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How COVID Kills Some People But Not Others - Doctor Explaining COVID

  • How COVID Kills Some People But Not Others - Doctor Explaining COVID


    How COVID Kills Some People But Not Others - Doctor Explaining COVID

    Welcome to another video; I’m Doctor Mike Hansen; I am a real doctor specializing in pulmonary medicine, critical care medicine, and internal medicine for those who don't know me.

    Verify my board certification status:

    When I’m not working in the hospital or pulmonary clinic, I’m at home making these videos for you to deliver accurate medical expertise to the best of my ability (especially during this covid pandemic).

    ⏩ Timestamps, click to skip ahead!
    00:00 - Introduction
    00:44 - How COVID Kills Some People (Starting of the explanation)
    17:00 - How do we get COVID Patients with ARDS Better?
    17:55 - Why do some COVID Patients get ARDS, and Why do some Die?
    20:55 - What do we know about COVID?

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    We know this covid is mainly transmitted by respiratory droplets, and through contact, by getting into our mucosa, like our mouth, nose, and eyes. Although less common, it also can be transmitted through aerosol, meaning airborne. Most likely, when you have people in an enclosed space, such as an elevator, someone sneezes or coughs without covering their mouths, and someone else can inhale it in.

    This covid attaches to cells in our body by this ACE2 receptor. This ACE2 receptor is only located on certain cells in our body. It's on our tongue, in our nose, back of the throat, and in our lungs. Specifically, within the lungs, it's only located on our type II alveolar cells.

    We know that ARDS develops in about 4 to 5% of COVID patients. And of all the people who get covid, the mortality rate is around 1 to 2% or max 3%. So why do some COVID patients get ARDS, and why do some die? There are different reasons, and let's talk about them. It could be one of these reasons, but more likely, it’s a combination of these reasons.

    1. The covid only gains entry into our cells that express the ACE2 receptor. They are located on multiple sites. Besides being in the lung, they’re in your mouth, nose, throat, stomach, small intestine, colon, skin, lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, spleen, liver, kidney, brain, and testes.

    2. It makes sense that if the virus only gets into your mouth, nose, or throat, but not the lungs, it would cause only cold-like symptoms. But if the covid gets all the way down into the alveoli of your lungs, that’s what's going to cause ARDS. And by the way, the ACE2 receptors in your gut probably explain why some patients get nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

    3. The amount of virus that you get into your body likely determines how sick you get. This is what we call the viral load.

    4. The inflammatory reaction with COVID is extremely complicated, with many different proteins and hormones, and interleukins at play. But there are several known genetic polymorphisms of these proteins that likely make some people more prone to getting worse illnesses than others. A genetic polymorphism simply means a variation on a particular gene. For example, there are genetic polymorphisms for the ACE gene, as well as IL-6. So, basically, a lot of it just comes down to our genes.

    5. Because the 5th reason has to do with estrogen. Estrogen is known to inhibit the effects of IL-6, which plays a huge role in this cytokine storm. This might explain why women overall have the less severe disease compared to men.

    6. The 6th reason is that people already taking certain medications for those on an ACEI such as lisinopril or an ARB like losartan, telmisartan, or candesartan, or irbesartan. Or people who take hydroxychloroquine for lupus or rheumatoid disease. Or people who take tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor inhibitor. Are these COVID patients less prone to getting severe illnesses? My guess is yes.

    Doctor Mike Hansen, MD
    Internal Medicine | Pulmonary Disease | Critical Care Medicine
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  • Why Are Some People Dying From Coronavirus and Others Arent?


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    - Why Are Some People Dying From Coronavirus and Others Aren't?

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  • How Coronavirus Kills: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome & COVID 19 Treatment


    How COVID-19 causes fatalities from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by pulmonologist and critical care specialist Dr. Seheult of
    This video illustrates how viruses such as the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 can cause pneumonia or widespread lung inflammation resulting in ARDS.
    Includes evidenced-based ARDS treatment breakthrough strategies: Low tidal volume ventilation, paralysis, and prone positioning.

    Note: this video was recorded on January 28, 2020, with the best information available. Acute respiratory distress is, of course, not the ONLY way COVID 19 causes fatalities (other causes include heart failure, thrombosis (stroke), etc.)


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    Topics from our COVID-19 pandemic series include: coronavirus spread, How Hospitals & Clinics Can Prepare for COVID-19, The ACE-2 Receptor - The Doorway to COVID-19 (ACE Inhibitors & ARBs), Flatten The COVID-19 Curve, Social Distancing, New Outbreaks & Travel Restrictions, Possible COVID-19 Treatments, Italy Lockdown, Global Testing Remains Limited, Coronavirus Epidemic Update 32: Data from South Korea, Can Zinc Help Prevent corona virus? Mortality Rate, Cleaning Products, A More/Less Severe Virus Strain? More Global COVID-19 Outbreaks, Vitamin D May Aid Prevention, Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), Rapid antigen tests, mutations, COVID-19 in Iran & more. has medical education topics explained clearly including: Respiratory lectures such as Asthma and COPD. Renal lectures on Acute Renal Failure, Urinalysis, and The Adrenal Gland. Internal medicine videos on Oxygen Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve / Oxyhemoglobin Curve and Medical Acid Base. A growing library on critical care topics such as Shock, Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), aortic stenosis, and Mechanical Ventilation. Cardiology videos on Hypertension, ECG / EKG Interpretation, and heart failure. VQ Mismatch and Hyponatremia lectures have been popular among medical students and physicians. The Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) videos, how coronavirus causes morbidity and mortality, and Ventilator-associated pneumonia lectures have been particularly popular with RTs. NPs and PAs have provided great feedback on Pneumonia Treatment and Liver Function Tests among many others. Mechanical ventilation for nursing and the emergency & critical care RN course is available at Dr. Jacquet teaches our EFAST exam tutorial, lung sonography & bedside ultrasound courses. Many nursing students have found the Asthma and shock lectures very helpful. We're starting a new course series on clinical ultrasound & ultrasound medical imaging in addition to other radiology lectures.

    Recommended Audience - Clinicians and medical students including physicians (MD and DO), nurse practitioners (NPs) , physician assistants (PAs), nurses (RNs), respiratory therapists (RTs), EMT and paramedics, and other clinicians. Review and test prep for USMLE, MCAT, PANCE, NCLEX, NAPLEX, NBDE, RN, RT, MD, DO, PA, NP school and board examinations. Continuing Medical Education (CME), MOC Points, CEU / CEs for medical professionals.

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    #coronavirus #COVID19 #ARDS

  • How Doctors Can Predict Who Dies From COVID


    How doctors can predict which patients are more likely to die of COVID

    Several studies have come out about the COVID prognosis. As a result, we now have a powerful way to predict which patients with COVID pneumonia are more likely to die and require longer stays in the hospital.

    We already know that less than 15% of people who get COVID have a severe disease to the point of requiring hospitalization. Less than 5% of people who get covid require ICU. For those with COVID pneumonia who require ICU, and for some of the other patients in the hospital who might not necessarily need ICU, these are the patients who have the cytokine storm that we keep hearing about, meaning the immune system is going haywire. There is a ton of inflammation taking place in the body….especially the lungs. But now, we have a more specific way of predicting who is more likely to develop cytokine storm, and therefore more likely to die, and who is more likely to require a longer stay in the hospital….and it's based on the bloodwork we get when patients are hospitalized.

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    When we get bloodwork, we do various lab tests. It is most commonly a complete blood count, CBC, and a complete metabolic panel or CMP. We often check other things like troponin, d-dimer, LDH, ferritin, and CRP. A complete blood count is specifically looking at 3 things: hemoglobin levels, platelets, and white blood cells. We can use the total number and the breakdown of the percentages of the types of white blood cells, meaning what percentage are neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Lymphocytes generally make up about 15-45% of WBC. This is very important as it pertains to COVID, and you’ll see why in a little bit.

    The CMP stands for the complete metabolic pan looking at sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose calcium, bilirubin, albumin, and liver enzymes like AST ALT alkaline phosphatase. Some of these also have important implications when it comes to COVID disease severity. Because In the recent study done at Temple University, they analyzed over 500 hospitalized COVID patients, all of which had inflammation in their lungs seen on a CT scan of the chest (show). They determined the criteria for COVID cytokine storm. For patients who met these criteria, their length of stay in the hospital was 15 days, compared to 6 days if they did not meet the criteria.

    Mortality was 28.8% in the group that met the criteria, vs. 6.6% in those who did not. So if they met cytokine storm criteria, their likelihood of dying was 4 times higher. And how accurate was this prediction model? Pretty accurate, as this study had a specificity of 79% and a sensitivity of 85%, which is a lot of predictive power. Most of the patients who met the criteria for CS did so at the time of admission or shortly after. This suggests an early and rapid progression in these patients and that there is a low likelihood of developing cytokine storms after 10 days of hospitalization.

    So based on these specific lab parameters, this is how doctors can predict which patients are more likely to die of COVID. I find that this study correlates with what I’ve seen in my personal experience with hospitalized covid patients. And yes, the man whose CT scan I showed you earlier in this video met all of these criteria for cytokine storm, and he did so as soon as 24 hours of being admitted to the hospital.

    Doctor Mike Hansen, MD
    Internal Medicine | Pulmonary Disease | Critical Care Medicine
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  • How Does Coronavirus Actually Kill People? Mild, Severe and Critical COVID Explained - TLDR News


    At the time of writing the Coronavirus has taken 165,636 lives globally and the death toll is rapidly increasing. So in this video, we wanted to explain what happens to a COVID patient. How symptoms progress from mild to severe and then to critical.

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    TLDR is all about getting you up to date with the news of today, without bias and without filter. We want to give you the information you need, so you can make your own decision.

    TLDR is a super small company, run by a few people with the help of some amazing volunteers. We are primarily fan sourced with most of our funding coming from donations and ad revenue. No shady corporations, no one telling us what to say. We can't wait to grow further and help more people get informed. Help support us by subscribing, following and backing on Patreon. Thanks!

  • How Coronavirus Attacks the Body | NYT News


    It doesn’t take long for mild coronavirus symptoms to turn serious. These virtual reality images show how the virus can invade the lungs and kill.

    More from The New York Times Video:
    Whether it's reporting on conflicts abroad and political divisions at home, or covering the latest style trends and scientific developments, New York Times video journalists provide a revealing and unforgettable view of the world. It's all the news that's fit to watch.

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  • Omicron Variant – NEW COVID Variant Worse Than Delta?


    Omicron Variant – NEW COVID Variant Worse Than Delta?

    The Omicron variant just might be the scariest version of COVID yet. The WHO just announced that this SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, B.1.1.529, has been elevated to a variant of concern.

    The 3 things about Omicron that make it SUPER concerning:
    1. The specific mutations on the spike protein
    2. The number of mutations in this virus
    3. The fact that this FASTEST spreading COVID Variant

    The Covid Omicron variant emerged in South Africa. It was first discovered by scientists a few days ago. It has over 30 mutations on the spike protein that raise concerns that it might be more contagious, possibly cause more severe infection, and might evade our vaccines. This is not known for sure, but there is a HIGH level of concern, mainly because of how FAST this virus is spreading there.

    The question is, will our vaccines still be effective against the Omicron variant?
    That was the concern when Delta came out, and thankfully, our vaccines remain effective against Delta. But Delta doesn't have the same number of mutations as Omicron, and the big FEAR this virus evading our immune system might come true.

    I mean, we've had new variants emerge. We have seen many variants pop up over the last 8 months, and most of them, for example, Lamda, have not amounted to much. I mean, you hear about these new variants emerging all the time. They're expected. And they're detected because scientists are constantly running surveillance on COVID. But here we are with the new one, Omicron. It has a certain level of concern, not just because it has MORE mutations in its spike protein, over 30 mutations, but also because some of those mutations are the SAME mutations as the other 4 variants of concern. But we won't really know if this variant will escape our vaccines until probably a few weeks from now because it takes time to do these studies.

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    Keep in mind that whenever there is a new virus, just like in Wuhan, by the time you actually identify, you are already a few weeks behind it, which means it's already spread, most likely throughout the world.

    When you look at one of these mutations on the spike protein, any given mutation can clue you in as far as its ability to potentially evade the immune system's antibodies. So what you do is duplicate that new spike protein, mix it with the different antibodies, and hope that the antibodies stick to that spike protein. If it's not sticking, that means you have a problem. So this is what SCIENTISTS are going to be looking at ASAP. I would expect these test results to become public in the next couple of weeks.

    Is it possible that the Omicron Variant is in the US?
    As of right now, there are no confirmed cases here. But it's only a matter of time. We do know that it went to Botswana and made its way to Hong Kong and Belgium. So it may be in the US, but as of the making of this video, there are no confirmed cases, which speaks to just how fresh this new variant is. A specimen from the first known case in South Africa was collected on November 9 and spread quickly there.

    To test for it, you have to first get the exact molecular blueprint of the new strain, so US scientists are collaborating with South African scientists to make this happen, which is my guess will take a few days. So scientists will have some preliminary data in a few days to know if it will escape vaccines.

    But I have to say, I do not have a good feeling about Omicron.
    The specific mutations, the number of mutations, and how QUICKLY it became dominant in South Africa. Meaning how fast a specific strain spreads in a certain area. We're talking days to weeks as opposed to Delta, which took months. WHO officials also said in their statement Friday preliminary evidence suggests Omicron also poses a higher risk of reinfection than other variants of concern.

    And when scientists see this, it's no wonder why world leaders react quickly to this by announcing new travel restrictions. How effective those travel restrictions are, is another conversation. Regardless, President Biden said he will restrict travel from South Africa and seven other nations starting Monday.

    You already have vaccine makers getting ready too. Even testing Omicron-specific boosters.

    Doctor Mike Hansen, MD
    Internal Medicine | Pulmonary Disease | Critical Care Medicine
    Contact and Social Media Links:

    #covid #omicron #covidvariant

  • Coronavirus rampant: How deadly is Delta? | To The Point


    As rates of Covid cases spiral upward and new warnings resound, people in may parts of the world find themselves wondering if the summer respite we’d hoped for could come to an abrupt end. All thanks to a new and especially adaptable strain. First identified in India, it's known as the delta variant and is significantly more contagious than previously thought. After completely overwhelming the Indian health care system and causing mass suffering and death, the variant has spread to more than 80 countries. Vaccines should stop it from spreading, but it's a race against time. With many countries already returning to normalcy, reimposing rules could be hard. Corona mutations - How deadly is delta?


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    #Coronavirus #Covid19 #DeltaVariant

  • Woman Dies 4 days after getting COVID Vaccine | Post Vaccine Deaths


    Woman Dies 4 days after getting COVID Vaccine | Post Vaccine Deaths

    Kassidi Kurill, a 39-year-old Single Mom. Her family describes her as healthy, happy, and “having more energy” than most. She had no known health problems. Unless you count Trigeminal Neuralgia. She took Botox for that. She also took Birth Control. She worked as a surgical tech for local plastic surgeons. She gets the Moderna Covid vaccine. Her first covid shot goes without incident. Other than a sore arm. Second dose of covid vaccine Moderna - not so much. She gets her 2nd Covid shot on Feb. 1st, which is a Monday. Later that evening, she has a sore arm, nausea, and fever. That’s not unheard of after someone gets the covid vaccine. Some people get a sore arm, fatigue, body aches, slight fever, and chills. Especially after the second covid shot. Especially for younger people. When this happens, people can take Tylenol or ibuprofen.

    This is her GoFundMe page:


    No big deal, right? Unless they take too much.
    She did take Tylenol, aka Acetaminophen, but we don’t know how much. She felt a little better the next day. By Wednesday, she was not able to pee despite drinking lots of fluids. She says it's the worst she ever felt. Thursday, 6 am, she tells her parents she needs to go to the hospital. In the ER, she immediately starts throwing up. Doctors say, “she was very, very sick, and her liver was not functioning. Blood tests show that her liver is not working. The doctors give her IV fluids. They also give her a drug to counteract the effects of Tylenol on the liver. It's called NAC, or n-acetylcysteine. But the damage was already done. Around this time, she becomes incoherent. This is because acute liver failure causes the brain to swell, called cerebral edema. If severe enough, it can result in a coma. At this point, her only chance of survival is with a liver transplant.

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    So she was flown to a transplant hospital. But when the liver completely fails, it causes other organs to follow suit. Especially the kidneys and brain, and soon after heart and lungs. She’s put on full life support, including a breathing tube. Even if there was a match for a new liver, she is too unstable to undergo that operation. She dies. About 30 hours after she first arrived at the ER. She leaves behind a young daughter who wants people to hear her story.

    A lot of people will conclude that the covid vaccine caused her death.
    But timing by itself does not prove causation.
    And a lot of people want to know, did the covid vaccine cause her death?
    And if not, then what?
    A Utah medical examiner completed a full autopsy...but the results remain private. The Medical Examiner said the autopsy did not show a link between the covid vaccine and death.

    Which is hardly surprising. If a covid vaccine caused someone to die shortly after receiving it, how would it do so? The only medical explanation would be an immunological reaction. Meaning an allergic reaction. So far in the US, there have been over 200 million covid vaccine doses given. No one has died from a severe allergic reaction as a result of the COVID vaccine.

    And in her case, it's obvious that she did not have an allergic reaction. For example, there was no swelling in the face or tongue or tightening of the throat. Deaths after COVID vaccinations are reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System.

    Between Dec. 14 and mid-March, there have been over 109 million covid vaccine doses in the US.
    Of those, there have been less than 2,000 reports of death on the VAERS system, which is 0.0018%. A reported death in the VAERS system doesn’t mean the covid vaccine caused it.

    So the big question in Kassidi Kurill’s case is…what caused her acute liver failure?
    In the US, acetaminophen accounts for 40% of cases.
    In 18% of cases, there is no identifiable cause. However, 13% are due to idiosyncratic drug reactions.
    The general recommended dose for acetaminophen in healthy people is no more than 4 grams per day. However, sometimes people end up taking more than they should. This accounts for almost half of the cases of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure.

    Doctor Mike Hansen, MD
    Internal Medicine | Pulmonary Disease | Critical Care Medicine
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    #covidvaccine #vaccine #covid

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  • HOW DOES CORONAVIRUS KILL YOU? | How Does COVID-19 Affect the Body? | Doctor ER


    How does COVID-19 affect your body? How can the coronavirus kill you? Why are social distancing and self-quarantining so important? Why we need to flatten the curve and other coronavirus symptoms explained!

    As 75 million Americans are ordered to stay at home and while other countries are on social lockdown, some people are adhering to the social distancing rules while others are not taking orders so seriously. So why do we as a society need to social distance to flatten the curve? What does that mean? And how does the coronavirus affect people’s bodies? How does the coronavirus kill people? What does it do to their body? As an ER doctor who is literally on the frontline of treating people every day, I am going to give you the facts and answers to all of the most googled coronavirus symptoms, and questions, and why fighting the virus depends on you! If you have any medical questions, COVID-19 questions, or even a funny quarantine vlog, send it my way! Thanks so much for watching. Stay healthy, my friends!


    @CNN - 75 million Americans ordered to stay home

    @DW News - Coronavirus death toll in UK rising faster than in Italy | DW News

    @AsapSCIENCE - The Coronavirus Vaccine Explained | COVID-19

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    Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) | CDC

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    Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) |

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    Government Response to Coronavirus, COVID-19 | USAGov

    ** WARNING** If you feel like you are actually experiencing a real-life medical emergency, immediately stop watching and call 9-11 or contact a medical professional. The information in this video is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images, and information, contained in this video is for general information purposes only and does not replace an appointment with your own personal doctor/mental health professional!

  • Covid: US doctors video simulates what dying patient sees - BBC News


    A doctor in Missouri has made a video simulating what a patient dying from Covid-19 might see - in a bid to urge people to wear face masks.

    Dr Kenneth Remy told the BBC that wearing a mask is not as uncomfortable as having a piece of plastic put into your airway.

    He said he felt compelled to create the video after noticing the impact of a patient's death on his team.

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  • Coronavirus complications | DW Documentary


    A growing number of people who recover from COVID-19 are experiencing long-term health problems. This includes younger patients without pre-existing conditions who had only mild symptoms with the virus. How are doctors and patients responding?

    The COVID-19 disease is triggered by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and can affect multiple organs. The symptoms of the initial illness are now well known. But what about the long-term effects of coronavirus? Not everyone who gets COVID-19 makes a full recovery afterwards. A growing number of people are experiencing reduced physical and abilities and cognitive symptoms. One such patient is 31-year old junior doctor Maria. Five months after falling sick, she is still unable to work normally.

    In October, Germany’s University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein launched the largest study to date on the long-term effects of coronavirus. Teams of doctors specialized in various fields of medicine are planning to examine several thousand former COVID-19 patients who have officially recovered from the virus. They’re looking in particular at the lungs, heart, kidneys and liver, as well as the nervous system and metabolism. Christopher Bley from Berlin would welcome the opportunity to be included in a study like that. The 35-year-old feels he isn’t getting the support he needs from doctors. Ever since the father of two contracted the virus, he has been battling shortness of breath. For a long time, he hoped he would heal naturally, but the problem persists.
    Writer Nina Marewski from Frankfurt feels similarly let down by doctors. She says they either ignore her or don’t take her seriously. She has been writing about her experience with coronavirus online, and is giving a voice to other post-COVID long haulers. This documentary accompanies three people who are struggling with the aftereffects of the virus. What do the health problems mean for them and how do they deal with the uncertainty about whether they will ever make a full recovery?


    DW Documentary gives you knowledge beyond the headlines. Watch top documentaries from German broadcasters and international production companies. Meet intriguing people, travel to distant lands, get a look behind the complexities of daily life and build a deeper understanding of current affairs and global events. Subscribe and explore the world around you with DW Documentary.

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  • A doctor discusses COVID vaccine myths and misconceptions


    I talk about 15 common myths and misconceptions about the COVID vaccines that I've frequently heard from my YouTube viewers.

    *For viewers who want to learn more:*

    12 antivaxxers are responsible for the majority of online vaccine misinformation:

    More on the Illusionary Truth Effect:

    FDA Statement on Emergency Use Authorizations:

    History of Emergency Use Authorization:

    Supreme Court Decision (Bruesewitz v. Wyeth, majority opinion written by the late Justice Scalia) cementing the legality of the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act which protects vaccine manufacturers from being sued by individuals claiming vaccine injury:

    Discussion of how the vaccines were developed so quickly (though most, if not all, layperson descriptions leave out the point about the high frequency of outcome of interest in the COVID trial - allowing for a relatively short phase III trial):

    Evidence that mRNA vaccines prevent asymptomatic infections:

    More evidence that mRNA vaccines prevent asymptomatic infections:

    Evidence of decreased transmission from vaccinated individuals to household contacts in England:

    Evidence of decreased viral load in vaccinated individuals who do become infected (viral load is well established as a marker for infectivity):

    More evidence of decreased viral load in vaccinated individuals:

    Joint statement from professional societies on how the COVID vaccines do not cause infertility:

    Master list of which vaccines do and do not use fetal cell lines in their production:

    As of April 27, the CDC has not detected patterns in cause of death that would indicate a safety problem with COVID-19 vaccines:

    Debunking of the claim that the COVID vaccines have killed thousands:

    Explanation from Forbes on why the mRNA vaccines cannot change your DNA:

    #COVID #COVIDVaccine #vaccinations

  • Gibraltar and Europe



    Population, 33,691

    Has administered at least 94,469 vaccine doses

    Enough to have fully vaccinated 140.2% of the country’s population.

    Face masks required in all shops and supermarkets, public transport, in medical centres, indoor funerals, Airport.


    World Health Organization

    Europe remains “in the firm grip”

    Death toll could top 2.2 million this winter

    Another 700,000 deaths by March 1

    high or extreme stress in intensive care units (ICUs) in 49 out of 53 countries between now and March 1, 2022

    Director for WHO Europe, Hans Kluge

    face a challenging winter ahead

    vaccine plus

    Face masks reduce COVID incidence
    by 53 %

    Over 160,000 deaths could be prevented (by March 1) if universal mask coverage of 95%

    Pascal Soriot, the chief executive of AstraZeneca

    UK not seeing so many hospitalisations relative to Europe despite a high number of cases.

    Long term T cell immunity after antibodies wane

    Looks like, AstraZeneca initially gives higher levels of T-cells

    France, Germany, Spain, Belgium – restricted AZ to the under 65s

    UK may have high T cells from natural infection and cross immunity from other coronavirus infections

    Government source

    European leaders had all these unfounded concerns about AstraZeneca and its use in older people

    If you look at the data, you can see us using it early has been incredibly helpful in terms of protecting older and vulnerable people from this disease for longer

    Dr Peter English

    People whose immune systems have produced a strong T-cell response but a weaker antibody response might be more likely to be infected in the first place

    but more likely to be able to fight the infection, and they will be much less likely to develop severe disease

    It is plausible that this generated an excellent T-cell response, which means that while people can still be infected and infectious, they are unlikely to be seriously unwell

    Prof Matthew Snape, Oxford University

    The best T-cell responses seem to come if you give a first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine followed by Pfizer

    Prof Dame Sarah Gilbert

    Third jabs may be unnecessary



    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Director Rochelle Walensky

    Seven-day average

    Cases up 18%

    Hospital admissions up 6%

    135 million people eligible for boosters

    Heading into the winter months, when respiratory viruses are more likely to spread,

    and with plans for increased holiday season travel and gatherings,

    boosting people’s overall protection against covid-19 disease and death was important to do now

    In the fully vaccinated

    Infections happen in only a small proportion of people who are fully vaccinated, even with the Delta variant.

    When these infections occur among vaccinated people, they tend to be mild

    If you are fully vaccinated and become infected with the Delta variant, you can spread the virus to others

    Dr Anthony Fauci, Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

    Next spring

    Pfizer trial ongoing

    6 months to 5 years

    Moderna and Johnson & Johnson, have pediatric vaccine trials planned

    Emergency use authorization to the Food and Drug Administration


    Health Canada

    Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty, in children 5 to 11 years

    (12 to 15s, May 5, 2021)

    the Department has determined that the benefits of this vaccine for children between 5 and 11 years of age outweigh the risks

    Two-dose regimen, 10 micrograms

    Three weeks apart

    Immune response in children 5 to 11 years, comparable to 16 to 25

    The vaccine was 90.7% effective at preventing COVID-19 in children 5 to 11 years of age

    and no serious side effects were identified

    Ongoing studies and real-world data

    to ensure that the benefits of the vaccine continue to outweigh any risks, as well as to detect any potential new safety signals in any age group

  • Ventilator for COVID - Do Ventilators Save COVID Patients Lives?


    Ventilator for COVID - Do Ventilators Save COVID Patients Lives?

    Ventilators are not a cure but instead are a form of life support.
    Most COVID Patients, who need a breathing tube, meaning mechanical ventilation, do not live. Based on a recent study, only 14% live. To understand why this is, let’s look at what intubation and mechanical ventilation really mean, and we also have to understand what COVID does to the lungs.

    When we intubate someone, meaning put a breathing tube down into their upper airway, and have that person on a ventilator, meaning mechanical ventilation, there are only 4 main reasons we do that. So it’s sometimes one, two, three, or all 4 of these reasons.

    1. Indications for Intubation (at least one of the following)
    a. Hypoxia
    b. Hypercapnia
    c. Increased WOB
    d. Reduced level of consciousness

    2. COVID patients who are intubated (mortality rate)
    a. COVID patients die because it triggers a chaotic inflammatory response within the lungs
    b. ARDS
    i. Causes (EVALI, Trauma, Pneumonia, Aspiration, Sepsis, blood transfusions)
    ii. Diagnosis
    1. Low paO2 to FiO2 ratio
    2. Bilateral infiltrates on CXR or CT scan (GGO)

    3. Non-cardiogenic
    iii. keys to managing ARDS patients
    1. LTVV and PEEP
    2. What is PEEP?
    3. Risk of PEEP
    4. Prone positioning
    5. Steroids
    6. Paralysis
    7. Different mechanical ventilation strategies
    c. the average length of mech ventilation: 17 days
    d. the mortality rate for those who required intubation: 86% (based on a study done a few weeks ago in the Lancet)

    3. Course for intubated patients
    a. Get better, extubate
    b. Don’t get better, trach
    c. Don’t get better, extubate, and die in peace/comfort
    d. Get worse and die with a breathing tube in, connected to the ventilator

    4. ECMO
    a. What is ECMO?
    b. 30% risk of bleeding
    c. 5% risk of thromboembolism
    d. Only 250 centers
    , e. Not accepting transfers

    5. DNI/DNR
    a. The patient and/or family decide on wishes
    b. DNI
    c. DNR
    d. CPR for COVID patients?
    e. Teams determining code status based on SOFA scores

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    #covid #ventilator

  • Doctor warns of risk in using ventilators to treat COVID-19


    As the number of coronavirus cases continues to climb across the country, how the disease gets treated is evolving.



    Coronaviruses (CoV) are a family of viruses that cause sicknesses like the common cold, as well as more severe diseases, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain – one that hasn’t previously been recognized in humans.
    Coronaviruses cause diseases in mammals and birds. A zoonotic virus is one that is transmitted between animals and people. When a virus circulating in animal populations infects people, this is termed a “spillover event”.
    How does CoVID-19 affect the body? The virus is fitted with protein spikes sticking out of the envelope that forms the surface and houses a core of genetic material. Any virus that enters your body looks for cells with compatible receptors – ones that allow it to invade the cell. Once they find the right cell, they enter and use the cell’s replication machinery to create copies of themselves. It is likely that COVID-19 uses the same receptor as SARS – found in both lungs and small intestines.
    It is thought that CoVID-19 shares many similarities with SARS, which has three phases of attack: viral replication, hyper-reactivity of the immune system, and finally pulmonary destruction. Early on in infection, the coronavirus invades two types of cells in the lungs – mucus and cilia cells. Mucus keeps your lungs from drying out and protects them from pathogens. Cilia beat the mucus towards the exterior of your body, clearing debris – including viruses! – out of your lungs. Cilia cells were the preferred hosts of SARS-CoV, and are likely the preferred hosts of the new coronavirus. When these cells die, they slough off into your airways, filling them with debris and fluid. Symptoms include a fever, cough, and breathing difficulties. Many of those infected get pneumonia in both their lungs.
    Enter the immune system. Immune cells recognize the virus and flood into the lungs. The lung tissue becomes inflamed. During normal immune function, the inflammatory process is highly regulated and is confined to infected areas. However, sometimes the immune system overreacts, and this results in damage to healthy tissue. More cells die and slough off into the lungs, further clogging them and worsening the pneumonia.
    As damage to the lungs increases, stage three begins, potentially resulting in respiratory failure. Patients that reach this stage of infection can incur permanent lung damage or even die. We see the same lesions in the lungs of those infected by the novel coronavirus as those with SARS. SARS creates holes in the lungs, so they look honeycomb-like. This is probably due to the aforementioned over-reactive immune response, which affects tissue both infected and healthy and creates scars that stiffen the lungs. As such, some patients may require ventilators to aid breathing.
    The inflammation also results in more permeable alveoli. This is the location of the thin interface of gas exchange, where your lungs replace carbon dioxide in your blood with fresh oxygen you just inhaled. Increased permeability causes fluid to leak into the lungs. This decreases the lungs’ ability to oxygenate blood, and in severe cases, floods them so that you become unable to breathe. Sometimes, this can be fatal.
    The immune system’s over-reaction can also cause another kind of damage. Proteins called cytokines are the immune system’s alarm system, recruiting immune cells to the infection site. Over-production of cytokines can result in a cytokine storm, where there is large-scale inflammation in the body. Blood vessels become more permeable and fluid seeps out. This makes it difficult for blood and oxygen to reach the rest of the body and can result in multi-organ failure. This has happened in the most severe cases of CoVid-19. Although there are no specific treatments for coronaviruses, symptoms can be treated through supportive care. Also, vaccines are currently in development.
    What can you do to protect yourself from CoVid-19? Basic protocol comes down to regular hand washing, avoiding close contact with anyone coughing or sneezing, avoiding unnecessary contact with animals, washing hands after contact with animals, thoroughly cooking meat and eggs prior to consumption, and covering your mouth and nose while coughing or sneezing. Respiratory viruses are typically transmitted via droplets in sneezes or coughs of those infected, so preventing their travel stops the spread of disease.

    Alveoli model from:

  • COVID Vaccine Myths, Questions, and Rumors with Rhonda Patrick and Roger Seheult


    Dr. Patrick joins MedCram to discuss COVID 19 vaccines, spike protein, ivermectin, VAERS, breakthrough Infections, antibody dependent enhancement, fertility, delta variant, myocarditis, fluvoxamine, optimizing immunity, and more.

    Dr. Rhonda Patrick is a cell biologist with a Ph.D. in biomedical science from the University of Tennessee Health Science Center and St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. Dr. Patrick is the Co-Founder of Subscribe to Dr. Patrick's YouTube channel here:

    Roger Seheult, MD is the co-founder and lead professor at
    He is an Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine and Assistant Professor at Loma Linda University School of Medicine.
    Dr. Seheult is Quadruple Board Certified: Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine.

    Interviewer: Kyle Allred, Physician Assistant, Producer, and Co-Founder of

    This conversation was recorded September 9, 2021

    Topics covered:
    00:00:00 - Introducing Dr. Rhonda Patrick and Dr. Seheult
    00:01:20 - Should young and healthy get vaccinated?
    00:06:47 - Risk of myocarditis
    00:10:40 - Long-haul COVID
    00:19:58 - Is spike protein from vaccines dangerous?
    00:35:39 - COVID-19 Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)
    01:01:17 - Antibody dependent enhancement?
    01:09:16 - Do COVID vaccines damage fertility?
    01:14:13 - Will mRNA vaccines alter DNA?
    01:22:32 - Are alternatives like ivermectin as effective as the vaccine?
    01:42:02 - Do vaccines prevent Delta transmission?
    01:56:04 - Will the virus become more deadly due to vaccines?
    02:05:07 - T-cell immunity
    02:08:34 - Long term side effects / were vaccines rushed?


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    #COVID19 #Deltavariant #Coronavirus

  • COVID 19 Update Update 106: Comorbidities and Excess Deaths; Bradykinin and Coronavirus


    Excess deaths are deaths above what is historically expected during a period of time. Dr. Seheult of explains how excess deaths are a key tool in understanding the impact of an epidemic - whether it is caused by influenza, COVID 19, or another virus - and helps dispel ideas of inaccurate death certificates by going through the steps of filling a death certificate out.

    An interesting hypothesis has emerged (that was initially formulated on a supercomputer) about the possible role of bradykinin in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. The researchers surmise that bradykinin storm may have a greater impact than a cytokine storm as others have suggested (This video was recorded September 3, 2020).


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    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 105: FDA Authorized Treatments; COVID 19 Vaccine Update
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 104: COVID 19 Reinfection & Immunity
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 103: Convalescent Plasma Treatment & the FDA; College Campuses Close
    - At Home, Cheap, COVID-19 Tests with Results in 15 Minutes: How to Fix Testing with Dr. Michael Mina
    -Coronavirus Pandemic Update 102: COVID 19 vs. Influenza Symptoms; Sweden; Tocilizumab; Hawaii
    - COVID-19 Pandemic Update 101: T Cell Immunity vs. Antibodies & Prior Exposure to Other Coronaviruses
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 100: Interferon Beta COVID-19 Treatment, and a Retrospective
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 99: Long Haulers - Lingering & Long-Term Symptoms After COVID-19
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 98: At Home COVID-19 Testing - A Possible Breakthrough
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 97: Vitamin D & COVID-19 Immunity, The Endothelium, & Deficiencies
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 96: RNA Vaccine; Ivermectin; von Willebrand Factor and COVID-19
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 95: Widespread Clotting on Autopsy; New COVID-19 Prognostic Data
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 94: Inhaled Steroids COVID-19 Treatment; New Pneumonia in Kazakhstan?

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    Roger Seheult, MD
    Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine.
    Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine

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    Video Produced by Kyle Allred



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    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2 #MedCram

  • The Mystery of COVID TONGUE Explained


    What is the COVID tongue?
    COVID seems to be causing some people to have an extremely large tongue, called macroglossia.

    Macroglossia is relatively rare but not unheard of. Certain chronic conditions can cause it, like amyloidosis. But it can also be caused by different types of angioedema. Angioedema is an area of swelling (edema) of the lower layer of skin and tissue under the skin or mucous membranes.

    Mentioned Video:
    How COVID Kills Some People But Not Others:

    There is something called hereditary angioedema that occurs at a younger age. Then there’s something called acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency, usually at an older age. And there is also the well-known ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema. ACE inhibitor medications are most commonly given for patients with high blood pressure.

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    Over the last year or so, there has been a cluster of these macroglossia cases in Texas. Dr. James Melville has seen 9 of these cases in that timeframe because he gets these patients referred to him to surgically reduce the size of their tongue. I don’t know all the details in these cases, but based on the media report, this is what we know:
    In all 9 cases, they were intubated. In 2 cases, they suffered strokes. In the other 7, they were hospitalized with COVID.

    Understanding what is going on here helps to better understand a known medical condition called ACEi-induced angioedema. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are the leading cause of drug-induced angioedema in the United States because they are widely prescribed. Examples of these meds include lisinopril, captopril, ramipril, enalapril, and the like. So basically, if it ends in “pril,” it's an ACE inhibitor.

    When angioedema occurs due to these medications, it most commonly causes swelling of the lips, tongue, or face. Hives, meaning urticaria, are notably absent. ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema occurs in 0.1 to 0.7% of those who receive these medications and is five times more likely to occur in African descent.

    The swelling usually develops over minutes to hours, peaks, and then resolves over 24 to 72 hours, although complete resolution may take days in some cases. Swelling occurs due to elevated levels of bradykinin, a substance called des-Arg9-BK, and a substance called substance P. These substances cause the blood vessels to dilate, leading to swelling. When the body doesn’t break these down quick enough, you get the swelling.

    When someone is taking an ACEI, the risk of this happening is slightly higher. So is it possible that these patients were given an ACEI? Yes, it's possible. Especially the ones who had strokes, because usually stroke patients have elevated blood pressures. But it's also possible that this was covid related.

    For the two people who were not covid cases, maybe they had covid, and they didn’t know it. Maybe they had a false negative test because they were tested outside the window for the PCR test. So we just don’t know. But we know that 7 out of the 9 did have COVID.

    And COVID binds to ACE2 receptors. And the tongue is lined with ACE2 receptors. And when the virus binds to the receptor, we know that it alters this pathway, affecting bradykinin levels. This is something I talked a lot about in this video…

    Why are some people more prone to this? Again, it comes down to genetics. There are various genetic polymorphisms in certain enzymes called aminopeptidase P and neutral endopeptidase, which occur at a greater rate in African Americans. These polymorphisms lead to lower circulating enzymes responsible for degrading bradykinin and its active metabolite (des-Arg9-BK).

    And it makes sense that the SARS-CoV-2 virus triggers this same mechanism. So COVID tongue looks like one more thing to add to the list of strange things that come with the disease. And one more reason to get the vaccine.

    Doctor Mike Hansen, MD
    Internal Medicine | Pulmonary Disease | Critical Care Medicine

    #covid #covidtongue

  • x
  • What Is Cytokine Storm And Is It Whats Killing Young & Healthy Covid Patients |CRUX DECODES


    Covid-19 may remain mild in most cases but turns severe and fatal in some patients. Usually, age and comorbidities are said to play a major role in how Covid-19 impacts a patient. But now doctors are now seeing a pattern in which healthy and young patients are developing severe Covid-19 infection and having an immune response called a cytokine storm. A covid triggered cytokine storm could be fatal for a patient. Watch the video to know more.
    #covidscience #cytokinestorm #covidnews

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  • VERIFY: Has the COVID-19 vaccine killed 3,000 people?


    Since the COVID-19 vaccine was approved, the CDC has kept a close eye on side effects but some people are using the data to claim the shots are killing people.

    There's been a lot of discussing surrounding the vaccines causing a high number of deaths. including on national news talk shows, like Tucker Carlson's program on Fox News Channel. Carlson recently said a total of 3,362 people have died after taking the COVID-19 vaccine, saying he cited the CDC's vaccine adverse effect reporting tool.


    Because data included in VAERS is not verified and because it does not confirm causality, the CDC’s database does not confirm deaths were caused by COVID-19 vaccines.

    The purpose of VAERS is to detect signals of possible side effects or other negative impacts associated with vaccines. This includes people who died after getting the COVID-19 vaccine.

    As of May 6, that number comes out to 3,442.

    However, there is a significant disclaimer on the database’s website. It says, Note that the inclusion of events in VAERS data does not imply causality. #VERIFY #COVID19 #Vaccine


  • Doctor VS Coronavirus Conspiracy Theories


    There are SO MANY conspiracy theories and myths surrounding COVID-19, so I had another go at them in this episode. Please do submit your questions down below!

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    If you have an idea of something you want me to cover in-depth, please let me know because I take your requests seriously. We will be back with more Medical Drama Review/Responding to comments Series in a couple of weeks, so please submit more names of shows/questions you'd like for me to watch/answer. I love you all! - Doctor Mike Varshavski

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    #novelcoronavirus #COVID19 #sarscov2

  • Vietnam had zero coronavirus deaths in 2020. Here’s why. | CNBC Reports


    This video was originally published on July 6, 2020.

    Vietnam is among a handful of countries to have reported no fatalities from the coronavirus pandemic in 2020. Timothyna Duncan reports on how the country, which shares a porous land border with China, defied the odds.

    The headline and summary have been updated to specify the video's time reference.

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  • COVID Mystery - Doctors are Unraveling the Mystery of COVID | Autoimmune Disease


    COVID Mystery - Doctors are Unraveling the Mystery of COVID | Autoimmune Disease

    There is NEW evidence to suggest that COVID is causing the body to make antibodies that attack itself.

    COVID is mysterious in a lot of ways, despite us already knowing a lot about it. Researchers & doctors are working hard to unravel the cause and effect of the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the immune system. COVID causes several symptoms that may point to a phenomenon called autoimmunity as a potential cause of long COVID. This includes pulmonary fibrosis, meaning scarring of the lungs. Unfortunately, I’m seeing the same picture unfold in so many of my patients who have had COVID, with all this scarring in their lungs. And COVID can cause other issues, like brain changes, skin rashes, excessive blood clotting, inflamed blood vessels, and more.

    Autoimmunity is when the immune system mounts an attack on its own healthy cells and tissues—mistaking them for foreign or virally infected cells. Under normal conditions, the immune system can discriminate between self and foreigners. Meaning it can differentiate between the body’s proteins and foreign antigens. But sometimes, in some people, the immune system can mistakenly identify its own proteins as foreign antigens, and it launches its attack on itself. When these autoantibodies react against self-antigens, the outcome can be inflammation and damage to tissues. This is what happens with autoimmune diseases like Type 1 diabetes, Graves' disease, multiple sclerosis.

    This is also what happens with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, where people develop scarring in their lungs, much like this happens with COVID. In fact, there are lots of auto-immune conditions that can cause scarring in the lungs, like lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, polymyositis, ankylosing spondylitis, and more—the evidence to support the role of autoantibodies as a cause of more severe COVID. The vast majority of people who get COVID will have a disease isolated to the upper respiratory tract. But in 20 percent of people, the infection will go deep into the lung parenchyma and can cause more severe disease, meaning COVID pneumonia, which sometimes blossoms into ARDS.

    Autoimmunity as a potential cause of more severe COVID disease was brought up when autopsies. Cytokine storms are an overreaction by the immune system and are more systemic and short-term. In contrast, autoantibodies are more targeted and long-term. Dexamethasone, a corticosteroid, and the arthritis drugs tocilizumab and sarilumab have been used to modulate an overactive immune response. In a clinical trial, tocilizumab and sarilumab improved critically ill patients' outcomes on ventilators in the intensive care unit.

    A study at Rockefeller University in New York enrolled almost a thousand people with severe COVID. About 10% had antibodies that blocked the action of type 1 interferon molecules, a protein that helps the immune system fight pathogens. These autoantibodies were more common in men, who had 12.5% compared to 2.6% in women. This may explain why men are more likely to have severe diseases. Thes are now screening study's researchers 40,000 people to see what proportion of uninfected people carry these antibodies and their distribution by age, ancestry, and gender. This data will be compared to the distribution and percentage of each factor in people with severe COVID.

    Researchers in another study supported the finding of increased autoantibodies in COVID patients. The antibodies they found were directed towards B cells, a type of immune cell that produces antibodies and interferon. Although the researchers noted no COVID specific autoantibodies that distinguish COVID patients from uninfected controls, the levels of autoantibodies were correlated with known markers for inflammation. The correlations became more extreme as the disease worsened. These medications require careful timing to interrupt an overreactive immune system without interfering with a standard immune system fighting the COVID infection. COVID is often a biphasic illness with an initial phase, primarily respiratory symptoms caused by the virus and the immediate immune response, with innate immunity. Sometimes, it is followed by a secondary inflammatory phase.

    There are two immune system arms, the non-specific innate immune system, and the specific adaptive immune system. When infected with a new pathogen to your immune system, you rely on the natural immune system to fight the pathogen. Interferons are essential to the innate response. Interferon-β is one of the first cytokines produced and drives the innate immune response in the lung. This connection illustrates the importance of the finding that SARS-CoV-2 may inhibit interferon activity in those who develop more severe COVID.

    Doctor Mike Hansen, MD
    Internal Medicine | Pulmonary Disease | Critical Care Medicine


  • COVID-19 Animation: What Happens If You Get Coronavirus?


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  • How COVID-19 Affects the Body


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    #Coronavirus #COVID-19 #Virus

    COVID-19 is the short name for the disease known as novel coronavirus disease 2019. Coronaviruses are a large group of similar viruses. Some are known to infect humans, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The one that causes COVID-19 is called SARS-CoV-2. All coronaviruses are named for the crown-like “spikes” that cover their surface, called spike, or “S,” proteins. Inside the virus, genetic material, called RNA, is made up of genes. Genes carry the information to make more copies of the virus. The virus can infect you if it enters your mouth, nose, or lungs. Inside your body, the S protein of the virus locks to a receptor on the surface of one of your cells. This can trigger the virus to enter the cell in a couple of ways. It may cause the virus to fuse with the cell surface, then release its genes into the cell. Or, the cell may pull the virus inside by enclosing it in a sac. Once inside, the virus can fuse to the sac and release its genes. Next, the genes use a structure in your cell, called a ribosome, to make new copies of the virus. The new viruses travel to the surface of the cell. There, they can leave to infect more cells. In the meantime, viral S proteins left on the surface of the infected cell can cause it to fuse with nearby healthy cells, forming a giant cell. This may be another way for the virus to spread between cells. People may be infected with COVID-19 for two to fourteen days before symptoms appear. The three main symptoms of COVID-19 are: a fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include: tiredness, body aches, stuffy nose, sore throat, diarrhea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and loss of smell. Most people have a mild illness and can recover at home. Some people who have the virus may not get sick at all or may show no symptoms. But, if you have trouble breathing, or any other symptoms that are severe, call your doctor or the emergency room. They will tell you what to do. For most people who have the virus, the risk for serious illness is thought to be low. People sixty-five years and older may have a higher risk for serious illness. And, people of any age may be at high-risk if they have underlying conditions, such as: chronic lung disease or asthma; serious heart conditions; diabetes; severe obesity; chronic kidney disease, and liver disease. High-risk groups also include people with a weakened immune system, including: those on certain medications, such as corticosteroids; people in cancer treatment; and those with HIV or AIDS. Even if you aren’t in a high-risk group, it’s important to practice social distancing, which means keeping at least two meters, or six feet, between you and other people. This helps prevent infections and serious illness in others as well as yourself. For up-to-date information about COVID-19 and other ways to prevent its spread, visit the CDC website.


  • Natural versus vaccine immunity


    Post infection natural immunity, debate and implications for mandatory vaccination

    US as of 11th December 2020

    US, Natural infection, Feb 2020 to May 2021

    0 – 17 26.8 / 73 37%

    18 – 49 60.5 / 138 44%

    50 – 64 20.4 / 62 32%

    65+ 12.3 / 54 23%

    Total 120.3/ 328 37%

    Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection

    N = 254 blood samples post infection

    N = 51 long term follow up

    Antibodies against SARSCoV-
    2 spike and receptor binding domain
    (RBD) declined moderately over 8 months

    Memory B cells against SARS-CoV-2 spike
    increased between 1 month and 8 months
    after infection.

    Proportion of subjects positive for CD4+ T cells (92%) remained high at 6 to 8 months after infection.

    The different types of immunememory each had distinct kinetics, resulting in complex interrelationships over time


    Substantial immune memory is generated after COVID-19

    About 95% of subjects retained immune memory at ~6 months after infection

    Circulating antibody titers were not predictive of T cell memory


    Still recommends a full vaccination dose for all

    the immune response from vaccination is more predictable

    antibody responses after infection vary widely by individual

    June, Peter Marks, Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research

    We do know that the immunity after vaccination is better than the immunity after natural infection

    generally the immunity after natural infection tends to wane after about 90 days

    It appears from the literature that natural infection provides immunity,

    but that immunity is seemingly not as strong and may not be as long lasting as that provided by the vaccine

    UK covid pass guidelines

    proof of natural immunity shown by a positive PCR test result for COVID-19, lasting for 180 days after the date of the positive test

    Protection of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection is similar to that of BNT162b2 vaccine protection: A three-month nationwide experience from Israel

    Vaccination was highly effective

    Estimated efficacy for documented infection of 92·8%

    Hospitalization 94·2%

    Severe illness 94·4%

    Death 93·7%

    Protection from prior SARS-CoV-2 infection

    Estimated efficacy for documented infection of 94·8%

    Hospitalization 94·1%

    Severe illness 96·4%

    Ministry of Health during summer surge

    Between 5 July and 3 August

    (over half a million infected but unvaccinated)

    Just 1% of weekly new cases were in people who had previously had covid-19

    Dvir Aran, biomedical data, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology

    these numbers look very low

    the data suggest that the recovered have better protection than people who were vaccinated

    Systemic side-effects were more common in people previously infected

    Large UK study

    1·6 times after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19

    2·9 times after the first dose of BNT162b2

    56% more likely to experience a severe side effect that required hospital care


    Public health strategy versus individualised medicine

  • How COVID-19 Affects Your Lungs


    COVID-19 is a disease caused by a virus called SARS-CoV-2. The virus – and your immune system’s reaction to it, inflammation – can damage your lungs, causing them to scar and stiffen or fill with fluid.

    This video is by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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  • 6 COVID-19 Vaccine Myths Explained


    To read more about the common COVID-19 vaccine myths, please visit

    Cleveland Clinic doctors, Kristin Englund, MD, Oluwatosin Goje, MD and Kendalle Cobb, MD debunk common COVID-19 vaccine myths, such as the vaccine causes long-term effects and harms fertility.

    0:00 Does the COVID-19 Vaccine Cause Long-Term Effects?
    0:45 Will the COVID-19 Vaccine Harm My Fertility?
    1:27 Will the COVID-19 Vaccine Change Your DNA?
    1:58 If I Am Young and Healthy, Do I Still Need the COVID-19 Vaccine?
    2:38 Is the COVID-19 Vaccine Safe Because it Was Rushed?
    3:07 Do Breakthrough Infections Mean the COVID-19 Vaccine Doesn't Work?

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  • The Doctor got COVID, Then Took Vaccine, and Then got COVID Again ????


    The Doctor got COVID, Then Took Vaccine, and Then got COVID Again (Delta Variant) ????

    In this video, I interview a psychiatrist, Dr. Hisbay Ali. He Got COVID in 2020. Then Vaccine. Then Delta. He said he never felt so sick in his life.

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    #covid #vaccine #deltavariant

  • Medical Exemption From Wearing A Mask for COVID


    Medical Exemption From Wearing A Mask for COVID (DOCTOR EXPLAINS)

    Recently a woman dubbed “Karen” was kicked off a plane because she refused to wear a mask. She claimed she had a medical exemption. Here is my take on “medical exemptions” from wearing a mask for covid.

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    Yes, it would be nice if we did not have to hear a mask for covid. Here’s reality, though - masks reduce transmission. And there are no medical exemptions from wearing a face mask unless someone has a severe skin condition of their face, like a second or third-degree burn. Some might make the same point as this Florida woman recently did when she stood up at a meeting of the Palm Beach County Commissioners and said, “I don’t wear a mask for the same reason I don’t wear underwear; things gotta breathe.” She is TRYING to make that the mask causes tess cair circulation in front of her face. And yeah, it's true, there is less circulation of air right in front of your nostrils and mouth when you’re wearing one of these masks or face coverings.

    But does it obstruct airflow into and out of your nostrils and mouth? This is like asking if you go to the beach and leave the beach with sand in between your toes, is there less sand on the beach? Technically, yeah, but it's negligible. Here’s why it doesn’t obstruct airflow in and out of your lungs. It’s because the air passes freely in the areas around your mask. As long as the mask is not too tight on your face and the mask is not too thick, it's not going to obstruct airflow in and out of your lungs. But if you’re properly wearing a proper mask, you should not get that feeling, no matter what underlying medical condition someone has.

    So it's worth trying different types of masks and/or adjusting the mask's fit if you feel like it's impacting your breathing. A mask like the one I’m holding here has essentially 0 impacts on airflow in and out of your lungs, as long as it's not too snug on your face. And that part of the purpose of having the wire in these masks s to conform to your face and allow air to flow around the mask. Yes, there are different types of face masks, and some have more fabric than others, but as long as it's not so tight as to compress your nostrils or lips, it's not going to obstruct airflow.

    And it's well established by now that wearing these masks reduces transmission of this disease, which has been confirmed in several studies. And some studies visually demonstrate the difference between wearing masks and not wearing masks, including when someone coughs and sneezes. Check out my video on the airborne transmission to see what I'm talking about if you haven’t already. And there are countries with such low covid numbers, like South Korea, Singapore, Vietnam, Nand ew Zealand…. A big part of their success is because of masks.

    Doctor Mike Hansen, MD
    Internal Medicine | Pulmonary Disease | Critical Care Medicine
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  • Ivermectin being studied for COVID


    Ivermectin being studied for COVID

    Ivermectin is an FDA-approved medication for parasitic infections. Ivermectin is widely available due to its inclusion on the WHO model list of essential medicines. It opens glutamate-sensitive chloride channel currents in helminths, and it is widely believed that this is how it kills certain parasites. It's the drug of choice for the treatment of onchocerciasis and strongyloidiasis. So why might Ivermectin work against COVID?

    Once the virus gains entry into the body's cells, using the ACE2 receptor, the virus releases its messenger RNA into the cell. Then, the cell starts to translate the mRNA from the virus, which starts to make viral proteins, and that’s how the new virus forms.

    Some of these viral proteins that are freshly made then enter into the cell's nucleus, or are at least thought to do so by many scientists, which probably impairs our cells' ability to fight off the infection. These viral proteins are thought to gain entry into our cells' nucleus through specific channels of a different protein, called importin. Not important, importin. There's importin type alpha, importin beta. Or Imp for short, so imp alpha, imp beta.

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    And this is where ivermectin comes in because ivermectin inhibits the passage of these viral proteins into the nucleus. It does so by binding to these protein channels and effectively blocking the transport of molecules through them. So this is why scientists started studying ivermectin. And this recent article that just came out on April 3rd in the journal Antiviral Research. This is a pre-proof article, meaning they have been peer-reviewed, but the final publication is still pending. These scientists found that ivermectin significantly inhibits the COVID viral proteins in their passage from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of cells in vitro.

    In vitro means this was done in a test tube or outside of a living organism.
    A single dose of Ivermectin had ∼a 5000-fold reduction in virus levels at 48h in cell culture. So this drug has a huge impact on this virus in vitro. And that is why the authors of this study conclude that these drugs need to be studied in COVID patients, meaning in clinical trials. Other drugs are being looked at in clinical trials for COVID, such as redeliver, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine.

    Because Ivermectin is generally considered a safe drug and is already FDA approved for other diseases, it can be repurposed for COVID as long as it is safe and effective for COVID patients in clinical trials.

    If this drug turns out to be the miracle drug for Covid, the next question will become, when should people start taking it?
    Because the patients with COVID who get very sick usually get sick very quickly. So this ivermectin may have to be given prophylactically or at the first onset of symptoms.

    The other question is, what are the side effects or adverse reactions?
    Well, based on what we already know about ivermectin, this is what I can tell you.
    The most common adverse reaction is the Mazzotti reaction. But this only happens when ivermectin is used to treat onchocerciasis, a parasitic infection. The Mazzotti reaction was first described in 1948. It’s a symptom complex seen in patients after undergoing treatment of nematode infestation, particularly with the medication diethylcarbamazine (DEC), but with ivermectin.

    Mazzotti reactions can be life-threatening and are characterized by fever, hives, generalized swelling, swollen lymph nodes, fast heart rate, low blood pressure, hypotension, joint pain, and abdominal pain.

    There is a 25% chance of Mazzotti reaction when ivermectin is used to treat onchocerciasis, not other parasitic infections. So if a COVID patient took ivermectin, this would not happen.

    So, otherwise, Ivermectin is very safe, and side effects are uncommon. However, diarrhea occurs in 2% of people taking it.

    Also, Ivermectin should not be administered to pregnant or lactating women, and its safety in children less than 15 kg is unknown.

    Doctor Mike Hansen, MD
    Internal Medicine | Pulmonary Disease | Critical Care Medicine

    #covid #ivermectin

  • Covid-19 Vaccine Skeptics Explain Why They Don’t Want The Shot | NBC News NOW


    Convincing skeptics to get the vaccine is easier said than done, especially in rural areas that are heavily Republican. Pineville, Mo., has the lowest vaccination rate in all of the state. NBC News’ Vaughn Hillyard reports from the county where he spoke to residents hesitant to get the Covid-19 shot.
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    Missouri Vaccine Skeptics Explain Why They Don’t Want Covid Shot: 'I Take Vitamins’ | NBC News NOW

  • How soap kills the coronavirus


    Plain old soap and water absolutely annihilate coronavirus.

    Support Vox by joining the Video Lab at or making a one-time contribution here:

    You've been told a thousand times: wash your hands to stop the spread of COVID-19. But why does this work so well? It has to do with the way the soap molecules are able to absolutely demolish viruses, like the coronavirus.

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  • COVID 19 Vaccine Deep Dive: Safety, Immunity, RNA Production,


    Professor Shane Crotty, PhD joins MedCram to answer a series of COVID vaccine questions including what are the chances of long-term side effects? How safe is RNA vaccine (i.e. Pfizer / BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines) technology? How long does mRNA from a vaccine stay in our cells? What else goes in vaccines? How long does immunity last? Why are T-Cells so important? Why does Pfizer's vaccine need to stay SO cold?

    Shane Crotty, PhD is a Professor at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology, Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, Crotty Lab. Professor Crotty also has an academic appointment with the University of California San Diego. See his full bio here:
    Professor Crotty on Twitter:

    Interviewer: Kyle Allred, Physician Assistant, Producer and Co-Founder of

    See our new interview with Prof. Crotty on how virus mutations (UK variant and S. African variant) may be impacting COVID-19 transmission and vaccine efficacy.

    Research referenced in this video from Prof. Crotty and his team was published Jan. 6, 2021, in the prestigious Journal Science:

    New York Times article highlighting Prof. Shane Crotty's research:

    00:00 Introducing Prof. Shane Crotty's Research
    0:35 How long does COVID-19 immune memory last?
    0:57 The three primary aspects of immune memory: antibodies, killer T cells, and helper T cells
    2:25 The anatomy (protein makeup) of SARS-CoV-2
    3:02 Why is spike protein the primary target?
    5:17 Could a mutation allow SARS-CoV-2 to infect without spike protein?
    7:02 Utilizing lipid nanoparticles to deliver mRNA and the role of RNA normally
    9:52 What human cells does an RNA vaccine go into?
    10:36 How long does mRNA from a vaccine stay in human cells?
    11:44 What else goes in vaccines besides mRNA and lipid nanoparticles? Any preservatives or adjuvants?
    12:30 Why are adjuvants used in many vaccines?
    14:08 Protein production from mRNA
    15:00 Why utilize the extra step of mRNA to code for protein antigens?
    17:28 Are mRNA vaccines the future of vaccine development?
    19:18 Any chance for mRNA to enter our cells' nucleus?
    20:55 The immune response to a coronavirus vaccine
    23:17 Expected symptoms from immune response to a vaccine vs. vaccine side effects
    25:50 Should people who've had COVID-19 get vaccinated?
    27:27 Immunity from COVID vaccine vs. a natural infection
    28:30 Why does the Pfizer vaccine need to be stored so cold?
    29:04 What would you say to a family member who is nervous about a rushed vaccine and RNA technology?
    32:37 What about the possibility of long term side effects from RNA vaccines?
    33:30 What's next for Shane Crotty's research team?

    (This video was recorded on December 16, 2020).


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    Vitamin D and COVID 19: The Evidence for Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus (SARS CoV 2) with Professor Roger Seheult, MD

    At Home COVID 19 Antigen Testing and Vaccine Update with Professor Michael Mina, MD

    All coronavirus updates are at ad-free (including more videos on the Pfizer vaccine, Moderna vaccines, BioNTech vaccine, vaccine side effects, COVID 19 vaccine mechanism, AstraZeneca Oxford coronavirus vaccine, side effects of COVID 19 vaccine, COVID 19 treatments, and more):

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    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.
    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2 #Coronavaccine

  • Omicron variant explained | New covid variant omicron


    Omicron variant explained | New covid variant omicron - This lecture explains about the newly found covid 19 strain known as the Omicron variant of covid 19. this new omicron strain of sars cov 2 can spread quickly so we need to know more about the omicron variant transmissibility and the severity of disease caused by the omicron variant of corona virus. stay tuned to know the answers to the following questions -
    what is omicron variant?
    what is the new covid variant?
    is omicron variant dangerous?
    omicron variant transmissibility?
    omicron variant explaind?
    is omicron variant a variant of concern?
    omicron variant of corona virus?
    omicron variant disease?
    omicron variant in India?
    structure of corona omicron variant?
    corona virus mutations?
    coronavirus mutations?
    omicron virus mutations?
    corona virus spike protain mutations?

    For more information, log on to-

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    Thank you for watching the video lecture on Omicron variant explained | New coronavirus strain omicron.

  • Infections and deaths after vaccination


    E mail from CDC to CNN, Breakthrough infections

    Vaccinated people who become infected = 5,800

    About 1 in 13,275

    At least 14 days after their final dose

    Asymptomatic, 29%

    Required hospitalization = 396 (1 in 194,444)

    Deaths = 74 (1 in 1,040,540)

    CDC currently investigating factors

    May be more cases to report due to reporting lag

    From 77 million fully vaccinated

    (Fully vaccinated as of today = 80.6 million)

    From trials

    Pfizer/BioNTech, 95% effective in preventing symptomatic disease

    Moderna, 94% effective in preventing symptomatic illness

    Johnson & Johnson, 72% from US data

    Characteristics of breakthroughs so far

    40% of the infections were in people 60 or more

    65%, were female

    CDC is monitoring reported cases for clustering by patient demographics, geographic location, time since vaccination, vaccine type or lot number, and SARS-CoV-2 lineage

    CDC also continues to recommend people who have been fully vaccinated should keep taking precautions in public places, like wearing a mask, staying at least six feet apart from others, avoiding crowds and poorly ventilated spaces, and washing their hands often

    Dr. Carlos del Rio, Emory University School of Medicine

    Less transmission means fewer breakthrough cases

    There is currently a lot of transmission in many parts of the country

    Vaccines will help decrease that

    Get vaccinated as soon as you can and help control this pandemic

    National Institutes of Health Director Dr Francis Collins

    Allow more time for scientists to investigate links between the vaccine and blood clots

    and whether or not certain groups of people are more susceptible

    India, double mutation variant emerge

    Hey john thanks for the update. I am from Delhi, India and I have contracted the virus. Situation in India is very bad. Most of the hospitals are already exhausted and many people are dying without treatment.

    The India variant, B.1.617

    E484Q and L452R

    First reported in India, late 2020

    Aparna Mukherjee, Indian Council of Medical Research

    has not been stamped as a ‘variant of concern’ so as to say that it is more lethal or more infectious


    Very low prevalence in January

    April, 52% of samples sequenced

    Maharashtra state, 60%

    Has been detected in 10 other countries, US, UK (77 cases) Australia and New Zealand

    (L452 from US data, 20% more transmissible, reduces antibody efficacy by more 50%)

    William A. Haseltine, former professor, Harvard Medical School

    The B.1.617 variant has all the hallmarks of a very dangerous virus

    We must do all that is possible to identify its spread and to contain it


    Trying to get more drugs from Spain

    Rio de Janeiro, health-care workers forced to intubate patients without sedatives

    Mechanical restraints and neuromuscular blockers

    Doctors Without Borders

    More than 12 months into Brazil’s covid-19 emergency, there is still no effective, centralized and coordinated public health response to the outbreak

    The lack of political will to adequately respond to the pandemic is killing Brazilians in their thousands

  • Doctor Mike Debunks the Wildest COVID-19 Conspiracy Theories | Vs. The Internet | Mens Health


    Mikhail Varshavski D.O., better known as Doctor Mike, gives us his take on some of the hottest Coronavirus theories that have spread around social media– from 5G towers to garlic and blowdrying your sinuses.

    Doctor Mike Debunks the Wildest COVID-19 Conspiracy Theories | Vs. The Internet | Men's Health

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    #DrMike #COVID19

  • Can copper kill coronavirus?


    Could copper help us fight disease and slow down their transmission?
    Engineers, we need your help:

    Can Copper Kill Coronavirus?

    Covid-19 has swept through the world, causing an emergency unlike anything experienced in in most of our lifetimes. This pandemic has left experts scratching their head, wondering what could have been done differently to have mitigated this catastrophe.

    But, could the answer be as simple as replacing surfaces with a common metal?

    Since copper is a naturally occurring metal, it has been used by man since the early days of humanity for objects, such as weapons, tools and jewellery. In ancient Egypt, they used it to purify water as well as to sterilise battle wounds to prevent infection. Many societies having been brewing and drinking tea in copper appliances. People in India and turkey have been proclaiming the health benefits of this for centuries.

    These examples are years before our scientific understanding of microbes had developed, but it is clear to see that people have been aware of its health benefits for a long time.

    At the start of the 21st century, Professor Bill Keevil, the Director of Environmental Healthcare Unit at Southampton University, started to really probe what it was about copper that had made people throughout history recognise its healing potential. He found that the copper ions penetrate bacteria cells and inhibit their respiration. He also discovered that the ions attacked the DNA of the cell and destroyed it making gene transfer no longer possible.

    Speaking to Healthcare in Europe he said…“We know that copper kills viruses and destroys DNA, including plasmids, so this should stop the transfer of DNA, which would include those toxic genes and also the transfer of antibody resistance from one species to another”

    So, with the health benefits of copper known, why don’t we see it used more today?

    Well, stainless steel and plastic surfaces are generally considered cleaner looking and so they have become readily adopted in hospitals to help patients feel that they were in sterile surroundings.

    Also, there’s a general misconception that silver is a better antimicrobial metal and while it’s true that silver does have an antibacterial effect, it does not have this effect when the surface is dry, whereas copper works without the need of moisture.

    According to research conducted by the New England Journal of Medicine, COVID-19 lives on copper surfaces for 4 hours while managing to survive on plastic and stainless steel for up to 3 days! However, truth be told, anti-bacterial cleaning and hand washing is still very much needed, but having copper doorknobs and surfaces, especially in hospitals, could help stop or slow down the transmission of germs and diseases.

    Covid-19 has already swept across the globe so it’s too late to change our surfaces now. But sadly, this won’t be the last pandemic, and perhaps the switch to copper can prepare us for the next one

    For more information about the effect that copper surfaces have on COVID-19, please visit:

    Catch up on the COVID-19 latest

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  • Covid Vaccines: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver


    John Oliver explains why some people don’t want to get the Covid-19 vaccine and how they might be reassured. (Even you, Mike in Baltimore.)

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  • Vaccines may be revamped to avoid blood clots, German scientists claim | COVID-19 | Coronavirus


    The Coronavirus vaccine developed by AstraZeneca has faced criticism because some people developed 'blood clots' after jaw clenching. However, a group of German scientists have found a way to avoid the fatal side effect.

    #GermanScientists #COVID19 #Coronavirus

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  • Coronavirus Epidemic Update 16: Strengthening Your Immune Response to Viral Infections


    Coronavirus epidemic update 16 by pulmonologist & sleep specialist Dr. Seheult of

    Includes a comparison of confirmed cases and deaths within China vs. countries outside China. Dr. Seheult then illustrates practical things we can do to boost our immunity / immune response to viral infections like the novel coronavirus based on peer-reviewed studies.

    PLEASE NOTE: This video was recorded on February 2, 2020. Our more recent COVID-19 updates can be accessed free at our website or here on YouTube:

    We've produced each COVID-19 video with the best information we could access at the time of recording. Naturally, some videos will contain information that has become outdated or replaced by better information or research.

    That said, we believe each video contains concepts that have enduring value and reviewing how the response to COVID-19 has progressed over time may be of interest to you as well.

    See our prior videos on the novel coronavirus:

    - Coronavirus Epidemic Update 15: Underreporting, Prevention, 24 Day Incubation? (COVID19)

    - Coronavirus Epidemic Update 14: Hospital spread of infection, WHO allowed in China, N-95 masks:

    - How Coronavirus Kills: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) & Treatment:

    Source LINKS referenced in this video:


    Speaker: Roger Seheult, MD
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    Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine.

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  • Coronavirus v Influenza: How do the two viruses compare? - BBC News


    As coronavirus cases continue to be reported around the world, the World Health Organisation says countries still have a chance of containing the outbreak.

    Officials have also sought to differentiate Covid-19 from other viruses, as part of efforts to quell public panic.

    So what is coronavirus, and what makes it different to something like influenza?

    Ros Atkins and the OS team take a closer look at coronavirus and what makes it different from the flu.

    #BBCOS #BBCOutsideSource
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  • Tracking disease progression of COVID-19


    Let's take a look at the common three stage progression of disease with COVID-19 — the viral response phase, the pulmonary phase, and the hyper inflammation phase.
    Within those stages, we also review how the infection starts, what happens after the virus is transmitted and enters the patient's body, hospitalization needs, and briefly the recovery.

    Speaker: Franz Wiesbauer, MD MPH
    Internist & Founder at Medmastery
    Check out our course library and register for a free trial account:
    Please Note: Medmastery's videos, medical lectures, medical illustrations, and medical animations are for medical education and exam preparation purposes, and not intended to replace recommendations by your doctor or health care provider.

    #medmastery #coronavirus #COVID19 #sarscov2 #coronaviruschina #coronavirustruth #WHO #wuhan #infection #pandemic #publichealth

  • COVID 19 Q/A: Roger Seheult & John Campbell: Lessons Learned and a Look Ahead


    Professor Roger Seheult, MD and John Campbell, RN, PhD discuss important COVID-19 questions, review lessons learned from 2020, and look ahead to potential developments in 2021.

    Roger Seheult, MD is the co-founder and lead professor at
    He is an Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine and Assistant Prof. at Loma Linda University School of Medicine
    Dr. Seheult is Quadruple Board Certified: Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine

    John Campbell, RN, BSc, MSc, PGC.Pharm, PhD is a health educator and analyst that has spent over three decades teaching students in the United Kingdom, Asia, Africa, and online with an extensive video library. Dr. Campbell also has also published textbooks on Physiology and Pathophysiology. He publishes frequent COVID-19 updates at his YouTube channel: A big thanks to Dr. Campbell for his participation.

    Interviewer: Kyle Allred, Physician Assistant, Producer, and Co-Founder of

    Questions discussed in this interview:

    0:00 Introductions
    1:44 Lessons we can learn as a society so far from this pandemic?
    5:13 How do you decide what COVID 19 information sources are credible?
    11:04 Role of pre-print research (non published or peer-reviewed) during a pandemic?
    18:07 How can trust be maintained (or restored) in federal organizations like the CDC, FDA in the USA, and NICE in the UK?
    22:33 Any new promising treatments besides steroids and remdesivir, and are doctors giving vitamin D to inpatients?
    28:00 Thoughts on Ivermectin?
    34:40 How will SARS-CoV-2 mutations impact the vaccine, testing, and treatments?
    40:26 Thoughts on COVID vaccines authorized so far: safety and efficacy
    47:46 Why not just rely on your immune system to fight off COVID-19 instead of a vaccine?
    50:37 Thoughts on “long haulers” or Post-COVID syndrome? Have we seen this with other viruses?
    57:37 “Background” side effects vs vaccine or intervention side effects
    1:00:48 “Predictions” regarding COVID-19 in 2021
    1:08:51 If the fatality rate of COVID-19 was higher, would overall infections be lower?
    1:13:44 Your personal routine for a healthy lifestyle and staying safe from coronavirus?
    1:20:12 What dose of vitamin D do you take and do you take it all year?
    1:25:05 Some consequences of time spent indoors (ventilation, vitamin D)
    1:26:07 Vitamin D and skin color and archeology findings
    1:28:03 Should other supplements be taken with vitamin D?
    1:31:25 Lessons to learn from COVID-19 testing and where should it go?


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    Video Produced by Kyle Allred. A big thanks to Dr John Campbell for joining us.



    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.
    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2 #stopthespread

  • Coronavirus Pandemic Update 61: Blood Clots & Strokes in COVID-19; ACE-2 Receptor; Oxidative Stress


    COVID-19 Update 61 with critical care specialist Roger Seheult, MD of
    Thrombosis (blood clots), strokes, and myocardial infarctions are mysterious complications for some patients with COVID-19. Dr. Seheult discusses a recent case study involving a 72-year-old with elevated d-dimer and plasma Von Willebrand factor, and goes on to illustrate a hypothesis for how downregulation of ACE-2 may result in oxidative stress. This process may put patients with underlying elevated levels of oxidative stress (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, etc.) at the greatest risk for severe COVID-19 infection.

    Links referenced in this video:

    Johns Hopkins -

    Worldometer -

    Thrombosis Research -

    PubMed -

    Washington Post -

    Clotting Cascade -

    WebMD -

    JAMA -

    Some previous videos from this series (visit for the full series):
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 60: Hydroxychloroquine Update; NYC Data; How Widespread is COVID-19?
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 59: Dr. Seheult's Daily Regimen (Vitamin D, C, Zinc, Quercetin, NAC)
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 58: Testing; Causes of Hypoxemia in COVID-19 (V/Q vs Shunt vs Diffusion)
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 57: Remdesivir Treatment Update and Can Far-UVC Disinfect Public Spaces?
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 56: What is “Forest Bathing” & Can It Boost Immunity Against Viruses?
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 55: How COVID-19 Infection Attacks The Immune System & Differs From HIV:
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 54: COVID-19 Antibody vs. PCR Testing; When to Relax Social Distancing?:
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 53: Anticoagulation; Can Mechanical Ventilation Make COVID 19 Worse?:
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 52: Ivermectin Treatment; Does COVID-19 Attack Hemoglobin?:
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 51: State by State Projections; Ultrasound to Diagnose COVID19 Pneumonia:
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 50: Dip in Daily New Deaths; Research on Natural Killer Cells & COVID-19:
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 49: New Data on COVID-19 vs Other Viral Infections (Ventilator Outcomes):
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 48: Curve Flattening in California, PPE in the ICU, Medication Trials:
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 47: Searching for Immunity Boosters & Possible Lessons From Spanish Flu:
    -Coronavirus Pandemic Update 46: Can Hot/Cold Therapy Boost Immunity? More on Hydroxychloroquine
    - How Coronavirus Kills: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) & Treatment:

    Many other videos on COVID-19 (coronavirus outbreak, coronavirus symptoms, influenza, coronavirus epidemic, corona virus updates, coronavirus vaccine, boosting the immune system, vitamin D, vitamin C, Zinc, Quercetin, NAC, n-acetyl cysteine, Insomnia, PPE, hydroxychloroquine, ultrasound to diagnose COVID-19, coronavirus New York) and other medical topics (ECG Interpretation, strokes, thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, hypercoagulation, hypertension, anticoagulation, DKA, acute kidney injury, influenza, measles, mechanical ventilation, etc.) at

    Speaker: Roger Seheult, MD
    Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine.

    MedCram provides videos to a variety of medical schools, education programs, and institutions (please contact us at if you are interested)

    Media Contact:
    Media contact info:

    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.
    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2 #Coronavirus



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  • Why does Coronavirus affect some people more than others?


    As Italy seems to be reaching its peak, doctors from there are sharing hard lessons they have learned from overwhelmed hospitals. (Subscribe:

    St Bartholomew's Hospital in London is conducting research on healthcare workers, hoping to find some of the many answers to Covid-19, including why some people are barely affected and others die.

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  • Doctors Explain Why COVID-19 May Be More Dangerous for African Americans


    I spoke to Dr. John Carpten, the chair of translational genomics for the University of Southern California and Dr. Lisa Newman, a surgical oncologist for Weill Cornell Medicine about how Black Americans are disproportionately more likely to become severely ill or die from #COVID19 than other racial groups.

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