each pair designed to amplify a specified genomic region. Unique to this approach is the ability to multiplex up to 24,000 primer pairs in a single PCR reaction!

    Following simple PCR amplification of the selected genomic regions, remaining primers are digested and a library containing the remaining amplicons is prepared for sequencing.

    It is worth mentioning two key implications to how the design of an Ion AmpliSeq™ Panel is approached.

    First, a panel can be designed to interrogate all bases across a gene or can be focused on specific mutation hotspots.

    Since a gene design relies on the tiling of overlapping amplicons across the sequence of interest, the consequence is that overlapping primer pairs must be separated into independent PCR reactions. As a result, this approach will require two separate PCR multiplexed reactions per sample to achieve full coverage.

    In contrast, a mutation hotspot design typically results in non-overlapping amplicons whose primers can be accommodated in a single multiplexed reaction.

    Lastly, consideration of the sample source is important to final design performance. Shorter amplicons with a maximum length of 175bp work best with degraded sample sources such as FFPE but come with a trade-off of coverage within the design.

    Now you may be thinking “this all very interesting but I still don’t know how to create a design”? Never fear, Ion Torrent offers a variety of predesigned panels designed with input from the experts in the field, and if none of these panels meet your needs, custom design is made super easy using our online AmpliSeq Designer tool. Now that you know a little bit about what Ion AmpliSeq™ targeted sequencing has to offer and how it works, feel free to play with our design tool – after all it is completely free to try.

    I hope this video was helpful on explaning the Ion AmpliSeq™ Chemistry, and I am sure you’ll have more questions.

    Submit your question at and subscribe to our channel to see more videos like this.

    And remember, when in doubt, just Seq It Out

  • Highly efficient genome editing and cell engineering in stem cells using CRISPR/Cas9


    Advances in genome editing has empowered researchers with highly efficient and versatile gene editing tools like Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) system thereby making it relatively easier to target user defined endogenous genes in a sequence specific manner. Stem cells have been a preferred platform for various applications including gene function analysis, drug screening disease modeling, and tissue engineering. Therefore novel tools that enable rapid and precise gene manipulation in stem cells are required. Presented here are CRISPR/Cas9 tools and workflows that allow accurate design and rapid synthesis of gRNA along with delivery of Cas9 protein/gRNA RNP complexes into a variety of cells through optimized transfection reagents or electroporation. Discussed here are the results from different CRISPR/Cas9 formats tested in stem cells. Using these formats we have edited mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and human iPSCs with up to 80% to 60% genomic cleavage efficiencies, respectively. The methods described here facilitate efficient disease model generation thereby accelerating research in the field of gene therapy and regenerative medicine.

    For more information visit:

  • David Horvath - Zach Smith - DNA & RNA Sequencing Sample Prep - Automating Simple to Complex Methods


    Watch on LabRoots at
    DNA and RNA sequencing sample preparation can involve many tedious and error prone steps. Liquid handling automation solutions can help standardize your processes and achieve more consistent results. Beckman Coulter Life Sciences automation and genomic product solutions span your entire NGS workflow including the major steps of DNA & RNA extraction, library construction, quality checks and pooling.

    Join us for the second webinar in our three-part introductory series if you are interested in learning how to accelerate reliable results so you can move to the next step with certainty. Application scientists Zach Smith and David Horvath will continue their presentation by discussing how DNA and RNA sequencing sample preparation workflows have been automated, the relevant data generated and the benefits passed onto researchers.

  • Droplet Digital™ PCR Tips & Tricks: ddPCR™ Assay Design


    For more info, visit
    The QX200™ Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR™) System, Bio-Rad's second-generation digital PCR system, provides absolute quantification of target DNA or RNA molecules using EvaGreen or TaqMan hydrolysis probes, yielding unmatched sensitivity and precision for a wide variety of applications.

    The webinar discusses tips and tricks used in ddPCR assay design. Topics covered include the availability of commercial PrimePCR™ ddPCR assays from Bio-Rad, common pitfalls, and recommendations for designing an effective ddPCR assay.

    Presenter: Dianna Maar, Senior Scientist, Bio-Rad Digital Biology Center
    Dr. Maar studied at the University of California Los Angeles, where she received both her Bachelor’s and Doctoral degrees majoring in Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics. During her graduate training, Dianna studied antibiotic resistance, ribosomal mechanisms, and protein expression. She continued to work on translation and protein expression at The Scripps Research Institute. She expanded her research interests at Sandia National Laboratories where she worked on developing bio-fuels from protein fractions, identified virus-entry mechanisms and gene expression profiles for Nipah Virus.

    We Are Bio-Rad.

    Our mission: To provide useful, high-quality products and services that advance scientific discovery and improve healthcare. At Bio-Rad, we are united behind this effort. These two objectives are the driving force behind every decision we make, from developing innovative ideas to building global solutions that help solve our customers' greatest challenges.

    Connect with Bio-Rad Online:
    Instagram: @BioRadLabs
    Snapchat: @BioRadLabs

  • Optical Point-of-Care Technologies for Reagent-Less and Non-Destructive Assessment


    This lecture focuses on optical-based technologies for point-of-care biodetection including the principles behind these biosensors and clinical applications. Clinical applications include pathogen detection, glucose monitoring, and pulse oximetry. This lecture also provides a brief overview of emerging optical technologies.

  • Mindray Reagent Manufacturing Setup


  • Getting started with CRISPR: a review of gene knockout and homology-directed repair


    CRISPR has become an increasingly popular tool for genome editing, in part because it is highly flexible and relatively easy to implement compared to other technologies. However, for scientists beginning to work with this method, the wide range of products and variety of editing approaches can be overwhelming. In this webinar, Justin Barr provides a simple explanation of the steps for planning your experiment, including guide RNA design, an overview of delivery methods, and options for measuring editing results. He also discusses how to generate specific mutations in the genome using homology-directed repair (HDR).

  • Sequencing 101: How Long-Read Sequencing Improves Access to Genetic Information


    In this webinar, Kristin Mars, Sequencing Specialist, PacBio, presents an introduction to PacBio’s technology and its applications followed by a panel discussion among sequencing experts. The panel discussion addresses such things as what long reads are and how are they useful, what differentiates PacBio long-read sequencing from other technologies, and the applications PacBio offers and how they can benefit scientific research.

    Learn more about PacBio at

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  • VariantPro™ Targeted Sequencing Technology


    LC Sciences offers a customized solution to high-throughput genome wide variant analysis. The VariantPro™ system is comprised of three distinct innovations, all developed by scientists right here at LC Sciences: Relay-PCR™, Omega Primers™ and OligoMix®.


    Relay-PCR™ is a new, simple, and robust method of multiplexing PCR. A single PCR run accomplishes two functionally separate reaction phases without any primer removal step, resulting in a significantly simplified, one step workflow. A single pair of common primers and a mixture of multiple pairs of specific primers are added to a genomic DNA sample in a single tube. Both a selection phase, where the genomic targets of interest are captured, and a library amplification phase, will occur during this single PCR reaction.

    Omega Primers™

    An Omega Primer™ may exist in various forms, but all are composed of three functional segments. This segmented design provides several desirable features and/or properties in various applications.

    Generally, the 5p arm acts as the anchor to bind the primer to a DNA template. The 3p arm checks sequence specificity before polymerase extension is initiated. The loop provides a separation between the two arms, and may serve additional purposes. Omega Primers™ are well suited for multiplex PCR applications where the flexibility to design highly multiplexed primers to target many regions may be limited due to PCR thermodynamics.


    Taking advantage of VariantPro™’s high multiplexing capability, custom designed targeted sequencing projects may require very large numbers of custom oligo primers, up to tens of thousands. OligoMix® is an established, proven method of massive parallel oligo synthesis that quickly and cost effectively provides the required oligos. Thousands of custom oligo sequences are synthesized at once on a microchip and then cleaved, releasing them into solution in a single microtube ready for use. OligoMix® has been demonstrated as an effective method of oligo synthesis for several targeted sequencing methods including: Molecular Inversion Probes, Selective Genomic Circularization, Oligo-Selective Sequencing and VariantPro™ targeted sequencing.

  • DNA Extraction from Plant Cells Practical Experiment


    This video shows how to extract DNA from plant leaves using commonly available kitchen ingredients.
    Do check out my other genetics related experiments by clicking on #GeneticsLab #ThomasTKtungnung above the video title.

    DNA is one of the genetic materials of most living organisms including plants , animals, bacteria, fungi and viruses. It is the hereditary material responsible for the passing on of characters of the parents to their offsprings through generations. Information is stored within the DNA molecule in the form of genes which are made up of several codons formed by the 4 nitrogen bases Thymine, Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine in different combinations. Each codon is made up of a combination of any 3 of these 4 bases and are called triplet codons. These triplet codons are transcribed into the complementary mRNA which is then transalted into the corresponding amino acids encoded by the triplet codons. These translated amino acids eventually form proteins, enzymes and other biomolecules that drive the various physiological functions within the organism.
    Extraction and isolation of this important molecule is the first step in any experiment on Genetic engineering or Recombinant DNA technology.
    In biotechnology research, Extraction of DNA is carried out using expensive enzymes and and chemicals under controlled conditions in a lab setting.
    One can also extract and isolate DNA using cheap and easily available materials that one can find in any household. Although it’s a rudimentary alternative to the method employed in the laboratory, the basic principle remains the same. The material is crushed to separate the cells. The cell wall and cell membrane of the cells are then destroyed to reveal the DNA which is then extrated into a form that’s visible to the naked eyes.
    In this video, we try to extract and isolate DNA from a plant material such as leaves, using materials that you can find in your kitchen.
    To perform DNA extraction from plant cells, you’ll need the following:
    Blender or Pestle and Mortar
    Weighing scale
    Strainer or a funnel with filter paper
    250ml beaker or cup
    Ice cold water
    Table spoon or spatula
    Test tube or a small graduated cyliner
    5ml or 10 ml syringe or measuring pipette
    Glass rod or plastic straw
    Sodium Chloride (Common salt):
    Detergent powder or Liquid soap or SDS:
    Meat tenderizer or Ice cold freshly prepared Pineapple juice or Papaya juice (both are enzyme sources):
    Ice cold Ethanol or Isopropanol (Rubbing alcohol):

    To begin the experiment, weigh 50-100 grams of the plant material.
    Transfer it into a pestle and mortar or a blender and blend it with about 100ml of ice cold water and half a teaspoon of Common salt.

    Filter the blended mixture into a beaker using a strainer or a funnel with a filter paper cone.
    Add a tablespoon of detergent powder, dishwahing liquid soap or SDS to the filtrate in the beaker and stir the mixture gently.
    Allow the mixture to stand for 5-10minutes.
    After 10mins or so, transfer about 10ml of the mixture in the beaker into a test tube or graduated cylinder.
    Add a pinch of meat tenderizer or about 5ml of pineapple or papaya juice to it. Gently agitate the test tube to mix the two liquids.
    Wait for 5-10mins for the digestion reaction to occur.
    Now, hold the test tube in an inclined position and using a glass rod or a pipette, carefully add about 5ml of ice cold rubbing alcohol or ethanol such that the alcohol flows gently down the inner wall of the tube and forms a layer on top of the digested plant extract in the tube.
    Observe the interface between the two liquids. You will find the DNA begin to precipitate in the alcohol in the form of white, gelatinous strings or clumps.
    You can separate and remove the DNA thus obtained, by spooling it onto a plastic straw or a wooden stick.
    This is all about extracting DNA from plant cells that you can perform at home.
    Thanks for watching.

  • Beyond Cloning: 101 Uses of gBlocks® Gene Fragments


    In addition to a standard gene synthesis service, IDT offers a novel, rapid, and reliable method to build and clone the genes you need at a fraction of the cost of full gene synthesis services. gBlocks® Gene Fragments are double-stranded, sequence-verified DNA blocks of length 125--750 bp. Their high sequence fidelity and rapid delivery time make gBlocks Gene Fragments ideal for a large range of synthetic biology applications. In this video, Dr Adam Clore reviews a variety of uses of gBlocks fragments, including CRISPR-based genome modification, qPCR and HRM controls, and the assembly of gene fragments using the Gibson Assembly® Method.

    About the presenter:

    Adam Clore, PhD manages the Synthetic Biology Design and Support group at IDT and is involved in synthetic biology product development, research, and biosecurity. Dr Clore has a background in microbiology and biochemistry. Prior to his work at IDT, he studied the molecular genetics of hyperthermophilic archaea and their viruses for his PhD in Biology and Systems Science.

  • DNA Analyst Training : Amplification


    Part of the free online training for DNA Analysts at the NFSTC -

  • iSeq 100: Introduction


    This support webinar discuss the new iSeq 100 system. We will cover: features of iSeq 100, end-to-end workflow, the new Illumina technologies that power the iSeq 100, and the troubleshooting path when working with Technical Support.

    View upcoming Support Webinars

    Subscribe to the Illumina video channel

    A global genomics leader, Illumina provides comprehensive next-generation sequencing solutions to the research, clinical, and applied markets. Illumina technology is responsible for generating more than 90% of the world’s sequencing data.* Through collaborative innovation, Illumina is fueling groundbreaking advancements in oncology, reproductive health, genetic disease, microbiology, agriculture, forensic science, and beyond.

    *Data calculations on file. Illumina, Inc., 2015.

    View customer spotlight videos

    View Illumina webinars

    View Illumina product videos

    View Illumina support videos

  • Accelerating rapid diagnostic development with Optimer® reagents


    On-demand webinar from experts at Aptamer Group and QSM Diagnostics
    Optimer reagents are aptamers optimized to overcome many of these issues for a wider target range, rapid development, improved manufacturability and batch consistency.
    Watch this webinar to understand how this technology is being applied to develop new rapid diagnostic assays to novel targets and how you could apply these reagents to accelerate your diagnostic timelines.

    To find out how we can provide novel solutions to drive discovery and help you achieve your goals, email:

  • Background and Troubleshooting for RT-PCR


    Presented At:
    LabRoots - Genetics & Genomics Virtual Event 2019

    Presented By:
    Gillian Browne, PhD - Global Market Development Scientist, Gene Editing and Novel Modalities, MilliporeSigma

    Speaker Biography:
    Gillian received a BSc in Biomedical Sciences, followed by a PhD in Cellular and Molecular Cancer Biology from the University of Ulster in the UK. Subsequently, she pursued almost five years of postdoctoral research in the United States utilizing a wide variety of molecular biology techniques, and co-authored 13 peer reviewed publications in the field of gene regulation and cancer biology. Her work has enabled other scientists and colleagues further research in the field of genetics, and today she serves as a strategic Global Market Development Scientist and business partner for the commercial teams as at MilliporeSigma, the Life Science business of Merck, KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and to its gene editing customers around the world.

    Background and Troubleshooting for RT-PCR

    Webinar Abstract:
    Real-time PCR, or quantitative qPCR, is a commonly used molecular biology lab technique to determine the actual amount of PCR product at a given cycle. For quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR), the starting material is RNA, which is then transcribed to cDNA by a reverse transcriptase prior to the qPCR assay. Gene expression is a common application for qPCR, and amplification through RT-qPCR is necessary to detect and quantify gene expression from small amounts of RNA. This webinar will present the basics of RT-qPCR and tips and tricks for performing RT-qPCR experiments.

    Learning Objectives:
    1. Understand the basics of RT-PCR, including how it is used for quantitating gene expression and its advantages over other methods
    2. Explore successful optimization strategies and troubleshooting tips to achieve better results

    Earn PACE Credits:
    1. Make sure you’re a registered member of LabRoots (
    2. Watch the webinar on YouTube or on the LabRoots Website (
    3. Click Here to get your PACE credits (Expiration date – May 08, 2021 06:00 AM):

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  • Infinium™ Protocol Video


    This video presents the Illumina Infinium™ assay lab workflow for HD, HTS, and LCG format BeadChips™ and is intended as a visual introduction and reference for new Infinium users.
    • Protocol steps demonstrated: Amplification, Fragmentation, Precipitation, Resuspension, BeadChip™ Hybridization, Washing and XStain, and Scanning.
    • Key techniques and Best practices highlighted: Decanting the amplification plate, Removing the cover seal, Maintaining the Glass Back Plates, and Assembling the flow through chamber.

    See the Infinium Assay Lab Setup and Procedures Guide here:

    To learn more about selecting BeadChips, required equipment, setting up your lab, and data analysis, watch the “Discover the Flexible, Scalable Infinium Workflow” here:

    QB 11404

    Subscribe to the Illumina video channel

    A global genomics leader, Illumina provides comprehensive next-generation sequencing solutions to the research, clinical, and applied markets. Illumina technology is responsible for generating more than 90% of the world’s sequencing data.* Through collaborative innovation, Illumina is fueling groundbreaking advancements in oncology, reproductive health, genetic disease, microbiology, agriculture, forensic science, and beyond.

    *Data calculations on file. Illumina, Inc., 2015.

    View customer spotlight videos

    View Illumina webinars

    View Illumina product videos

    View Illumina support videos

  • How to perform colony PCR


    How to video to demonstrate how to perform colony PCR as part of a cloning workflow using Thermo Scientific DreamTaq DNA Polymerase .

  • How I Defeated My Arch Nemesis


    For NordVPN’s 9th birthday, every purchase of a 2-year plan will get you 1 additional month free AND a surprise gift. Go to and use code thoughtemporium!
    BL21 E. coli are by far the most obnoxious bacteria genetic engineers usually work with for 1 simple reason. They are maddeningly difficult to modify and load with new DNA. This wouldn't be an issue if they weren't also one of the best types for producing proteins en mass, and as such have application in everything from pharmaceutical production, to producing ingredients for foods. But after a few years of tinkering with it I finally found a protocol that reliably fixes this irritating issue, and makes it easy to transform them reliably.

    Written protocol -

    Sebastian's spinner -

    Previous videos;
    Modifying Bacteria -
    Modifying yeast -
    Making a heat block/incubator -
    Growing spider silk -
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  • A CRISPR Q&A with our experts: You ask, we answer.


    With CRISPR technology evolving so rapidly, a successful experiment can feel like a moving target. That’s why we hosted our first ever CRISPR Q&A webinar with four of our very own CRISPR experts, Ashley Jacobi, Dr Garrett Rettig, Dr Christopher Vakulskas, Dr Matthew McNiell, and moderated by Dr Elisabeth Wagner.
    Learn more at

  • Single Cell Proteogenomics Bitesize Bio Webinar


    Dr. Marlon Stoeckius of the NY Genome Center describes two recently developed applications that utilize oligo-antibody conjugates to enhance existing single cell RNA-seq platforms. CITE-seq allows measurement of a potentially unlimited number of protein markers in parallel to transcriptomes and Cell Hashing enables sample multiplexing, robust multiplet detection and super-loading of scRNA-seq platforms. TotalSeq™ oligonucleotide conjugated antibodies are now available from BioLegend. This seminar expands on several points presented in Dr. Stoeckius’ original talk from IMMUNOLOGY 2018.
    Learn more about TotalSeq™:

  • Accelerating Process Scale-up: From Benchtop to Commercialisation


    Join us for this Knowledge Culture webinar as we address three key areas to consider when scaling from benchtop to commercialisation.

  • GMP Manufacturing of Messenger RNA Therapeutics and Vaccines: Case Study of a SA SARS CoV-2 Vaccine


    Investigative mRNA vaccine programs scale from target-centric research to progressing candidates through the drug development process, challenges arise when determining the optimal path forward.

  • NovaSeq 6000: Run Quality and Best Practices


    Illumina Technical Support invites you to join us for a discussion on NovaSeq 6000 best practices. This webinar is targeted towards newer to intermediate users of the NovaSeq 6000. We recommend watching the NovaSeq 6000: Introduction Webinar before attending for relevant background information. This webinar will cover: NovaSeq 6000 Sequencer and Reagents; Pre-Run Considerations; Run Setup and Run Start Best Practices and Best Practices for Run Metric Review.

    View upcoming Support Webinars

    Subscribe to the Illumina video channel

    A global genomics leader, Illumina provides comprehensive next-generation sequencing solutions to the research, clinical, and applied markets. Illumina technology is responsible for generating more than 90% of the world’s sequencing data.* Through collaborative innovation, Illumina is fueling groundbreaking advancements in oncology, reproductive health, genetic disease, microbiology, agriculture, forensic science, and beyond.

    *Data calculations on file. Illumina, Inc., 2015.

    View customer spotlight videos

    View Illumina webinars

    View Illumina product videos

    View Illumina support videos

  • How to purify circulating cell-free DNA


    Learn how to perform manual and automated purification of circulating cell-free DNA from plasma samples. Throughout the process, magnets are utilized to isolate the DNA, making the protocol simple and scalable. Eight samples can be processed manually, or 24 samples can be processed when using the KingFisher™ Flex Magnetic Particle Processor with 24 Deep-Well Head.

    The MagMAX Cell-free DNA Isolation Kit may also be used to isolate cell-free DNA from serum and urine.

    View the complete protocol here:

    For more information on Cell Free DNA isolation visit:

  • Using Droplet Digital™ PCR for Cancer and Liquid Biopsy Studies


    For more info, visit
    Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR™) technology is being used to identify cancer subtypes, optimize drug treatment plans, monitor residual disease, and study tumor evolution. ddPCR assays offer advantages in the field of liquid biopsies, enablingto the measurement of circulating nucleic acids (cfDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood. ddPCR can detect rare tumorigenic mutations in a high background of normal DNA, routinely down to 0.01% and often further. Dr Dawne Shelton discusses the techniques and methods that will enable you to begin your own investigations.

    The QX200™ Droplet Digital PCR system, Bio-Rad's second-generation digital PCR system, provides absolute quantification of target DNA or RNA molecules using EvaGreen or TaqMan hydrolysis probes, yielding unmatched sensitivity and precision for a wide variety of applications.

    Presenter: Dawne Shelton PhD, Senior Scientist
    Dr. Shelton earned her PhD in oncological sciences from the University of Utah, Huntsman Cancer Institute. She has investigated different aspects of the Wnt pathway in colon cancer, studied the origins of the different subtypes of breast cancer, and examined uterine cancer in a clinical cancer research lab. She is now a senior scientist at the Digital Biology Center at Bio-Rad Laboratories, focusing on developing applications and collaborations for ddPCR in the cancer field.

    We Are Bio-Rad.

    Our mission: To provide useful, high-quality products and services that advance scientific discovery and improve healthcare. At Bio-Rad, we are united behind this effort. These two objectives are the driving force behind every decision we make, from developing innovative ideas to building global solutions that help solve our customers' greatest challenges.

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  • PCR Master Mix preparation and RT-PCR


    This video belongs to the section entitled Molecular tests that is part of the DVD Avian Influenza sampling procedures and laboratory testing funded by FAO and the Istituto Zooprofilattico delle Venezie (IZSVe).
    (c) FAO

  • Building More Useful CRISPR-Cas Technologies


    The Kleinstiver lab is focused on developing new and improved gene-editing technologies. During his presentation, Dr. Kleinstiver discussed protein engineering strategies applied by his team to improve on-target activity, targeting range, and specificity/safety of CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease.

    Targeting range is a limitation imposed by protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences on the access of Cas9 nuclease to edit broad genomic sites. Therefore, Dr. Kleinstiver’s team engineered changes in amino acid residues relevant for PAM recognition. In addition, to expedite the screening of Cas9 nuclease libraries, his team developed a high-throughput PAM determination assay for screening (HT-PAMDA) Cas9 PAM specificities. This approach has enabled the Kleinstiver team to identify various forms of Cas9, including SpG (NGN) and later SpRY (NAN), with relaxed PAM requirements.

    Cas9 nuclease’s off-target effects limit the therapeutic application of current gene editing tools due to potential unwanted genomic changes. With newly engineered Cas9s having relaxed PAM requirements, a critical question that the Kleinstiver lab had to address was the potential for increased off-target activities. Using a previously developed assay, GUIDE-seq, they confirmed that SpG and SpRY activities targeted an increased number of off-target sites. Introducing high-fidelity changes in SpG and SpRY sequences allowed the reduction of off-target edits, thus improving their safety.

    What are some of the benefits of these newly developed Cas9 nucleases? First, Dr. Kleinstiver shared how nucleases with minimal PAM requirement can facilitate base-editing and prime-editing approaches, which require the Cas nuclease to access exact genomic sites. Lastly, he shared how his lab leverages these new enzymes even as molecular tools in vitro, which provide greater flexibility for cloning approaches.

  • PacBio Targeted Sequencing of Long Amplicons Using PCR or Hybrid Capture


    Targeted sequencing experiments commonly rely on either PCR or hybrid capture to enrich for targets of interest. When using short read sequencing platforms, these amplicons or fragments are frequently targeted to a few hundred base pairs to accommodate the read lengths of the platform. Given PacBio’s long readlength, it is straightforward to sequence amplicons or captured fragments that are multiple kilobases in length. These long sequences are useful for easily visualizing variants that include SNPs, CNVs and other structural variants, often without assembly. We will review methods for the sequencing of long amplicons and provide examples using amplicons that range from several kilobases up to 17 kilobases. In addition, we will review methods for the capture of fragments longer than 5 kb using hybrid capture technologies and show an example in which a panel of 35 Alzheimer’s Disease genes are captured.

    Learn more about PacBio at

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