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Do we live in a multiverse? | The Economist

  • Do we live in a multiverse? | The Economist

    8:58

    It has long been thought that our universe is all there is, but it is possible we may live in just one of many. This is the second in our six-part series on unsolved mysteries in science. Read the accompanying article:

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    When the ancients looked into the night sky they thought the heavens revolved around the earth and mankind. over the centuries this view has changed radically.

    We discovered we lived on a planet orbiting a star within the solar system and the solar system was found to be part of the Milky Way galaxy. Later we learned that our universe was filled with billions of other such galaxies - but could it be that we're committing the same error as our ancestors by thinking the universe contains everything there is? Could it be that we live in a multiverse?

    There are a number of different theories about what the multiverse could be. One proponent of the idea of the multiverse is Dr Tegmark of MIT. Dr Tegmark suggests a four fold classification of possible types of multiverse. The first type of multiverse is just an extension of what we already know our universe expanding into infinity rather than ending at the limits of our vision.

    We can look back almost to the beginning of time to the edge of the observable universe, but we can see no further. So the space beyond that distance known as the Hubble radius is literally out of sight. But that doesn't mean there isn't anything there.

    Because the expansion of the universe has stretched space, astronomers are able to see out to a distance of about 42 billion light years. How far things extend beyond this is unknown. If they stretch to infinity there could be numerous isolated universes cut off from one another by their own Hubble radius - depending on the observers vantage point.

    To understand the second type of multiverse in Dr Tegmark system it is first necessary to understand how the universe was formed and the theory of inflation. It was first conceived of by Alan Guth in 1979 and then later refined and expanded upon by Andrei Linde who had some key insights.

    This is one of the ideas of string theory which attempts to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics. The thinking is that all of the solutions produced by string theory that don't match up with what we can see in our own universe, may actually represent reality in other universes.

    The anthropic principle is the idea that our universe is fine-tuned to allow humans to live. A small fiddle with the strength of gravity for example and life as we know it would not exist - a coincidence that does not sit easily with scientists. The concept of a multiverse neatly addresses this problem within the infinite number of universes that could exist we are simply living in the one we are able to.

    In the third type Dr Tegmark multiverse in the first the laws of physics are the same from one to another. In this type though the component universes are separated not by distance but by time. At every moment within such a multiverse all of the possible futures allowed by the uncertainties of quantum mechanics actually happen.

    In the many worlds theory of the multiverse the entirety of the universe acts like the quantum photon, but instead of having two potential future states, every possible outcome would be manifested so our entire universe and everything within it, including you, would be constantly undergoing multiple visions into daughter universes - each with its own reality and future. Any given observer though would only see one outcome.

    In the final classification, the level 4 multiverse, Dr Tegmark proposes that all coherent mathematical systems describe a physical reality of some sort. Those different systems are of necessity different universes. What this last idea translates to in practice is hard to conceive of - it is more the province of metaphysics than physics, but the other three types of multiverse though they push the bounds of physical theory do not overstep them. Observational data supporting the theory of inflation have convinced some scientists that a multiverse is possible - but the idea is still controversial.

    It may be impossible to ever directly observe the multiverse but some scientists hope to eventually gather enough data supporting the theories that predict it to one day confirm its existence. If that were to happen, like the ancients before us, we would be given a whole new perspective on how the cosmos works and on our place in it.

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  • Do We Live in a Multiverse?

    10:06

    Chances are there's another you, watching this video in another universe, except you're dressed like a clown and drinking maple syrup from a shoe.

    Read my article on this topic here:

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  • Do we live in a multiverse?

    7:38

    One of the most outlandish ideas in modern physics is the multiverse - the idea that there exist multiple universes. Given that scientists tend to be fairly conservative and that this idea seems like a such a reach, it is natural to wonder why this idea is seriously discussed in leading scientific circles. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains how the existence of a multiverse is a possible answer to the question of why the universe seems so well tuned for human life.

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  • Parallel Worlds Probably Exist. Here’s Why

    20:00

    The most elegant interpretation of quantum mechanics is the universe is constantly splitting
    A portion of this video was sponsored by Norton. Get up to 60% off the first year (annually billed) here: or use promo code VERITASIUM

    Special thanks to:
    Prof. Sean Carroll
    His book, a major source for this video is 'Something Deeply Hidden: Quantum Worlds and The Emergence of Spacetime'

    Code for solving the Schrödinger equation by Jonny Hyman available here:

    I learned quantum mechanics the traditional 'Copenhagen Interpretation' way. We can use the Schrödinger equation to solve for and evolve wave functions. Then we invoke wave-particle duality, in essence things we detect as particles can behave as waves when they aren't interacting with anything. But when there is a measurement, the wave function collapses leaving us with a definite particle detection. If we repeat the experiment many times, we find the statistics of these results mirror the amplitude of the wave function squared. Hence the Born rule came into being, saying the wave function should be interpreted statistically, that our universe at the most fundamental scale is probabilistic rather than deterministic. This did not sit well with scientists like Einstein and Schrödinger who believed there must be more going on, perhaps 'hidden variables'.

    In the 1950's Hugh Everett proposed the Many Worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. It is so logical in hindsight but with a bias towards the classical world, experiments and measurements to guide their thinking, it's understandable why the founders of quantum theory didn't come up with it. Rather than proposing different dynamics for measurement, Everett suggests that measurement is something that happens naturally in the course of quantum particles interacting with each other. The conclusion is inescapable. There is nothing special about measurement, it is just the observer becoming entangled with a wave function in a superposition. Since one observer can experience only their own branch, it appears as if the other possibilities have disappeared but in reality there is no reason why they could not still exist and just fail to interact with the other branches. This is caused by environmental decoherence.

    Schrodinger's cat animation by Iván Tello
    Wave functions, double slit and entanglement animation by Jonny Hyman
    Filming of opening sequence by Casey Rentz

    Special thanks to Mithuna Y, Raquel Nuno and Dianna Cowern for feedback on the script

    Music from Experimental 1 Serene Story 2 Seaweed Colorful Animation 4

  • NOVA | 4 Multiverses You Might be Living In | PBS

    5:03

    Could parallel universes exist? If so, what would they look like and how would they form?

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    CREDITS

    Produced, animated, and edited by Greg Kestin

    Editorial help from Kate Becker, Anna Rothschild, and Lauren Aguirre

    A special thanks to Andrew Friedman

    Original Footage
    © WGBH Educational Foundation 2014

    MEDIA RIGHTS

    Music:
    Night Music, Air Prelude, Not as it Seems, and Comfortable Mystery 3 by Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) CC By 3.0

    Images:
    Bicep2: Courtesy of National Science Foundation
    Big Bang, Galaxies, and Cosmic Web: Courtesy of NASA

    SCIENTIFIC NOTES

    Many physicists believe there is a strong connection between the inflationary multiverse and an important feature of string theory; for more see

    Although there is not yet evidence favoring the quantum multiverse over several other interpretations of quantum mechanics, it is still consistent with the results of every quantum experiment ever conducted.

  • Life in the universe | The Economist

    10:48

    Does life exist anywhere else in the universe? And how did it get started? Scientists are seeking the answers in the cosmos, our solar system and right here on planet Earth.

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    Is there life elsewhere in the universe? Anyone who has pondered the immensity of the cosmos has probably wondered at some time or another whether life exists beyond our planet?

    The search for life beyond Earth has been buoyed by recent discoveries made by NASA's Kepler telescope - it's looking for planets outside our solar system known as exoplanets. Kepler measures the brightness of distant stars and tracks a stars dimming when a planet passes in front. Up until 1995, exoplanets were purely theoretical - but scientists have since identified thousands of them.

    in July, NASA scientists announced the discovery of one of their most exciting exoplanets yet - Kepler-452B. Located some fourteen thousand light-years away the planet is in the habitable zone which means it's the right distance from its own Sun and also the right size to potentially be earth-like.

    There is a limit to how much we can learn about Kepler-452B because of its distance. NASA is launching the James Webb telescope in 2018 to find earth-like planets closer to home so they can study their atmospheres for bio signatures that would indicate the presence of life. But there's another way to learn more about distant planets beyond what the Kepler telescope can tell us, and that is to look for signs of intelligent life.

    Frank Drake has been listening out for signals of intelligent life elsewhere in the universe for over 50 years. Mr Drake came up with something called the Drake Equation which is a mathematical formula that estimates how many advanced civilizations capable of transmitting signals might exist in the universe. He co-founded the SETI Institute, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Scientists at the SETI Institute have been searching for intelligent life for the past few decades.

    SETI researchers have not come across any signals yet but they say this is to be expected. SETI's efforts recently got a huge boost with a launch of breakthrough Listen, overseen by Martin Rees, Stephen Hawking, and Frank Drake and funded by Silicon Valley entrepreneur Yuri Milner. The project will greatly expand the organization's capacity to search and sift through data. But scientists aren't only interested in discovering life forms light-years away. At first glance our solar system seems like a rather unlikely place to find life beyond Earth but the reason scientists think it is plausible is because of the discovery of a group of organisms called extremophiles that live on earth.

    Scientists are looking at the moons of Jupiter and Saturn as well as our nearest neighbor Mars. The hope is that if we find further life in our solar system on places like Mars, we will improve our understanding of how easily it might have started elsewhere. But there is another way to answer this question - determining how it started on earth.

    One man who is trying to come up with an answer to this question is Jack Szostak. In his lab at Harvard University he's trying to determine how easy it is to create life by making it himself. Modern cells are intricate nano scale factories stuffed with thousands of different chemicals each taking part in a complicated and messy web of reactions. Long strands of DNA and codicils genetic information. Shorter strands of RNA carry that information around the cell telling it how to manufacture the proteins that run the chemical reactions it requires to live. It seems unlikely that these systems all evolved at the same time. At the Szostak lab they're focused on two experiments. One to work out how primitive cell membranes could grow and divide into daughter cells, and the other on RNA replication.

    Dr Szostak and his team have already created a protocell from a blob of lipids which contains RNA. The sticking point at the moment is working out how to make RNA that can copy itself without relying on a helping hand from RNA enzymes. If it is a difficult process reliant upon various bits of luck or circumstance then it is possible that we are a cosmic fluke - one that isn't going to be repeated elsewhere. But if experiments like Dr Szostak show that life emerges easily, then the odds of life appearing elsewhere in the universe look more likely.

    Perhaps one day when we're looking into the night sky we'll finally know the answer to the question are we alone?

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  • Multiverse Theory, Explained

    3:17

    Business Insider UK spoke with astronomer Stuart Clark, author of Unknown Universe, about multiverse theory.

    He explained how a number of problems in physics and astronomy could be solved if there were an infinite number of other universes.

    He says: I think for me I would prefer it if there wasn’t a multiverse. If the universe that we see around us today is all that there actually is and that that spurs us on to find the meaning if you like in the laws of physics, the reason the universe is just this way and no different.

    But of course, the universe doesn’t have to care what I think or want. It will just do what it does.

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  • Are We Living In A Multiverse?

    26:47

    Catalyst: Custom Universe – Consider one of the most perplexing problems of modern physics and philosophy: is the universe fine-tuned for us?

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    Einstein predicted them and finally a telescope may have found evidence they exist – gravity waves. And, excitingly, the discovery supports the idea that there may be many universes out there, of which ours is just one. Custom Universe explores the idea that we could be living in a multiverse.

    Catalyst, ABC Australia

    Journeyman Pictures brings you highlights from the cutting-edge science series, ‘Catalyst’, produced by our long-term content partners at ABC Australia. Every day we’ll upload a new episode that takes you to the heart of the most intriguing and relevant science-related stories of the day, transforming your perspective of the issues shaping our world.

  • 4 Multiverses You Might Be Living In

    5:03

    Could parallel universes exist? If so, what would they look like and how would they form?

    NOVA Facebook:
    NOVA Twitter:

    CREDITS

    Produced, animated, and edited by Greg Kestin

    Editorial help from Kate Becker, Anna Rothschild, and Lauren Aguirre

    A special thanks to Andrew Friedman

    Original Footage
    © WGBH Educational Foundation 2014

    MEDIA RIGHTS

    Music:
    Night Music, Air Prelude, Not as it Seems, and Comfortable Mystery 3 by Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) CC By 3.0

    Images:
    Bicep2: Courtesy of National Science Foundation
    Big Bang, Galaxies, and Cosmic Web: Courtesy of NASA

    SCIENTIFIC NOTES

    Many physicists believe there is a strong connection between the inflationary multiverse and an important feature of string theory; for more see:

    Although there is not yet evidence favoring the quantum multiverse over several other interpretations of quantum mechanics, it is still consistent with the results of every quantum experiment ever conducted.

  • Was Karl Marx right? | The Economist

    3:23

    Karl Marx remains surprisingly relevant 200 years after his birth. He rightly predicted some of the pitfalls of capitalism, but his solution was far worse than the disease.

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  • Where is the worlds most liveable city? | The Economist

    2:56

    Where is the world's most liveable city? The Economist Intelligence Unit has ranked 140 cities based on their liveability. Melbourne, Australia, has been ranked the world's most liveable city for the past seven years but it has lost the top spot to Vienna. See the full report: eiu.com/liveability

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  • 4 Multiverses You Might be Living In

    4:59

    Could parallel universes exist? If so, what would they look like and how would they form?

    NOVA Facebook:
    NOVA Twitter:

    CREDITS

    Produced, animated, and edited by Greg Kestin

    Editorial help from Kate Becker, Anna Rothschild, and Lauren Aguirre

    A special thanks to Andrew Friedman

    Original Footage
    © WGBH Educational Foundation 2014

    MEDIA RIGHTS

    Music:
    Night Music, Air Prelude, Not as it Seems, and Comfortable Mystery 3 by Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) CC By 3.0

    Images:
    Bicep2: Courtesy of National Science Foundation
    Big Bang, Galaxies, and Cosmic Web: Courtesy of NASA

    SCIENTIFIC NOTES

    Many physicists believe there is a strong connection between the inflationary multiverse and an important feature of string theory; for more see

    Although there is not yet evidence favoring the quantum multiverse over several other interpretations of quantum mechanics, it is still consistent with the results of every quantum experiment ever conducted.

  • Are You Living in the Multiverse? | Unveiled

    7:56

    If the multiverse is real... If there are endless versions of this world and every other world imaginable... Then what's our purpose? Why are we here? And what are the other versions of ourselves doing right now? In this video, Unveiled explores what living in the multiverse actually means... Spoiler alert; you may find yourself having an existential crisis!

    This is Unveiled, giving you incredible answers to extraordinary questions!

    Find more amazing videos for your curiosity here:
    What If Our Lives Are An Alien Experiment? -
    What If We Had 2 Earths in the Solar System? -

    Are you constantly curious? Are you a fiend for facts? Then subscribe for more from Unveiled ►

    #Multiverse #Universe #MeaningOfLife #ParallelUniverse #Weird

  • What happens when we sleep? | The Economist

    2:45

    Sleep is central to maintaining your physical and mental health, but many people don't sleep enough. We all do it, but what happens to us when we sleep?

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    Every night almost everyone on the planet enters into a state of unconsciousness and paralysis - but what is really happening inside the body when we drift off, and what's the impact if we don't get enough sleep?

    Sleep is regulated by your circadian rhythm, or body clock located in the brain. The body clock responds to light hews ramping up production of the hormone melatonin at night, and switching it off when it senses light.

    There are four stages of sleep that the body experiences in cycles throughout the night. On a good night we cycle through these stages four or five times.

    Stages one and two are light sleep. This is a transition from being awake to falling asleep. Heart rate and breathing begin to slow, body temperature falls, and muscles may twitch. Stage 3 is sometimes referred to as Delta sleep - because of the slow Delta brainwaves that are released during this stage. This is the first stage of deep sleep where our cells produce the most growth hormone to service bones and muscles, allowing the body to repair itself. Stage 4 is where we begin to dream. The body creates chemicals that render it temporarily paralyzed so that we do not act out our dreams. In this stage, the brain is extremely active and our eyes, although closed, dark back and forth as if we were awake.

    Humans roughly spend one third of their lives asleep. Modern lifestyles, stress and the proliferation of Technology, mean that people is sleeping far less today than they were a century ago.

    Sleeping less than seven hours per day is associated with an increased risk of developing chronic conditions which could reduce life expectancy.

    So for a healthier longer life get some shut-eye

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  • What is consciousness? | The Economist

    12:42

    Understanding what consciousness is, and why and how it evolved, is perhaps the greatest mystery known to science.

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  • Tea with Michio Kaku | The Economist

    10:10

    Michio Kaku on the next 100 years

    In his new book, Physics of the Future, Michio Kaku predicts how technology will revolutionise life in the 22nd century

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  • Why does time pass? | The Economist

    10:30

    The equations of physics suggest time should be able to go backwards as well as forwards. Experience suggests, though, that it cannot. Why? And is time travel really possible?

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    Why does time pass? It is a question so profound that few people would even think to ask it. Yet its effects are all around. Human beings live in a perpetual present, inexorably sealed off from the past, but moving relentlessly into the future. For most people, time seems to be something that is just out there. A thing ticking away in the background - fixed, immutable. Time seems to go in one direction and in one direction only. But physicists see it much differently.

    One of the great minds who changed the way science thinks about time was Albert Einstein. In 1905 he published his special theory of relativity. In it he demonstrated that time passes differently in different places depending on how those places are moving with respect to one another.

    Einstein showed that the faster one travels the slower time goes for the traveler. At the speeds at which humans move this is imperceptible. But for someone traveling on a spaceship at speeds close to that of light, time would slow down compared with its passage for people on earth.

    There was another important aspect of Einstein's theory which he didn't even realize when he published it. That time was woven into the very fabric of space itself. Einstein used this insight to help develop his general theory of relativity which incorporated gravity. He published it in 1915.

    With the general theory of relativity he demonstrated that massive objects warped the fabric of space-time. It is this curvature that causes time to slow down near them. Time slows down in proportion to the gravitational pull of a nearby object so the effect would be strong near a black hole but milder near the earth. But even here it can be detected. Einstein's theories had to be taken into account when the GPS system was set up otherwise it would have been inaccurate.

    One scientist who puzzled over the directionality of time was Arthur Eddington, a 20th century astronomer who defined the concept of the arrow of time, based on observations made by the 19th century physicist Ludwig Boltzmann. The arrow of time is based on the second law of thermodynamics which says the disorder known as entropy increases with time. For example, a building left untouched will slowly decay into its surroundings. It will disintegrate into a more chaotic state but it is highly unlikely that the building will become more orderly over time - this is because there are many more ways for a system to be disorderly than orderly. There can be many ways for something to break for instance but only one way for it to be put back together again. A system will be less disordered in the past and more disordered in the future. This is the arrow of time.

    So how can the arrow of time be reconciled with Einstein's equations? If time can go forwards and backwards according to relativity does that mean it's possible to go backwards in time? The theory of relativity does allow time travel to the future.

    Einstein's theories do allow for the formation of wormholes in space. These are shortcuts that link otherwise distant places in the space-time continuum.

    Although wormholes are theoretically possible they're a highly implausible proposition. That's because the equations suggest enormous masses and energies would be required to create and manipulate one.

    What remains then is a mystery. Theory fails to forbid traveling backwards in time but practice suggests it might just as well be forbidden. For now it would appear the arrow of time cannot be reversed. No one knows why time passes but it seems that no matter how people look at it, it goes in one direction in one direction only.

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  • Do We Live In An Infinite Universe? Featuring Paul Sutter

    52:02

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    Do We Live In An Infinite Universe? - Quantum Mechanics Explained

    In this episode of John Michael Godier's Event Horizon. John's guest is Dr. Paul M. Sutter of the Ask A Spaceman Youtube Channel. They discuss Gravity, the Big Bang and the beginning of the Universe as well as Albert Einstein's theory of relativity and how it clashes with Quantum Mechanics, Black Holes, String Theory, SETI and the search for Extraterrestrial life.

    If we live in a infinite universe will we know? If the universe is finite, what would happen if you traveled to the edge. Does the universe go on forever? How far do galaxies stretch out into space? And what's beyond them?

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    Paul Sutter received his PhD in Physics in 2011 as a Department of Energy Computational Science Graduate Fellow as well as being an editor for Space.com. His new book “Your Place in The Universe: Understanding Our Big, Messy Existence”. Arrives on November 20th, available from book retailers everywhere.


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  • How to prepare for the next global recession | The Economist

    3:18

    A decade after the global recession, the world’s economy is vulnerable again. Ryan Avent, our economics columnist, considers how the next recession might happen—and what governments can do about it

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  • What is the universe made of? | The Economist

    8:29

    The Earth, the sun, the stars, and everything we can see, only comprise five percent of the universe. But what about the other 95 percent? Scientists are puzzling over dark matter and dark energy, the mysterious components that make up the rest.

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    What is the universe made of? Scientists have determined that normal matter, the stuff that makes up the earth, the stars and everything we can see, only makes up a small portion of the universe. The rest is made up of two mysterious components that are shaping our universe in profound ways. Much of the mass of the universe is made up of something called Dark Matter, which neither reflects nor emits light, but like the matter we can see, pulls things together with gravity in. Space itself seems to be permeated by an unusual force called Dark Energy which is driving things apart.

    Based on current estimates scientists believe that only 5% of the universe is made up of normal matter, 27% is made up of Dark Matter, and a whopping 68% is made up of Dark Energy. So what are they and how do we know they exist?

    Although we can't see Dark Matter we can tell it is out there from the effect it has on regular matter such as galaxies and stars. We can track where Dark Matter is located through an effect called gravitational lensing. According to General Relativity, massive bodies bend the fabric of space-time. That means they bend the paths of light. Astronomers can see this light bending in places where there are no visible chunks of matter, such as stars. It must be caused by Dark Matter. Through these observations, scientists have found a cosmic web of Dark Matter. Vast lumps of long threads of it. It is spread throughout the universe but tends to be concentrated in halos around galaxies. Indeed, it is considered to have been integral to the formation the large-scale structure of the universe.

    So what is Dark Matter made of? No-one knows for sure yet but there are a number of theories.

    There are a number of different experiments focused on finding Dark Matter, trying to catch it as it occasionally bumps into normal matter, but none of them has been successful so far. Dark Matter particles might just be created in earthly laboratories too. At the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland, where particles smashed together near the speed of light, there is some chance that Dark Matter particles will pop out and astronomers using some of the world's largest telescopes are observing the cosmos with ever more precision to learn about where Dark Matter is located. It was through their efforts in the late 1990s that scientists learned about the other mysterious force that is shaping our cosmos - Dark Energy.

    Astronomers studying distant supernovae discovered it accidentally by observing that the expansion of the universe seemed to be speeding up. Michael Turner coined the term Dark Energy to describe the mysterious force that seemed to be pushing the universe apart.

    The idea that the universe could expand or contract showed up in early drafts of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity but Einstein himself believed the universe was of a fixed size. To get things to add up correctly he fudged his equations by inserting a fixed value he called a cosmological constant. Only later when it was shown the universe was in fact expanding that had become apparent that his equations were right to begin with. Einsteins cosmological constant might also end up accounting for Dark Energy. No-one knows what Dark Energy is exactly, although many theories have been postulated.

    One suggestion is that it is energy folded into the fabric of space itself. As space expands, so does the amount of Dark Energy, so there will be more of it to push the universe apart. What astronomers don't know yet is if the rate of acceleration of the expansion will change over time. If it does that could have profound implications.

    But the dominance of Dark Matter and Dark Energy have shifted over the lifespan of the universe. With Dark Matter playing a stronger role in the early years and Dark Energy gaining traction more recently. What will happen to our universe depends on the interplay between these two dark titans. If Dark Energy becomes more dominant the universe may thin itself out of existence in what's called the big rip. but if Dark Matters influence should increase, that could collapse the universe back upon itself in a Big Crunch. And if neither force changes dramatically space may just continue expanding outward indefinitely.

    For cosmologists trying to foresee the ultimate fate of the universe much remains in the dark.

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  • Is this the future of health? | The Economist

    5:38

    Artificial intelligence is already shaping the world, from driverless cars to dating. But according to Dr Eric Topol, a pioneer in digital medicine, perhaps its greatest impact will be on people's health.

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  • Multiverse VS Parallel Universe - WTF Is The Difference? | SYFY WIRE

    2:54

    Avenger's Endgame and Spider-Man: Far From Home have introduced us to some pretty confusing time travel devices. Let's break it down.
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    More About Avenger's Endgame: Avengers: Endgame is a 2019 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics superhero team the Avengers, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is the sequel to 2012's The Avengers, 2015's Avengers: Age of Ultron, and 2018's Avengers: Infinity War, and is the the 22nd film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). It was directed by Anthony and Joe Russo, written by Christopher Markus and Stephen McFeely and features an ensemble cast including Robert Downey Jr., Chris Evans, Mark Ruffalo, Chris Hemsworth, Scarlett Johansson, Jeremy Renner, Don Cheadle, Paul Rudd, Brie Larson, Karen Gillan, Danai Gurira, Bradley Cooper, and Josh Brolin. In the film, the surviving members of the Avengers and their allies work together to reverse the damage caused by Thanos in Infinity War.

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    Multiverse VS Parallel Universe - WTF Is The Difference? | SYFY WIRE

  • Can extreme poverty ever be eradicated? | The Economist

    3:20

    Poverty rates have fallen faster in the past 30 years than at any other time on record. The UN wants extreme poverty to disappear by 2030. We assess the data to see if this is achievable.

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    It is estimated that somebody escapes extreme poverty every 1.2 seconds. According to the World Bank, anyone on less than $1.90 per day is living in extreme poverty unable to afford basic food, clothing, healthcare and shelter.

    Absolute poverty rates have fallen faster in the past 30 years than in any other time on record. This is a remarkable achievement but the task of taking people put of the worst poverty remains a huge challenge. The impressive fall is the result of changes in just two countries, China and India.

    In the 1980s the majority of people in both of these countries were living in extreme poverty. But now the share of the poorest has fallen to 21% in India, and less than 2% in China.

    Increased productivity in farms and a mass migration from poor rural areas to the booming cities enabled many Chinese and Indian people to better their lives. Asia is moving into a new phase but can other parts of the world copy their model of moving people to factory jobs in cities?

    Today, more than half the world's poorest people live in sub-Saharan Africa. The percentage of the African population living in extreme poverty fell from 54% in 1990, to 41% in 2013. But in that same time period, the population of sub-Saharan Africa boomed meaning the total number of poor people rose from 276m to almost 400m.

    The population of sub-Saharan Africa is predicted to reach 2bn by 2050 and a large percentage of those people are likely to be extremely poor. And unlike Asia, a transformation of this region is unlikely to happen soon. Sub-Saharan Africa is urbanising faster than any other place on earth.

    But moving into the cities is not providing the same ladder out of poverty as it did in Asia. A lack of infrastructure, public transport, and essential services in many African cities prevents poor people from finding jobs and getting an education.

    The rapidly growing population only makes mater worse by putting further strain on resources. Millions of poor people in sub-Saharan Africa live far below the World Bank's threshold of $1.90 per day. That means it will be harder to pull them out of extreme poverty.

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  • Can All The Universes Fit In The Multiverse? - with Sean Carroll

    4:52

    Getting your head around the implications of the many worlds theory can be an almost incomprehensible task.
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    In this short clip from the Q&A following his talk on quantum mechanics, theoretical physicist Sean Carroll explores how we can conceive of the branches of the universe and how they could all fit.

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    Sean M Carroll is a theoretical physicist, specialising in quantum mechanics, gravitation, cosmology, statistical mechanics, and foundations of physics, with occasional dabblings elsewhere. His official titles are Research Professor of Physics at Caltech and Research Professor at the Santa Fe Institute. He lives in Los Angeles with his wife, writer Jennifer Ouellette.

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  • Do We Live In A Multiverse? Featuring Brian Keating

    35:02

    John Michael Godier and Brian Keating discuss the earliest moments of our Universe and whether future findings will lead to the discovery of a multiverse.

    Brian Keating is a professor of physics at the Center for Astrophysics & Space Sciences (CASS) in the Department of Physics at the University of California, San Diego and author of Losing the Nobel Prize: A Story of Cosmology, Ambition, and the Perils of Science's Highest Honor.

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  • Do We Live in a Multiverse?

    58

    Is time an illusion? Do past, present, and future exist simultaneously? Do we live in a multiverse? Do we get to live multiple lives?

    Sources: The Sun Is Also a Star (2019); The Economist: Do We Live in a Multiverse? (

  • Does Life Need a Multiverse to Exist?

    17:24

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    Life exists in our universe. There we go - one hopefully uncontroversial statement. Therefore our universe is capable of producing and supporting life. How am I going? Two for two? Let’s try for three: therefore there are countless universes. Hmmm. Did I break my streak?

    Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
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    Our universe seems to operate according to a set of fundamental rules that we try to understand and model with the equations of our laws of physics. Those equations always include one or more fundamental constants - simple numbers that set the scale for the equation. We can’t determine the values of these constants from pure theory - we have to measure them in the real universe. These are things like the speed of light, the Planck constant, the masses of the elementary particles, and the constants defining the relative strengths of the fundamental forces - the so-called coupling constants.

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  • Do we live in the multiverse?

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  • Are we living in a Multiverse? Alan Guth thinks we might be

    2:31

    Alan Guth won the 2012 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics for his discovery of Cosmic Inflation. He discusses that theory, and how it could imply that our Universe exists among countless more.

  • Hiranya Peiris: How to Test If We Live in a Multiverse

    2:15

    University College London physicist Hiranya Peiris explains the seemingly impossible -- how the multiverse can be experimentally tested.

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    Hiranya Peiris is a cosmologist at University College London. Read more about how we might test for the multiverse: Video by Andrew Testa for Quanta Magazine.

    Quanta Magazine is an editorially independent publication launched by the Simons Foundation.

  • Is There Really An Infinite Multiverse? | Stephen Hawkings Last Paper

    5:20

    Just a few days before he died, Stephen Hawking submitted one last research paper using string theory math to talk about the multiverse.

    Host: Hank Green

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  • Why does anything exist? | The Economist

    6:24

    Matter, antimatter and the Standard Model. Ulrik Egede, a physicist at Imperial College London and a member of CERN's LHCb experiment, on the universe's intriguing asymmetry

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  • Parallel Universes IF We Live in a Multiverse?

    12:49

    Please watch: UFO news 2020 Disclosure time ?
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    Parallel Universes 'IF' We Live in a Multiverse?

    Parallel worlds strange dimensions multiverses are all possible.
    Questioning our own reality is something that we have done a few times here on the channel.
    From asking if our universe is a matrix style simulation to questioning the existence of other realms, ideas on what our universes is and what others are out there along with the different dimensions that could be possible, is a fascinating topic.
    There is science available to support these theories.
    Fields such as String theory and mirror universe, to name a couple.
    But what if ‘today’ we are living in one of these Parallel levels of existence?
    What if CERN has created a new universe?



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  • Physicist Sean Carroll Explains Parallel Universes to Joe Rogan

    21:44

    Taken from JRE #1352 w/Sean Carroll:

  • HIGH SCIENCE: Do We Live In a Multiverse??

    2:45

    Our High Scientist tries to explain how we all live in a giant Multiverse.

    Welcome to High Science– it's like if Bill Nye was really really high. SUBSCRIBE for new videos EVERY MONDAY.

    High Science is a comedy web series where a weekly Scientist guest smokes up and attempts to explain complicated scientific concepts. Done in the style of the crappy VHS videos we were all shown in High School, each episode's Bill Nye-type host attempts to explain concepts like evolution, the infinitely expanding universe, and how airplanes work. It's like Drunk History, except High Science.

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  • The True Science of Parallel Universes | Unveiled

    6:55

    The True Science of Parallel Universes
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    What Happens At The Edge Of The Universe?


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    Is it possible we live in a multiverse?
    What is the Multiverse, and does it even exist? Some scientists believe that we live in a parallel universe that is closely related to our known observable universe. But this isn’t just a wild idea that someone thought up. There is some science behind this idea. And while some physicists disregard the idea that a multiverse exists, there are others who believe that it is possible that we live in a parallel universe.

    This idea that we live in a parallel universe isn’t something that was created in a science fiction movie as some might think. In 1954 a Princeton University grad student by the name of Hugh Everett came up with the idea that quantum effects cause the universe to constantly split. What this means is that everything you do, and each action that you take, creates new universes, each one having a different set of circumstances and outcomes. For example, let’s say that you come to a crossroad where you can go either right or left. The present universe would give rise to two other universes where in one you decided to go left, and in the other you decided to go right.

  • Are We Living in a Multiverse? ...Many Versions of You?

    20:29

    According to recent discoveries in quantum physics, the scientific concept of a multiverse has reached mainstream popularity. The theory says that other universes like AND unlike our own, exist beyond this one, in the vast sea of space … or, that they could even be woven into the dimensionality of our own universe. If these other universes exist, each one could have completely different laws of physics: matter may not even exist, events could flow in reverse order, or they could have life forms so bizarre they are unimaginable to us. On the other hand, other universes could hold worlds identical to ours, with exact duplicates of everything everywhere… including duplicates of you living a story you didn’t choose to live in this lifetime.

    Though it may sound like science fiction, metaphysics, or even religion… the multiverse theory is actually based on pure math and logic, and scientists keep coming back to it, because it offers the best explanation for some of the biggest paradoxes in physics: ETERNAL INFLATION, DARK ENERGY, and STRING THEORY.

    Written & Narrated by E. Firestone


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  • Can Ramaphosa deliver Mandelas dream? | The Economist

    3:26

    Nelson Mandela publicly backed Cyril Ramaphosa as his political successor. Twenty years later Mr Ramaphosa has finally become president. But can he deliver Mandela's dream of a fairer South Africa?
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  • A softer Brexit is a better Brexit | The Economist

    5:20

    Enter the Economist #OpenFuture contest: A minute to change the world. See more here:
    The Brexit vote took place two years ago. But when Britons voted to leave the EU they had no say in what sort of Brexit they wanted. It has become clear that a softer Brexit is better, and Britain need only look to Norway to see why.

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  • Sexism and the English language | The Economist

    3:12

    Sexism is rife in language. A woman may be described as “bossy”, while a man is more likely to be “assertive”. The Economist's language expert Lane Greene explores the gender stereotypes used in everyday speech.

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  • The Economics Behind Music Festivals | The Economist

    1:21

    Music festivals attract 32 million revellers annually around the world. That adds up to an industry worth nearly $10bn a year.

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    From the mud of Glastonbury to the blockbusting headliners of Coachella, music festivals have become big business. Annually there are around 800 music festivals in the US alone.

    It's an industry worth nearly $10bn, attracting 32 million revellers annually, half of whom are millennials. Tickets average £200 per head in the UK, but over the last 10 years music festival ticket prices have risen way above the rate of inflation.

    More than $1.5bn was spent by companies sponsoring festivals in 2014. The live music industry is booming as traditional record sales flounder. Artists can command up to 90% of gross ticket receipts but bag only 10% of the net profit from recorded music. Acts such as The Flaming Lips and Damian Marley can earn up to a reported £90,000 per performance. Whereas bigger names such as Justin Beiber and Madonna can charge up to a cool million.

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  • Does the Multiverse Exist? | Full Debate | Cumrun Vafa, Mary Jane Rubenstein, John Ellis

    10:26

    Watch the debate in full at

    Should we recognise our universe as the only universe and give up on others as fantasy science?

    Talk of other universes has become fashionable amongst physicists and is popular with the public. But the numbers seem hardly credible: string theory predicts 10500 parallel universes and some argue that the very idea of other universes is nonsensical. Should we recognise ours as the only universe and give up on others as fantasy science? Or is slipping through a worm hole into another universe a credible reality rather than a Hollywood fairytale? Harvard String Theorist Cumrun Vafa, Professor of Religion Mary Jane Rubenstein, and CERN theoretical Physicist John Ellis debate the possibility of the multiverse.

    Cumrun Vafa is a string theorist from Harvard University. He is the recipient of the 2008 Dirac Medal and the 2016 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics.

    Mary-Jane Rubenstein is Professor of Religion at Wesleyan University. She is the author of Strange Wonder: The Closure of Metaphysics and the Opening of Awe (2009) Worlds without End: The Many Lives of the Multiverse (2014), and Pantheologies: Gods, Worlds, Monsters (2018).

    John Ellis currently holds the Clerk Maxwell Professorship of Theoretical Physics at King's College in London. He is very active in efforts to understand the Higgs particle discovered recently at CERN, as well as its implications for possible new physics such as dark matter and supersymmetry. John Ellis was awarded the Maxwell Medal (1982) and the Paul Dirac Prize (2005) by the Institute of Physics.

    #multiverse #gravity #iaitv #physics #stringtheory #universe

    Visit IAI.tv for our full library of debates, talks, articles and podcasts from international thought leaders and world-class academics. The Institute of Art and Ideas features videos and articles from cutting edge thinkers discussing the ideas that are shaping the world, from metaphysics to string theory, technology to democracy, aesthetics to genetics.

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  • Are identity politics dangerous? | The Economist

    2:40

    Some fear that politics based on protecting race, religion or other minority groups can threaten the rights of others. How did identity politics emerge and has it gone too far?

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  • Theresa Mays Brexit Monsters, cartooned | The Economist

    2:08

    As the British Prime Minister finally puts forward her contentious draft Brexit plan this week, Kal, our cartoonist, illustrates the potentially monstrous consequences.

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    Ever since I was a little boy I enjoy drawing monsters. I would spend ages assembling fangs, eyes, scales and horns into the creative critters of my imagination.

    This week in my cartoon for the Economist, I was able to put my youthful zeal for beasts to good use. I wanted to create two toothy cartoon abominations to help explain the uncomfortable choices facing Britain in the fast-approaching run-up to brexit next spring.

    The British prime minister Theresa May this week finally put forward a draft brexit plan for the UK. It was a 500-page Colossus that received mixed reviews from her cabinet. It faces even tougher scrutiny in Parliament - which will have to approve it. When the public faces this brexit behemoth they will see a scary creature that will leave damaging tooth marks on many parts of the economy. A worse option for brexit may be looming - a No Deal brexit monster.

    A failure to agree on Mrs Mays deal by March could unleash this fiend with even more ferocious bite. Surely there must be a way to escape these groups you may ask? Well, not according to Mrs May and many of her fellow conservatives - they say a second referendum on Brexit is out of the question.

    Asking the citizens to vote again on this weighty issue would, they claim, unleash even more monstrous consequences. Is the door an escape or a trap? There's only one way to find out. What lies behind the door? We don't know

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  • Are lab-grown diamonds the future? | The Economist

    5:45

    Scientists now have the technology to make synthetic diamonds in a laboratory. They are far cheaper than mined stones, but can they replace the real thing?

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    It's the biggest disrupter the diamond industry has faced. Machines are now growing diamonds in a matter of weeks for two-thirds of the price - but can they replace the magic of a mined stone? Could they cause the $82 billion diamond jewelry industry to lose its sparkle?

    Sophisticated ads have been making the case for diamonds for decades. De Beers, the world's biggest rough diamond producer by value, linked diamonds with romance in the late 1940s and dreamt up the idea of a diamond engagement ring as an essential display of love. So-called queen of diamonds Alisa Moussaieff sells gems to the rich and the Royal the world over, and has done for over half a century. For her there's more to a diamond than its chemical structure.

    While sales of lab-grown diamonds are about 2% of the industry, the market is growing by over 15% a year. They've actually been around for more than 60 years but recently the process and the product have been refined. California-based Diamond Foundry can create a 1 carat diamond in two weeks.

    Though the difference can be detected using specialized equipment in a lab, the US Federal Trade Commission in July 2018, expanded its definition of a diamond to include lab-grown stones - but Mrs. Moussaieff doesn't feel threatened.

    Now buyers can pick up a lab-grown diamond for 1/3 less than a mined stone, and as technology improves, prices will drop further. Big mined stones are valuable because they are rare but diamond mining has been linked to conflict, human rights abuses, and state corruption. Lab-grown diamonds provide an ethically sourced alternative. But until top designers decide to work with lab-grown stones their potential will be limited within the luxury market.

    Lab-grown diamonds need the glamour and romance associated with mined diamonds if they're going to survive. It's a direction the diamond market is already heading. As of January 2019, Tiffany and Co, the biggest jeweler in the world by sales, will disclose the origin of all of its diamonds. It could force a new wave of transparency across the jewelry world - but for the makers of lab-grown diamonds, the jewelry world is only the beginning.

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  • Wildfires explained | The Economist

    2:01

    Wildfires are sweeping through the northern hemishphere as summer temperatures hit record highs. We are losing the battle against climate change. Find out more about The Economist's cover story this week.

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  • Do we live in a Multiverse?

    4:31

    I attempt to answer a very profound question: Do we live in a Multiverse?

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  • Tim Berners-Lee explains what it will take to make the internet more accessible | The Economist

    2:49

    The internet is inaccessible to 60% of the world's population. Tim Berners-Lee, the web's inventor, has decided to change this.

    Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube:

    60% of the world's people are still not connected to the internet. The majority of these are women and people living in poverty. In July 2016, the United Nations resolved that access to the internet should be a basic human right.

    In India, the cost of data relative to per capita income means 78% of the population remains unconnected. The World Wide Web Foundation is attempting to close the digital divide. Assisted by changemakers like Tim Berners Lee, the UN is aiming for universal internet access by 2022.

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  • Richard V. Reeves at The Economists Open Future Festival 2018

    9:02

    The lifeblood of liberalism is respect—and we need more of it. In this riveting talk at The Economist's Open Future Festival in New York in September 2018, Richard V. Reeves, an author and senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, explains how liberal democracies flourish when there is an ethic of reciprocity.

    Reeves is well-placed to see the importance, as a citizen of both Britain and America. In a time of Brexit and Trump, the capacity and willingness to look each other squarely in the eye demonstrates true equality, he explains. In an equal gaze is equal respect.

  • Corals: the largest organism on the planet

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    From providing much of the oxygen we breathe to hosting myriad forms of life, corals are a critical part of our planet's eco-system. But they are dying.

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    The world’s OCEANS cover 70% of our planet, are the frontline in the battle against climate change, and yet are relatively unknown. Dive down to their deepest depths to discover how scientists are using the latest technologies to uncover the vital mysteries that they have hidden.

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