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Darkness Visible: Shedding New Light on Black Holes

  • Solving the Puzzle of Black Holes: Hawking, Entropy, and a Theory of Everything

    32:12

    With the power of math, scientists are going even further, using equations to “look” inside black holes, peering at the central singularity where general relativity and quantum mechanics collide.

    PARTICIPANTS: Cumrun Vafa

    MODERATOR: Brian Greene

    MORE INFO ABOUT THE PROGRAM AND PARTICIPANTS:

    This program is part of the BIG IDEAS SERIES, made possible with support from the JOHN TEMPLETON FOUNDATION.

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    TOPICS:

    0:01 - Explanation of the concept of entropy
    5:03 - Cumrun Vafa intro
    6:06 - The puzzle of entropy in black holes
    10:25 - Measuring black hole entropy
    13:08 - Problems with Hawking's argument
    15:20 - Explanation of string theory and how it describes a black hole
    22:05 - The puzzle of Hawking radiation
    28:03 - What happens at the center of a black hole?

    PROGRAM CREDITS:

    - Produced by John Plummer
    - Associate Produced by Laura Dattaro
    - Animation/Editing by Josh Zimmerman
    - Music provided by APM
    - Additional images and footage provided by: Getty Images, Shutterstock, Videoblocks

    This program was recorded live at the 2018 World Science Festival and has been edited and condensed for YouTube.

    Watch the full unedited program here:

  • Black Holes with Neil deGrasse Tyson | Wheel Of Science

    6:53

    On the premiere episode of Wheel Of Science, Neil deGrasse Tyson and Chuck Nice answer fan questions about black holes. Learn what would happen to you during spaghettification and what's on the other side of a black hole.

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    About StarTalk:
    Science meets pop culture on StarTalk! Astrophysicist & Hayden Planetarium director Neil deGrasse Tyson, his comic co-hosts, guest celebrities & scientists discuss astronomy, physics, and everything else about life in the universe. Keep Looking Up!

    #BlackHoles #NeildeGrasseTyson #WheelOfScience

  • Physics in the Dark: Searching for the Universe’s Missing Matter

    1:22:24

    If you believe the world’s leading physicists, the vast majority of matter in the universe is hiding in plain sight. For nearly a century, evidence has mounted that the gravitational pull necessary to keep clusters of galaxies intact, as well as stars within galaxies from flying apart, requires far more matter than we can see—matter, according to the experts, that has eluded our telescopes, because it does not give off light. Problem is, such “dark matter” has also eluded one specially designed detector after another that researchers have deployed to catch it. Which raises the big question: What if we have failed to find dark matter because it isn’t there? Join leading physicists on a scientific treasure hunt that has proved more challenging than anyone expected, and may ultimately require rethinking some of our most fundamental ideas about the universe.

    This program is part of the BIG IDEAS SERIES, made possible with support from the JOHN TEMPLETON FOUNDATION.

    PARTICIPANTS: Mariangela Lisanti, Joseph Silk, Erik Verlinde, and Risa Wechsler

    MODERATOR: Brian Greene

    TOPICS
    0:00 - Introduction to dark matter
    10:55 - Panelist introductions
    12:28 - How do we explain motion in the universe?
    16:35 - Is the “dark stuff” ordinary matter?
    22:43 - Supersymmetric particles
    30:06 - Weakly Interacting Massive Particles
    33:14 - Searchng for WIMP dark matter
    37:25 - What is the role of dark matter in the structure of the universe?
    43:23 - Cold vs warm dark matter
    46:54 - The “dark sector” possibility
    52:56 - Expanding our understanding of gravity and thermodynamics
    1:01:34 - Is there a connection between dark energy and dark matter?
    1:07:36 - Why do galaxies rotate?
    1:14:25 - Future predictions for the discovery of dark matter

    PROGRAM CREDITS
    - Produced by Laura Dattaro
    - Associate Produced by Peter Goldberg
    - Music provided by APM
    - Additional images and footage provided by: The Dark Energy Survey, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
    - Recorded at the Gerald W. Lynch Theatre at John Jay College

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  • Unsolved Mystery in Physics | Direct Collapse Black Holes

    15:13

    How do the first black holes in the Universe form? How do they then grow into supermassive black holes weighing 800 million times the mass of the Sun within 600 million years of the Big Bang? Astrophysicists have been inferring the existence of direct collapse black holes for a long time to try and explain this unsolved mystery...

    Here's hoping the James Webb Space Telescope will eventually help us solve this one.

    Don't forget to send me your images of Comet 46P Wirtanen and the Gemenids Meteor Shower from this month - I'll be putting a couple of them in my SkyNews video next week. Put them in the comments or tweet them to me @drbecky_ ????

    A plethora of apologies for the blurry footage. I was going to reshoot this video the next day but then I got ill so this is what we're working with this week! Still trying to shake off this cough and cold ????

    Also, yes the audio does change at 12:27 - I think my microphone slipped so it was a bit muted. All the tech problems this week! Hope you enjoyed regardless :)

    Don't forget to subscribe and click the little bell icon to be notified when I post a new video!

    I also present videos on Sixty Symbols:
    and Deep Sky Videos:

    Dr. Becky Smethurst is a Junior Research Fellow at Christ Church at the University of Oxford.

  • Black hole Firewalls - with Sean Carroll and Jennifer Ouellette

    1:27:44

    What would you experience if you jumped into a black hole?
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    Conventionally, physicists have assumed that if the black hole is large enough, the gravitational forces won't become extreme until you approach the singularity. There, the gravitational pull will be so much stronger on your feet than your head, that you will be 'spaghettified'. Now, a new theory proposes that instead of spaghettification, you will encounter a massive wall of fire that will incinerate you on the spot, before you get close to turning into vermicelli.

    In this special Ri event, science writer Jennifer Ouellette and physicist Sean Carroll explore the black hole firewall paradox, the exotic physics that underlies the new theory and what the paradox tells us about how new scientific theories are proposed, tested and accepted.

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  • Journey to a Black Hole - Uncovering a Mystery | SPACETIME - SCIENCE SHOW

    47:29

    We are surrounded by an intangible infinity: a universe in which the Earth is merely a grain of sand on the shore of an ocean. But we are unravelling more and more of the secrets of the universe which surrounds us. And that includes black holes, bottomless pits like the jaws of hell which devour all material that comes too close to them. Even light has no chance of escaping from them. But how does a Black Hole form? Are there any near us? And can they pose a threat to us? A look at the universe presents us with pictures of fascinating and confusing beauty: landscapes of light and gas and stardust, formed by cosmic wind and radiation. Our telescopes are discovering more and more wonders of the universe. They are looking far out into space and thus far back into the past. The centre of our galaxy is marked by a super-heavy Black Hole: an astronomical object with an inconceivable gravitational pull. Nothing can escape from it. The black hole at the centre of our galaxy is known as Sagittarius A-star. Of enormous size, it devours everything while remaining totally invisible.

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    #BlackHole #Universe #Spacetime

  • Black Holes and Holographic Worlds

    1:27:49

    Black holes are gravitational behemoths that dramatically twist space and time. Recently, they’ve also pointed researchers to a remarkable proposal—that everything we see may be akin to a hologram. Alan Alda joins Kip Thorne, Robbert Dijkgraaf and other renowned researchers on an odyssey through one of nature’s most spectacular creations, and learn how they are leading scientists to rewrite the rules of reality.

    The World Science Festival gathers great minds in science and the arts to produce live and digital content that allows a broad general audience to engage with scientific discoveries. Our mission is to cultivate a general public informed by science, inspired by its wonder, convinced of its value, and prepared to engage with its implications for the future.

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    Original Program Date: June 3, 2010
    MODERATOR: Alan Alda
    PARTICIPANTS: Andrew Hamilton, Kip S. Thorne, Raphael Bousso, Robbert Dijkgraaf

    Brian Greene's Introduction with Stephen Hawking. 00:14

    Robbert Dijkgraaf talks about black holes.. 01:45

    Participant Introductions with Alan Alda 09:19

    Einsteins law of time warps. 15:08

    Where black holes around when the universe was forming? 19:50

    Hawking radiation is it coming from the black hole or off the black hole. 27:09

    How are black holes formed at subatomic levels? 38:05

    What does a black hole look like? 43:56

    The panel travels into the black hole. 50:43

    What you would see if you entered a black hole. 58:45

    Space falls faster than light. 01:05:30

    What is a hologram. 01:11:40

    Black holes and information loss. 01:15:12

    How much information can a black hole store? 01:23:30

  • Biggest Black Holes and Cosmic Monsters - Space Documentary 2015

    1:23:28

    Biggest Black Holes and Cosmic Monsters - Space Documentary 2015
    Astronomers have identified a mammoth black hole weighing as much as 12 billion suns.


    It's not the biggest black hole ever found, but it's astonishingly young. The giant appears to have swelled to its enormous size only 875 million years after the big bang, when the universe was just 6 percent of its current age. That's a surprise, astronomers report Wednesday in the journal Nature, because giant black holes are thought to grow relatively slowly by vacuuming up gas and even stars that venture too close.

    How do you build such a big black hole in such a short time? asks Xue-Bing Wu of China's Peking University, lead author of the study.

  • 3 Ways Black Holes Could Break Physics

    3:56

    What if the Earth were swallowed by a black hole? Would humanity’s legacy be gone forever? Or could you somehow get back that information from behind the event horizon?

    There are three possible answers to this question...but they all break physics as we know it!

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    Learn more in NOVA's two-hour special, Black Hole Apocalypse:

    CREDITS:
    Host, Producer: Greg Kestin
    Research: Samia Bouzid, Greg Kestin, and Peter Chang
    Writing: Samia Bouzid, Greg Kestin
    Editorial Input from: Julia Cort, Ari Daniel
    Filming, Editing, and Animation: Greg Kestin and Samia Bouzid
    Scientific Consultants: Joe Polchinski, Netta Engelhardt, Steve Giddings
    Special thanks: Entire NOVA team
    From the producers of PBS NOVA © WGBH Educational Foundation
    Funding provided by FQXi
    Music provided by APM
    Sound effects: Freesound.org
    Images: MEDIODESCOCIDO (Stewie Griffin) and Paul Anderson (Grumpy Cat)

  • The Physics of Black Holes - with Chris Impey

    53:41

    Black holes are the most extreme objects in the universe yet every galaxy has one at its centre.
    Buy Chris' book Einstein's Monsters: The Life and Times of Black Holes :

    Chris Impey explores the questions this profound discovery can help answer and the role black holes have played in theoretical physics.

    Chris Impey is a University Distinguished Professor and deputy head of the astronomy department at the University of Arizona. His research has been supported by $18 million in grants from NASA and the National Science Foundation, and he has had 24 projects given time on astronomy's premier research facility, the Hubble Space Telescope.

    This talk was filmed in the Ri on 9 May 2019.

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    Andrew McGhee, Dave Ostler, David Lindo, David Schick, Erik Shepherd, Greg Nagel, Ivan Korolev, Joe Godenzi, Julia Stone, Lasse T. Stendan, Lester Su, Osian Gwyn Williams, Paul Brown, Radu Tizu, Rebecca Pan, Robert Hillier, Robert Reinecke and Roger Baker.
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  • Monster Black Holes - National Geographic

    1:27:09

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  • Observing Black Holes - Marianne Heida - 9/6/2019

    1:44:44

    What does a black hole look like? We now know, and have observed black holes in multiple ways. Measuring black hole properties gives us insight into the stars they came from and the galaxies they reside in. Presentation: 01:02; speaker Q&A: 30:34; panel Q&A: 39:20

    Date: September 6, 2019
    Lecturer: Marianne Heida
    Title: Observing Black Holes
    Abstract: Black holes are fascinating: the densest objects in the universe from which no light can escape. How do you observe something that doesn't emit any light? The first picture of the shadow of a black hole was only taken this year, but astronomers have been studying them for decades through the effect they have on their surroundings. In this lecture we will go over the many methods astronomers use to search for and investigate the properties of black holes of all kinds, from the small ones in our cosmic backyard to the monsters in the centers of galaxies.

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  • Black Holes

    50:33

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    Every other Wednesday we present a new video, so join us to see the truth laid bare...

    Somewhere in our galaxy, at some time in the future, a spacecraft from Earth will encounter the most dangerous object in the Universe. A stunning visual journey into black holes, their structure and their creation.

    A black hole is a geometrically defined region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing, including particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light, can escape from inside it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole.

  • Episode 24: Kip Thorne on Gravitational Waves, Time Travel, and Interstellar

    1:19:57

    Blog post with show notes, audio player, and transcript:

    Patreon:

    I remember vividly hosting a colloquium speaker, about fifteen years ago, who talked about the LIGO gravitational-wave observatory, which had just started taking data. Comparing where they were to where they needed to get to in terms of sensitivity, the mumblings in the audience after the talk were clear: “They’ll never make it.” Of course we now know that they did, and the 2016 announcement of the detection of gravitational waves led to a 2017 Nobel Prize for Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne, and Barry Barish. So it’s a great pleasure to have Kip Thorne himself as a guest on the podcast. Kip tells us a bit about he LIGO story, and offers some strong opinions about the Nobel Prize. But he’s had a long and colorful career, so we also talk about whether it’s possible to travel backward in time through a wormhole, and what his future movie plans are in the wake of the success of Interstellar.


    Kip Thorne received his Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University, and is now the Richard Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics (Emeritus) at Caltech. Recognized as one of the world’s leading researchers in general relativity, he has done important work on gravitational waves, black holes, wormholes, and relativistic stars. His role in helping found and guide the LIGO experiment was recognized with the Nobel Prize in 2017. He is the author or co-author of numerous books, including a famously weighty textbook, Gravitation. He was executive producer of the 2014 film Interstellar, which was based on an initial concept by him and Lynda Obst. He’s been awarded too many prizes to list here, and has also been involved in a number of famous bets.

  • The Monster Black Hole at the Center of the Milky Way

    1:11:38

    Jan. 25, 2017
    Dr. Andrea Ghez (University of California, Los Angeles)
    By measuring the rapid orbits of the stars near the center of our galaxy, Dr. Ghez and her colleagues have moved the case for a supermassive black hole at the heart of the Milky Way from a possibility to a certainty. She reports on her pioneering observations and discusses some of the surprising results this work has led to.

  • Black Holes and the Fundamental Laws of Physics - with Jerome Gauntlett

    1:2:34

    Black holes are extraordinary and may even hold the key to unlocking the next phase in our understanding of the laws of physics.
    Watch the Q&A here:
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    Black holes are amongst the most extraordinary objects that are known to exist in the universe. Jerome Gauntlett will discuss their fascinating properties and describe the dramatic recent observations of black holes using gravitational waves. He will also explain why it is believed that black holes hold the key to unlocking the next level of our understanding of the fundamental laws of physics.

    Jerome Gauntlett is a professor of theoretical physics at Imperial College. His principal research interests are focussed on string theory, quantum field theory and black holes. Most recently he has been investigating whether string theory techniques can be used to study exotic states of matter that arise in condensed matter physics. He was Head of the Theoretical Physics Group at Imperial from 2011-2016.

    He was the theoretical physics consultant for the film The Theory of Everything and he has an Erdos-Bacon number of six (having written a paper with Shing-Tung Yau and appeared in the film Windrider with Nicole Kidman).

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  • Katie Bouman “Imaging a Black Hole with the Event Horizon Telescope”

    58:29

    Dr. Katie Bouman, who starts as assistant professor of computing and mathematical sciences at Caltech in June 2019, describes how the Event Horizon Telescope team captured the first-ever image of a black hole.

  • What is the Black Hole Information Paradox?

    2:43

    Watch Loose Ends: String Theory and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory here:

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION:
    Thirty-five years ago string theory took physics by storm, promising the coveted unified theory of nature’s forces that Einstein valiantly sought but never found. In the intervening decades, string theory has brought a collection of mind-boggling possibilities into the lexicon of mainstream thinking—extra dimensions of space, holographic worlds, and multiple universes. Some researchers view these developments as symptoms of string theory having lost its way. Others argue that string theory, although very much still a work in progress, is revealing stunning new qualities of reality. Join leading minds in theoretical physics for a whirlwind ride through the twists and turns of string theory—its past, its future, and what it tells us about the search for the universe’s final theory.

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    PARTICIPANTS:

    This program is part of the BIG IDEAS SERIES, made possible with support from the JOHN TEMPLETON FOUNDATION.

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  • Alien Life: Will We Know It When We See It?

    1:33:30

    What are scientists looking for when searching for alien life? A lot, it turns out: the search for extraterrestrials requires the help from astronomers, planetary scientists, chemists, computer scientists, and geneticists, just to name a few. But are we barking up the wrong carbon-based tree? Could alien life develop in ways we haven't dreamed of here on Earth? Hear Paul Davies, Sara Seager, Jack Szostak, and other experts give updates on the search for life outside our planet in Alien Life: Will We Know It When We See It? part of the Big Ideas series at the 2014 World Science Festival.

    This program is part of the Big Ideas Series, made possible with support from the John Templeton Foundation.

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    Original Program Date: May 31, 2014
    Host: John Hockenberry
    Participants: Jack W. Szostak, Paul Davies, Sara Seager, Dimitar Sasselov

    Carl Sagan and the future of finding alien life. 00:04

    John Hockenberry's Introduction. 2:23

    Participant Introductions. 5:45

    How close are we to finding aliens? 6:48

    How can you detect exoplanets that far away? 10:03

    Kepler 186 system. 14:49

    What are the tools you use to find Exoplanets? 18:00

    Detecting beer drinkers at a football game. 24:18

    What are we looking for on the microbial level? 30:05

    What starts life on any planet? 36:04

    Who will we call when aliens land on earth? 41:28

    Processing in analog and digital with a two denominational cellular optometer. 49:30

    The awakening of extraterrestrial life from the Vatican. 54:00

    How we may have cheated to form life from other planets? 56:50

    If we look for life where water is located are we ignoring life everywhere else? 1:04:54

    Can you elaborate on the possibility life on ancient mars? 1:08:39

    What are the new tools coming online today? 1:11:20

    What is the direct imaging technique? 1:14:50

    Testing the pedals on a space telescope. 1:21:00

    The conditions on earth that we need for life elsewhere. 1:24:32

    Communication basics from extremophiles. 1:28:05

  • 2018 Oppenheimer Lecture with Michael S. Turner

    1:14:13

    What happened before the big bang & other big questions about the universe

    Big ideas like the deep connections between quarks and the cosmos and powerful instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope and Large Hadron Collider have advanced our understanding of the universe dramatically. We can now trace its history from the big-bang beginning 13.8 billion years ago through an early state of quantum fluctuations to a soup of quarks and other particles, from the formation of nuclei and atoms to the emergence of stars and galaxies, and finally to its expansion today. This lecture will describe what we know, what we are trying to figure out and the excitement of the adventure.

  • Rebooting the Cosmos: Is the Universe the Ultimate Computer?

    1:31:13

    As computers become progressively faster and more powerful, they’ve gained the impressive capacity to simulate increasingly realistic environments. Which raises a question familiar to aficionados of The Matrix—might life and the world as we know it be a simulation on a super advanced computer? “Digital physicists” have developed this idea well beyond the sci-fi possibilities, suggesting a new scientific paradigm in which computation is not just a tool for approximating reality, but is also the basis of reality itself. In place of elementary particles, think bits; in place of fundamental laws of physics, think computer algorithms. But is this a viable approach? Is the universe the ultimate computer running some grand cosmic code? A discussion among the brightest minds in digital physics to explore math, computer science, theories of consciousness, the origin of life, and free will—and delve into a world of information that may underlie everything.

    The World Science Festival gathers great minds in science and the arts to produce live and digital content that allows a broad general audience to engage with scientific discoveries. Our mission is to cultivate a general public informed by science, inspired by its wonder, convinced of its value, and prepared to engage with its implications for the future.

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    Original Program Date: June 4, 2011
    MODERATOR: John Hockenberry
    PARTICIPANTS: Edward Fredkin, Fotini Markopoulou-Kalamara, Jürgen Schmidhuber, Seth Lloyd

    John Hockenberry's Introduction 00:20

    Is the Universe Digital? 06:13

    Participant Introductions. 09:39

    Did digital physics rise because we need to define the universe as something? 11:35

    Is Quantum Mechanics considered digital? 13:49

    What events in the universe give us incites on being computational? 18:28

    Exchanging information is more important than space time.26:51

    What is the history of the results leading to a computational universe? 32:05

    Who's the programmer and wheres the computer? 37:29

    Is it possible for black holes to be coded instructions to the universe? 46:49

    Computers are irreversible can you build something that is reversible?54:50

    Does a reversible computer simulate the conservation of information idea? 01:00:00

    How do we prove we are in a simulated Universe? 01:04:54

    What is the NSA's primary goal with quantum computers? 01:13:30

    How does knowing the code that has programmed the universe what does that get us? 01:18:48

    Does Heisenberg's uncertainty principle make it about the particle or the information? 01:24:26

  • How Andrea Ghez Found a Supermassive Black Hole

    1:17

    The UCLA astrophysicist explains how tracking the movement of stars revealed the existence of a supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy.

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    For more on Ghez's work, read the full interview on Quanta Magazine's website:
    Video by John Hook for Quanta Magazine.

    Quanta Magazine is an editorially independent publication launched by the Simons Foundation.
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    Science & Technology

  • Black Holes, Wormholes, and Time Travel

    6:18

    This week’s A Moment of Science with Brian Greene explores Black Holes, Wormholes, and time travel.

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  • Gravitational Waves: A New Era of Astronomy Begins

    1:39:22

    On September 14th, 2015, a ripple in the fabric of space, created by the violent collision of two distant black holes over a billion years ago, washed across the Earth. As it did, two laser-based detectors, 50 years in the making – one in Louisiana and the other in Washington State – momentarily twitched, confirming a century-old prediction by Albert Einstein and marking the opening of a new era in astronomy. Join some of the very scientists responsible for this most anticipated discovery of our age and see how gravitational waves will be used to explore the universe like never before.

    This program will feature exclusive footage from director Les Guthman’s upcoming documentary chronicling the drama of the gravitational waves discovery.

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    Original Program Date: June 4, 2016
    MODERATOR: Brian Greene
    PARTICIPANTS: Barry Barish, Nergis Mavalvala, Frans Pretorius, David Shoemaker, Rai Weiss

    Brian Greene's Introduction - 00:15

    Einsteins prediction of bending light - 5:58

    Participant Introductions - 9:55

    Chapter one: The Discovery - 11:37

    The rumors of a gravitational wave - 14:40

    How LIGO almost missed the gravitational wave - 19:16

    BICEP2 and getting it right - 22:34

    Could we have recreated this experiment without a gravitational wave? - 27:09

    Chapter two: The Numerical Relativity - 29:30

    So you detect a gravitational wave, what does that mean? - 31:58

    Black holes vs Neutron stars - 48:12

    Chapter three: Detection - 54:31

    How LIGO Laboratory works - 1:04:06

    How do you shield the laser from the other waves in the world? - 1:09:00

    The move from LIGO to Advanced LIGO 1:12:24

    Giving credit to Barry Barish - 1:20:04

    Chapter four: The Future of LIGO 1:24:40

    eLISA and a space interferometer - 1:27:40

    Mathematically solving the future of colliding black holes 1:32:00

  • Dark matter: The matter we cant see - James Gillies

    5:35

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    The Greeks had a simple and elegant formula for the universe: just earth, fire, wind, and water. Turns out there's more to it than that -- a lot more. Visible matter (and that goes beyond the four Greek elements) comprises only 4% of the universe. CERN scientist James Gillies tells us what accounts for the remaining 96% (dark matter and dark energy) and how we might go about detecting it.

    Lesson by James Gillies, animation by TED-Ed.

  • Darkness Visible: Shedding New Light on Black Holes

    1:46:30

    Black holes may hold the key to understanding the most fundamental truths of the universe, but how do you see something that’s, well, black? Astronomers think they have the answer. Thanks to a global array of radio telescopes that turn the Earth into a giant receiver, we may soon have the first picture of the event horizon of Sagittarius A*, the black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy. And, with the power of math, scientists are going even further, using equations to “look” inside black holes, peering at the central singularity where general relativity and quantum mechanics collide. Join Brian Greene and other leading physicists and astronomers on a journey to make darkness visible.

    Find out more about the program and the participants:

    MODERATOR: Brian Greene
    PARTICIPANTS: Shep Doeleman, Andrea Ghez, Vicky Kalogera, Cumrun Vafa

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    The Big Ideas Series is supported in part by the John Templeton Foundation.

    Filmed live at the 2018 World Science Festival

  • Kip Thorne - Why Black Holes Are Astonishing

    5:49

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    Black holes warp space and time, squeeze matter to a vanishing point, and trap light so that it cannot escape. Black holes, with masses millions or billions times that of our sun, sit at the center of galaxies. How can black holes perform such stupendous tricks, and what can we learn from them?

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  • How Do You Detect a Black Hole? LIGO and the Measurement of Gravitational Waves

    30:39

    Until 2015, scientists could only infer the existence of theoretical black holes. But everything changed when the LIGO experiment detected gravitational waves from the collision of two binary black holes 1.3 billion light-years from Earth. In this program, Brain Greene talks to Vicky Kalogera, a leading member of the LIGO Collaboration, about the inner workings of the LIGO detector—the most accurate measuring device humans have ever built—and what we've learned about black holes and the fabric of the universe since this monumental discovery.

    PARTICIPANT: Vicky Kalogera

    MODERATOR: Brian Greene

    MORE INFO ABOUT THE PROGRAM AND PARTICIPANTS:

    This program is part of the BIG IDEAS SERIES, made possible with support from the JOHN TEMPLETON FOUNDATION.

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    TOPICS:

    0:07 - Einstein’s theory on gravitational waves
    3:18 - Vicky Kalogera intro
    3:57 - What is LIGO?
    5:57 - How did LIGO detect gravitational waves?
    7:40 - What causes gravitational waves?
    10:25 - What was the signal like when the waves were generated?
    12:56 - Converting the gravitational wave signal into sound
    18:40 - Calculating and simulating gravitational waves
    20:21 - Detecting neutron star collisions
    25:38 - What did we learn from the neutron star collision discovery?
    28:26 - How are these discoveries testing Einstein’s theory of general relativity?

    PROGRAM CREDITS:

    - Produced by John Plummer
    - Associate Produced by Laura Dattaro
    - Animation/Editing by Josh Zimmerman
    - Music provided by APM
    - Additional images and footage provided by: Getty Images, Shutterstock, Videoblocks

    This program was recorded live at the 2018 World Science Festival and has been edited and condensed for YouTube.

    Watch the full unedited program here:

  • How do we know theres a black hole in every galaxy centre? | History of Supermassive Black Holes

    25:49

    At the centre of every galaxy, there is a supermassive black hole (a million to a billion times bigger than the Sun). But how do we even know that? There are so many scientific results that have jigsaw-pieced together throughout the past century that allow us to know that now, so join me, as I go through decade by decade and explain the significance of all the results that have built up the big picture.

    00:00 - Introduction
    00:53 - 1900s
    03:58 - 1910s
    05:50 - 1920s
    06:58 -1930s
    09:04 - 1940s
    11:00 -1950s
    12:09 -1960s
    17:14 - 1970s
    18:38 - 1980s
    19:40 - 1990s
    22:12 - 2000s
    23:28 - 2010s

    Here are links to all the papers I mentioned throughout the video, again listed by decade (note that et al. is Latin for and others):

    Michell (1784) -

    Fath (1909) -
    Einstein (1915) -
    Schwarzschild (1916) -

    Lemaître (1927) -
    Hubble (1929) -

    Einstein (1931; cosmological constant introduced) -
    Chandrasekhar (1931) -
    Tolman (1939) -
    Oppenheimer & Volkoff (1939)

    Seyfert (1943) -
    Bolton, Stanley & Slee (1949) -

    Baade & Minkowski (1954) -
    Burbidge (1959) -

    Minkowski (1960) -
    Giacconi (1962) -
    Hoyle & Fowler (1963) -
    Schmidt (1963) -
    Kerr (1963) -
    Salpeter (1964) -
    Zel’dovich (1964) -
    Schmidt & Matthews (1964) -
    Schmidt (1965) -
    Penrose (1965) -
    Hawking (1967) -
    Hewish, Bell et al. (1968) -
    Lynden-Bell (1969) -

    Lyden Bell & Rees (71) -
    Wolfe & Burbidge (1974) -
    Bardeen, Carter & Hawking (1973) -
    Bekenstein (1973) -
    Balick & Brown (1974) -
    Sargent et al. (1978) -

    Dressler (84) -
    Kormendy (88) -

    Harms et al. (1994) -
    Miyoshi et al. (1995) -
    Urry & Padovani (1995) -
    Faber et al. (1997) -
    Magorrian et al. (1998) -

    Ferrarse & Merritt (2000) -
    Gebhardt et al. (2000) -

    Hopkins et al. (2006) -
    Simmons, Smethurst & Lintott (2017) -
    Martin et al. (2018) -

    ---

    ???? My book: Space at the Speed of Light is now available in the USA & Canada!

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    ????????‍???? Dr Becky Smethurst is an astrophysicist researching galaxies and supermassive black holes at Christ Church at the University of Oxford.

  • Before the Big Bang 1O : Black Hole Genesis

    48:20

    We interview the creators of 3 models of the early universe that imply the big bang came from a black hole in a mother universe. The models are Cosmological Natural Selection (CNS), The Holographic Big Bang and Cosmology with Spin and Torsion. The creators interviewed are Lee Smolin, Nikodem Poplawski and Niayesh Ashfordi. Recently it has also been shown that a theory of quantum gravity called Causal Set Theory may realise CNS. And so we also talk to Stav Zalel who has worked on this idea and cosmologist Aureliein Barau

    The order of subjects is
    LS: Lee Smolin NA: Niayesh Ashfordi SZ: Stav Zalel NP: Nikodem Poplowski AB: Aurelien Barau
    00:00 Introduction
    51:55 LS and SZ on CNS
    3:53 the prehistory of CNS
    6:08 NA doubt on fine tuning
    7:33 NA on The Holographic Big Bang
    10:32 NA explains The Holographic Principle
    13:41 NP on Cosmology with Spin and Torsion
    16:16 NP on anti matter
    17:44 SZ on quantum gravity
    18:21 LS and NP on the big bounce
    20:23 SZ and AB on Causal Set Theory
    21:32 SZ on comparison with Loop Quantum Gravity
    21:47 AB and SZ on predicting the cosmological constant
    23:24 SZ on linking CNS and Causal Set Theory
    24:53 NA on string theory connection
    25:46 LS on neutron star predictions
    30:15 LS on inflation and CNS
    31:08 NP on inflation and torsion
    33:08 NA on replacing inflation
    35:25 LS on CNS versus eternal inflation
    36:55 NA on the difference between CNS and The Holographic Big Bang
    37:14 LS, NP and NA on entropy
    38:40 LS and NA on Roger Penrose’s criticism
    40:47 LS, NP, SZ and NA on an eternal past
    43:49 LS on answering Leonard Susskind
    44:39 LS on scare resources
    45:08 NA on CMB predictions
    46:06 LS summing up

  • Darkness Visible: A Memoir of Madness

    6:16

    In this video, author and depression counselor Douglas Bloch talks about how he gained comfort and validation from reading William Styron's memoir about depression. The book is called Darkness Visible: A Memoir of Madness.

    For more information, go to

    To sign up for free weekly videos on depression recovery click here:

    To view a video of my book, When Going Through Hell … Don't Stop!, click here.


    Music: Somatou by Kakurenbo courtesy of through a Creative Commons License.

  • NASA Captured First Ever Image of a Black Hole!

    1:45

    Black Holes are known to swallow everything coming in their path but that's not the end. With time they they emit enormous amounts of energy.

    In 2015 Hubble Telescope captured something that shocked the entire world. It was a burst of plasma jet 260 million light years away in space coming from an unknown source. Calculations showed that the jet was travelling at 98% the speed of light.

    Scientists finally concluded that they have captured a plasma burst coming from a super-massive Black Hole. Which is located inside a galaxy 260 million light-years away.

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    Black Hole destroying star

    Credits: NASA, ESO

  • Shedding New Light on the Whirlpool Galaxy

    3:06

    The Whirlpool Galaxy is a magnificent spiral galaxy that has been studied across the spectrum by NASA's Great Observatories. This remarkable video uses two dimensional images and three dimensional visualizations to contrast and compare the different views of infrared (Spitzer Space Telescope), visible (Hubble Space Telescope), and X-ray (Chandra X-ray Observatory) observations. Within these spectral bands, each wavelength region illustrates a different component of the stars, gas, and dust that comprise the galaxy. By both separating and combining seven multiwavelength views, astronomers gain a broader and richer look into the detailed structure of a spiral galaxy.

    Run time: 3 minutes 5 seconds

    Visualization: Frank Summers, Joseph DePasquale, Dani Player (STScI),
    Kim Arcand (SAO/CXC), Robert Hurt (Caltech/IPAC)

    Music: Cylinder Five, Chris Zabriskie, CC BY 4.0

    Acknowledgement: NASA's Universe of Learning

  • Black Hole - Dive into the Power Centers of the Universe - Space Discovery Documentary

    48:17

    This groundbreaking new series follows a trail of energy into the power centers of the universe. Each program visualizes these realms based on current scientific data and uses state of the art supercomputer simulations. Dive into the heart of a supermassive black hole, fly down onto the toxic landscapes of alien planets and ride along the roiling surface of a star that's about to explode!

  • A Recent Discovery Could Shed New Light on Our Understanding of Black Holes - IGN News

    1:03

    Astronomers observed wind gusts from a black hole at a closer distance than any other time in history.

    Subscribe to the IGN News Channel!


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  • BLACK HOLES - Full Documentary - Penetrating the Mystery of Singularities

    51:18

    A black hole is a place in space where gravity pulls so much that even light can not get out. The gravity is so strong because matter has been squeezed into a tiny space. This can happen when a star is dying. Because no light can get out, people can't see black holes. They are invisible. Space telescopes with special tools can help find black holes. The special tools can see how stars that are very close to black holes act differently than other stars.

    How Big Are Black Holes?

    Black holes can be big or small. Scientists think the smallest black holes are as small as just one atom. These black holes are very tiny but have the mass of a large mountain. Mass is the amount of matter, or stuff, in an object.

    Another kind of black hole is called stellar. Its mass can be up to 20 times more than the mass of the sun. There may be many, many stellar mass black holes in Earth's galaxy. Earth's galaxy is called the Milky Way.

    The largest black holes are called supermassive. These black holes have masses that are more than 1 million suns together. Scientists have found proof that every large galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center. The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy is called Sagittarius A. It has a mass equal to about 4 million suns and would fit inside a very large ball that could hold a few million Earths.


    How Do Black Holes Form?
    Scientists think the smallest black holes formed when the universe began.

    Stellar black holes are made when the center of a very big star falls in upon itself, or collapses. When this happens, it causes a supernova. A supernova is an exploding star that blasts part of the star into space.

    Scientists think supermassive black holes were made at the same time as the galaxy they are in.


    If Black Holes Are Black, How Do Scientists Know They Are There?
    A black hole can not be seen because strong gravity pulls all of the light into the middle of the black hole. But scientists can see how the strong gravity affects the stars and gas around the black hole. Scientists can study stars to find out if they are flying around, or orbiting, a black hole.

    When a black hole and a star are close together, high-energy light is made. This kind of light can not be seen with human eyes. Scientists use satellites and telescopes in space to see the high-energy light.


    Could a Black Hole Destroy Earth?
    Black holes do not go around in space eating stars, moons and planets. Earth will not fall into a black hole because no black hole is close enough to the solar system for Earth to do that.

    Even if a black hole the same mass as the sun were to take the place of the sun, Earth still would not fall in. The black hole would have the same gravity as the sun. Earth and the other planets would orbit the black hole as they orbit the sun now.

    The sun will never turn into a black hole. The sun is not a big enough star to make a black hole.


    How Is NASA Studying Black Holes?
    NASA is using satellites and telescopes that are traveling in space to learn more about black holes. These spacecraft help scientists answer questions about the universe.

  • 10 Surprising Things That Exist Inside Black Holes

    10:47

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  • Avery Broderick Public Lecture: Images from the Edge of Spacetime

    1:25:35

    On Oct. 3, 2018, Avery Broderick (Perimeter Institute Associate Faculty member and Delaney Family John Archibald Wheeler Chair) delivered a Perimeter Public Lecture on humanity's quest to glimpse black holes using the Event Horizon Telescope. Get updates on future lectures, events, and science news:

  • How To Recreate An Image Of A Black Hole

    8:29

    Wondering where the Event Horizon Telescope is at with the world's first photo of a black hole? So are we. We headed back to MIT Haystack Observatory to find out.

    Read More:

    Event Horizon Telescope


    MIT Haystack Observatory


    Journey into a Schwarzschild black hole

    The simplest kind of black hole is a Schwarzschild black hole, which is a black hole with mass, but with no electric charge, and no spin. Karl Schwarzschild discovered this black hole geometry at the close of 1915, within weeks of Einstein presenting his final theory of General Relativity.

    Black Hole Hunters

    Known as the Event Horizon Telescope, named after the point of no return in a black hole, its job was to see what has been until now unseeable: an exquisitely small, dark circle of nothing, a tiny shadow in the glow of radiation at the center of the Milky Way galaxy.

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  • Distant Quasars: Shedding Light on Black Holes

    8:21

    How can scientists study a faraway black hole that emits no light? By observing its quasar. As objects get pulled onto the accretion disk orbiting a supermassive black hole, friction creates a bright light known as a quasar. In this video, researchers use a “galaxy-sized lens” to analyze light from a distant quasar—revealing a supermassive black hole with a truly voracious appetite.

    #quasars #blackholes #space

    This video and all media incorporated herein (including text, images, and audio) are the property of the American Museum of Natural History or its licensors, all rights reserved. The Museum has made this video available for your personal, educational use. You may not use this video, or any part of it, for commercial purposes, nor may you reproduce, distribute, publish, prepare derivative works from, or publicly display it without the prior written consent of the Museum.

    © American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

  • New Research Explains Black Holes, Time Travel and White Holes

    13:27

    You can buy Universe Sandbox 2 game here:

    Hello and welcome to What Da Math!
    In this video, we will talk about new research that tackles the nature of black holes and connects them to hypothetical objects known as white holes and wormholes.
    Find papers here:



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  • What Do We Know About Black Holes? | Secrets Of The Universe | Spark

    22:43

    Epic black holes, nuclear furnaces at the core of giant stars and volcanic pressure cookers inside planets - all across the immense reaches of time and space, the universe is being transformed by seething caldrons of energy.

    This episode looks into the dark side of the universe, the mysterious and monstrous black holes.

    First Broadcast in 2012. Content Provided By TVF. Any queries, contact us at hello@littledotstudios.com

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    #space #blackholes #alberteinstein #spacetravel #gravity #darksideoftheuniverse #science #telescope #technology #spacetechnology

  • Michael Shermer with Dr. Janna Levin — Black Hole Blues

    1:33:25

    Listen to the Podcast (audio) version:


    On Thursday, February 11, 2016, the National Science Foundation made a thrilling announcement: gravitational waves—first predicted by Einstein as part of his general theory of relativity in 1916—had been detected for the first time. This incredible development made front page news and was reported by outlets across the country. How was such a remarkable discovery, a long hundred years after Einstein’s prediction, made possible?

    In this Science Salon based on her new book, Black Hole Blues and Other Songs from Outer Space, astrophysicist and award-winning writer Dr. Janna Levin tells the epic story of the scientific campaign to record these waves—the holy grail of modern cosmology. A handful of physicists, led by Kip Thorne and Ronald Drever at Caltech and Rainer Weiss at MIT, have been working nearly their entire careers to conceive of, design, and build an instrument sensitive enough to detect gravitational waves. Levin delves into the lives and fates of the scientists, painting compelling portraits of these very human visionaries. She journeys from Los Angeles to Boston, to the LIGO interferometers in Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana, to the labs, offices, and observatories where the work in this great quest has painstakingly unfolded over the past five decades. Her account of the personalities, surprises, setbacks, and successes is a compelling and intimate portrait of the people and processes of modern science.

    Order the book from Amazon:


    This event was recorded on April 10, 2016 at Science Salon, hosted by The Skeptics Society, in California.

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  • Leonard Susskind on The Black Hole Wars

    50:53

    Leonard Susskind on The Black Hole Wars

  • Afterglow: Dispatches from the Birth of the Universe

    1:26:50

    Cosmology is the one field in which researchers can—literally—witness the past. The cosmic background radiation, ancient light streaming toward us since the Big Bang, provides a pristine window onto the birth and evolution of the universe. Already, the radiation has been key to confirming an early explosive expansion of space, determining the geometric shape of the universe and identifying seeds that resulted in galaxies. Now, the cosmic background radiation is poised to reveal when the first stars formed, what happened in the fraction of a second after the Big Bang, and the answers to a host of other bold questions about the cosmos. Join Nobel Laureate John Mather and other leading scientists who are leading the way.

    The World Science Festival gathers great minds in science and the arts to produce live and digital content that allows a broad general audience to engage with scientific discoveries. Our mission is to cultivate a general public informed by science, inspired by its wonder, convinced of its value, and prepared to engage with its implications for the future.

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    Original Program Date: May 31, 2012
    MODERATOR: Lawrence Krauss
    PARTICIPANTS: John C. Mather, Amber Miller, Lyman Page, David Spergel

    Lawrence Krauss's Introduction 00:21

    Robert Woodrow Wilson: Tuning in to the Big Bang 10:31

    Participant introductions. 18:10

    What lead you to the path of science? 20:45

    Launching the COBE satellite. 32:45

    Measuring temperatures 1/100,000 of three degrees. 36:50

    When your wrong ... you move on. 41:34

    The boomerang experiment from Antarctica. 46:54

    How big is the universe? 52:43

    How far back in time can we see? 58:54

    Amber Miller and the EBEX project. 1:02:14

    Polarization from gravity waves from the beginning of time. 1:06:16

    What is the future of measuring the universe? 1:12:26

    What is a microwave? Are we sure matter exists? 1:20:54

  • Shedding Light on Dark Matter

    1:5:06

    Richard Mushotzky, an astronomy professor at the University of Maryland, presents Shedding Light on Dark Matter. The illustrated lecture, the third in a series of programs in 2010, is presented through a partnership between the Library's Science, Technology and Business Division and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

    Speaker Biography: Richard Mushotzky is an astronomy professor at the University of Maryland. Mushotzky has received the NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement in 1983 and 2003, the NASA Exceptional Achievement Award in 2000 and the Goddard Space Flight Center Lindsay Award for Scientific Achievement in 1985. He has authored and co-authored of more than 325 referred publications.

    For transcript, captions, and more information visit

  • Black Hole Apocalypse Prologue

    2:04

    Take a mind-blowing voyage to the most powerful and mysterious objects in the universe.

    Watch the first few minutes of Black Hole Apocalypse, a two-hour NOVA special premiering January 10 at 9/8c on @PBS, hosted by astrophysicist and author Janna Levin:



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  • The Elusive Neutrino and The Nature Of The Cosmos

    1:30:41

    The neutrino is among the cagiest of particles, a subatomic wisp so ephemeral it could pass through light years of lead with more ease than a hot knife through butter. Despite its extraordinary abundance in the universe—billions pass through your body every second—this ghostly particle is notoriously difficult to trap, inspiring some of the most sophisticated detectors in science just to study it. A closer look could change everything. The elusive neutrino holds clues to some of the most profound questions in particle physics: What happened in the briefest moments after the Big Bang? Why does the universe contain more matter than antimatter? Join leading researchers as they chase neutrinos and other elusive particles in search of nature’s fundamental order.

    This program is part of the Big Ideas Series, made possible with support from the John Templeton Foundation.

    The World Science Festival gathers great minds in science and the arts to produce live and digital content that allows a broad general audience to engage with scientific discoveries. Our mission is to cultivate a general public informed by science, inspired by its wonder, convinced of its value, and prepared to engage with its implications for the future.

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    Original program Date: June 1, 2012
    MODERATOR: Bill Weir
    PARTICIPANTS: Janet Conrad, Francis Halzen, Lawrence Krauss, John Robinson

    Tiny Ghosts - Musical introduction by John Robinson 00:11

    Bill Weir's Introduction 3:48

    Participant Introductions 5:00

    Why are neutrinos important? 6:28

    Why go to the antarctic to find neutrinos? 8:44

    The ghost particle appears 11:50

    Many didn't believe in the neutrino. 16:20

    Neutrinos from an atom bomb. 19:45

    Ray Davis and his gutsy experiments. 24:08

    Key predictions of the standard model. 28:30

    Understanding neutrino oscillations. 31:49

    Neutrinos and the Grand Unified Theory. 39:24

    The supernova that led to neutrinos. 44:02

    How do you measure the information from neutrinos. 53:29

    A telescope under the ice? 57:00

    What is the holy grail on neutrinos. 1:02:00

    You can't adjust nature just observe it. 1:07:32

    The truth is stranger then star trek? 1:14:20

    Can neutrinos move faster than light? 1:18:46

  • 2020 The Kavli Prize Announcement, Hosted by Brian Greene

    54:49

    Meet the newly named 2020 Kavli Prize Laureates in astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience. Honored for breakthroughs that transform our understanding of the big, the small and the complex, the Laureates discuss their scientific achievements and the next wave of research in these dynamic fields with host Brian Greene.

    The World Science Festival (WSF) is an innovative multi-media organization that produces original live and digital content straddling the arenas of science, technology, the arts, media, performance and education. With the goal of radically transforming public perceptions of science, WSF creates world-class programming, both live on stage and televised, featuring inspired collaborations, outstanding talent and novel production techniques that bring scientific discovery, insight and perspective to a broad general audience.

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  • The biggest black hole burp, a wobbly Milky Way & Betelgeuse is brighter | Night Sky News March 2020

    26:25

    It's Night Sky News time again just in time to distract us from the normal news. Timestamps and links to papers below. #stargazing #spacenews #astronomy

    00:00 - Introduction
    00:43 - what to look out for in the night sky
    03:35 - Curiosity rover's 1.8 billion pixel panorama of Mars -
    04:12 - The Earth has a temporary mini-moon -
    07:33 - Betelgeuse is brightening again -
    12:45 - Milky Way’s warp is due to ongoing collision -
    17:08 - The big black hole burp -

    --

    The artwork in the background is a scientifically accurate map showing the orbits of more than 18000 asteroids in the Solar System, created by Eleanor Lutz. Find out more and buy one here:


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    Pre-order the illustrated version of my book in the USA & Canada - out June 2nd 2020!

    For anywhere else in the world you can buy it now on amazon here:

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    Don't forget to subscribe and click the little bell icon to be notified when I post a new video!

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    Dr Becky Smethurst is an astrophysicist researching galaxies and supermassive black holes at Christ Church at the University of Oxford.




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