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How the Edge of Our Galaxy Defies Known Physics

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  • How the Edge of Our Galaxy Defies Known Physics

    10:33

    How is it possible that you can't see 95% of the universe? The edge of our milky way defies known physics, so physicists are using the LHC at CERN to search for Dark Matter.

    Dianna Cowern from Physics Girl visited CERN and spoke to theoretical physicists about Dark Matter.

    Why this stuff costs $2700 Trillion per gram: (Antimatter at CERN)

    Creator and Writer - Dianna Cowern
    Research - Sophia Chen, Imogen Ashford
    Editor/Videography - Levi Butner
    Thanks: CERN, Dorota Grabowska, Loic Bommersbach, Sarah Charley, Daniella Bardalez Gagliuffi, Heather Dewis

    Special thanks to our Sally Ride patrons: Alejandro Gutierrez, Brian O'Connell, Darkbit, Dave Butler, Edi, Fabrice Eap, Henning Bitsch, Kenneth Hunter, Margaux Lopez, and Rishi Dixit.
    Join the Physics Girl Patreon community! ►►

    Sources:

    Galactic rotation curves:


    Searching for Dark Matter with ATLAS (at CERN)


    The Day the World Didn’t End (NASA)


    Vera Rubin


    MOND Papers


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  • What Happens At The Edge Of The Universe? | Space Time | PBS Digital Studios

    9:37

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    Lots of people believe the Universe is infinite, but there's a good possibility that might not be the case. Which means that there would be an actual edge of the Universe. What happens at that edge? Is there a restaurant? Join Matt on this week’s episode of Space Time as he explores the greatest expanses of our Universe. So what do you find when you reach the edge? More Universe? Bubble Universes? Back where you started?! Check out this episode of Space Time to find out!

    Measuring The Size of The Universe:


    Space Used To Be Orange:


    ----------------------------------------­­---------

    COMMENTS:

    Squishina


    shadowmax889


    MrLewooz


    izvarzone


    ----------------------------------------­­---------

    REFERENCES:

    Krauss & Scherrer 2007

    Vardanyan, Trotta & Silk, 2011

    ----------------------------------------­­---------

    Let us know what topics you want to learn more about:

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  • The Edge of The Milky Way Found - Our Galaxy Is Huge!

    10:14

    You can buy Universe Sandbox 2 here:
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    Hello and welcome! My name is Anton and in this video, we will talk about a new study that redefines how big our galaxy and its edge are.
    Paper:

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    Space Engine is available for free here:
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    Thank you to all Patreon supporters of this channel
    Specifically, great thanks to the following members:

    Morrison Waud
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  • Solar System 101 | National Geographic

    4:11

    How many planets are in the solar system? How did it form in the Milky Way galaxy? Learn facts about the solar system’s genesis, plus its planets, moons, and asteroids.
    ➡ Subscribe:

    #NationalGeographic #SolarSystem #Educational

    About National Geographic:
    National Geographic is the world's premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what's possible.

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    Read more in The solar system, explained


    Solar System 101 | National Geographic


    National Geographic

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  • The Edge of an Infinite Universe

    18:30

    Have you ever asked “what is beyond the edge of the universe?” And have you ever been told that an infinite universe that has no edge? You were told wrong. In a sense. We can define a boundary to an infinite universe, at least mathematically. And it turns out that boundary may be as real or even more real than the universe it contains.

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    #infinitity #edgeoftheuniverse #spacetime

    Learn More About Dark Energy Here:


    Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
    Written by Matt O'Dowd
    Graphics by Aaron Halevy
    Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

    Our universe may be infinite. In order to wrap our puny human minds around such a notion we like to come up with boundaries. For example we have the “observable universe” – that patch that we can see, and beyond which light has not yet had time to reach us. It’s boundary is called the particle horizon. Beyond it there exists at a minimum of thousands and possibly infinitely more regions just as large. Our observable universe is like a tiny patch of land in a vast plain. We define its horizon like we might build a little picket fence around our little patch – meaningless from the point of view of the plain, but it makes our patch feel more homey and us less crushingly insignificant.

    Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

    Big Bang:
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    سلطان الخليفي

  • How To Levitate | The Edge of Science

    30:27

    Is levitation possible? YouTube Originals and BBC Studios bring you The Edge of Science, a scientific dive into the outer reaches of our understanding. Follow host and science enthusiast, Rick Edwards as he taps into the scientific community of YouTube to help him fulfill a lifetime's ambition - to levitate himself. Physics girl (Dianna Cowern) and science inventor, Colin Furze, join Rick and together, they will experiment their way into getting Rick off the ground, by physics alone. Can they do it?

    Love learning on YouTube? Check out YouTube's new and improved learning hub (youtube.com/learning) for everything from well-being to history to how tos and all of the things in between. You'll also find more great YouTube Originals content full of your favourite YouTube Creators.

    This is a commercial channel from BBC Studios. Service & Feedback

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  • What happens when black holes collide? | EXPERT ANSWERS PHYSICS GIRL QUESTIONS

    30:55

    You can learn more at to check out a special offer from KiwiCo!
    What happens when black holes collide? What is the speed of gravity? There are so many weird questions related to gravitational waves.
    Why are there giant concrete tunnels in the desert? -

    If you liked this video check out these:
    What is a Black Hole? - Stephen Hawking's final theory

    The Most MYSTERIOUS Object in the Universe


    Thanks to Amber Strunk, Michael Landry and LIGO Hanford Observatory!






    Creator/Host: Dianna Cowern
    Editor: Levi Butner
    Producer: Imogen Ashford

    Here's the 'capstone' paper Michael and I talked about

  • Why is the universe flat?

    5:47

    Cosmic inflation is a theory that was proposed in the 1980s by cosmologist Alan Guth to answer some of the most fundamental questions of the origins of our universe. It also solved the Horizon Problem and the Flatness Problem.

    Help us translate our videos!

    If you liked this video check out these:
    The Most MYSTERIOUS Object in the Universe

    Are perpetual motion machines possible?


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  • A Journey to the End of the Universe

    30:01

    Could humans ever travel to other galaxies within their lifetime? The immense scale of the Universe seems to prohibit such voyages, after all the nearest galaxy is so far away that it takes light itself - the fastest thing in the Universe - 2.5 million years to complete the trip. Remarkably, there is a trick that might allow humans to accomplish this feat - join us today as we step onboard the constantly accelerating spaceship!

    Written and presented by Professor David Kipping.

    You can now support our research program and the Cool Worlds Lab at Columbia University:

    Chapters
    0:00 - Prologue
    2:57 - A Journey to Alpha Centauri
    11:27 - Returning from Distant Shores
    21:12 - Onward to the End

    Further reading and resources:

    ► Lee, J. & Cleaver, G., 2015, The Relativistic Blackbody Spectrum in Inertial and Non-Inertial Reference Frames:
    ► Yurtsever, U. & Wilkinson, S. 2015, Limits and Signatures of Relativistic Flight:
    ► Margalef-Bentabol, B., Margalef-Bentabol, J., Cepa, J., 2013, Evolution of the Cosmological Horizons in a Concordance Universe:
    ► Columbia University Department of Astronomy:
    ► Cool Worlds Lab website:

    Music is largely by Chris Zabriskie ( and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license ( in order of appearance;
    ► Cylinder Five (
    ► Music from Neptune Flux, The Oceans Continue to Rise
    ► Music from Neptune Flux, We Were Never Meant to Live Here
    ► Cylinder Two (
    ► Cylinder Four (
    ► Cylinder Eight (
    ► It's Always Darkest Before the Dawn by Hill, licensed through SoundStripe.com
    ► Cylinder Two (
    ► It's Always Darkest Before the Dawn by Hill, licensed through SoundStripe.com

    Video materials used:

    ► Intro/outro video by ESO/Mark Swinbank, Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, Flying through the MUSE view of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field:
    ► Voyager 2 footage courtesy NASA JPL:
    ► Nautilus X videos from f r a g o m a t i k: and
    ► Ship passing Moon & Mars taken from Beer from Mars by MoonMan Pictures:
    ► A Journey to Alpha Centauri video by ESO./L. Calçada/Nick Risinger (skysurvey.org):
    ► Relativistic travel through a lattice by Ute Kraus:
    ► Earth time lapse footage taken onboard the International Space Station by NASA's Earth Science & Remote Sensing Unit
    ► Fly-through space footage from Space.com:
    ► A Flight Through the Universe, by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Miguel Aragon & Alex Szalay (Johns Hopkins), Mark Subbarao (Adler Planetarium):
    ► Galaxy spinning animation by spacetelescope.org:
    ► Expanding universe animation by EposChronicles:

    Films clips used:
    ► Agora (2009)
    ► Star Trek (1966 - 1969)
    ► Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979)
    ► Interstellar (2014)
    ► The Expanse (2015 - present)
    ► 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)
    ► The Martian (2015)
    ► Passengers (2016)
    ► Alien (1979)
    ► Flame over India (1959)
    ► Star Trek: First Contact (1996)
    ► Prometheus (2012)
    ► Alien: Covenant (2017)
    ► Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987 - 1994)
    ► Planet Earth (2006)
    ► Elysium (2013)
    ► Alien: Resurrection (1997)
    ► Avengers: Endgame (2019)
    ► What Dreams May Come (1998)

    Special thanks to YouTuber Madd End for this fantastic artist's impression of the halo drive: Thumbnail image by Hazan:

    ::Playlists For Channel::

    Latest Cool Worlds Videos ►
    Cool Worlds Long Form Videos ►
    Cool Worlds Research ►
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    ::Follow us::

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    #EndOfTheUniverse #ConstantAcceleration #CoolWorlds #InterstellarTravel

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  • Voyager 2 Discovers Wall of Fire at Solar Systems Edge

    13:51

    You can buy Universe Sandbox 2 here:
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    Hello and welcome! My name is Anton and in this video, we will talk about the reports of what Voyager 2 discovered as it left the solar system and the discovery of physical barrier at the edge of the solar system.

    Support this channel on Patreon to help me make this a full time job:


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    Thank you to all Patreon supporters of this channel
    Specifically, great thanks to the following members:

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  • Visiting the Planet That Defies The Laws Of Physics

    2:02

    My Exoplanet Shop:
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    Kepler-16b Merch


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  • The Science Behind the Butterfly Effect

    12:51

    Chaos theory means deterministic systems can be unpredictable. Thanks to LastPass for sponsoring this video. Click here to start using LastPass:
    Animations by Prof. Robert Ghrist:

    Want to know more about chaos theory and non-linear dynamical systems? Check out:

    Butterfly footage courtesy of Phil Torres and The Jungle Diaries:
    Solar system, 3-body and printout animations by Jonny Hyman
    Some animations made with Universe Sandbox:
    Special thanks to Prof. Mason Porter at UCLA who I interviewed for this video.

    I have long wanted to make a video about chaos, ever since reading James Gleick's fantastic book, Chaos. I hope this video gives an idea of phase space - a picture of dynamical systems in which each point completely represents the state of the system. For a pendulum, phase space is only 2-dimensional and you can get orbits (in the case of an undamped pendulum) or an inward spiral (in the case of a pendulum with friction). For the Lorenz equations we need three dimensions to show the phase space. The attractor you find for these equations is said to be strange and chaotic because there is no loop, only infinite curves that never intersect. This explains why the motion is so unpredictable - two different initial conditions that are very close together can end up arbitrarily far apart.

    Music from The Longest Rest A Sound Foundation Seaweed

  • Beyond the Cosmic Horizon

    18:53

    In 2012, scientists detected the most distant galaxy discovered to date. This galaxy is now expected to be over 46 billion light years from the Earth, at the very edge of the observable universe. But what differentiates the observable universe and the rest of the universe? Today, we examine how a 13 billion year-old universe can be hundreds of billions of light years in diameter, and what might be waiting for us behind the barrier of the cosmic horizon.

    Want to learn more about dark energy? Check out my other video:


    FOLLOW MY NEW TWITTER!


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    FOOTAGE:
    - Observable Universe Logarithmic Illustration:
    (Artist:
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    - Green Nebula Fly-by:
    - Cruising Through:
    - Light Travelling Demonstration:
    - Particles:
    - Galaxy Loop:
    - Earth Footage:
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    - Milky Way & Andromeda Collision:
    - Nebula 360:
    - Pixel Orb:

    MUSIC:
    - CO.AG: This Fascinating World


    - Chris Zabriskie: Stories About the World That Once Was


    - Chris Zabriskie: They Call it Nature



    - Popular Playlists! -
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  • Are We Actually Existing Inside A Black Hole? | How The Universe Works

    7:51

    Black holes defy all laws of physics, so how can we prove they actually exist? Did a black hole cause the big bang? And could we actually be living inside a black hole right now?

    Subscribe to Discovery UK for more great clips:


    Follow Discovery UK on Twitter:

  • 50 Surprising Facts About Space You Didnt Know

    12:19

    The first 1,000 people to sign up to Skillshare will get their first 2 months for free:

    Today we're going to focus on education and learn more about space and space facts that you probably didn't know about! As has been famously said, space is the final frontier. The greatest of unknowns, space is far vaster than we can comprehend, and filled with phenomenon we barely understand. While we've been watching the heavens in awe for millennia, space exploration and discovery only began in earnest in the mid 20th century. Yet even what are no doubt our primitive findings still point at a universe more incredible than we ever thought. Hello and welcome to another episode of The Infographics Show - today we're taking a look at 50 incredible facts about space!


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  • What is a Black Hole? - Stephen Hawkings final theory

    7:53

    ~ The black hole information paradox and Soft Hair ~
    You can check out Google's Science Journal app at

    What does Stephen Hawking's last paper on black holes with soft hair say about the black hole information paradox?

    If you liked this video check out these:
    The Most MYSTERIOUS Object in the Universe
    Why is the universe flat?






    creator: dianna cowern
    editing: dianna and eric birkemeier, and jabril ashe
    animations: keegan larwin, kyle norby and dianna
    research: sophia chen
    writing: dianna cowern, sophia and dan walsh
    script editing: dan abromowitz

    Thanks to Andrew Strominger, Derek Muller and Kyle Kitzmiller!

    Thanks to Matt Parker for the footage of the flaming parabola of fire” - from Festival of the Spoken Nerd show Just For Graphs” - fotsn.com/j4g -

    Paper source:

  • Why This Stuff Costs $2700 Trillion Per Gram - Antimatter at CERN

    11:30

    Physics Girl is on Patreon! ►►

    There’s a factory in Europe that makes antimatter! It’s the rarest, most expensive, and potentially the most dangerous material on earth. Scientists don’t know why this material is so rare. Anti-atoms took 72 years after we discovered antimatter to make. Why?

    Thanks to CERN, Elise Wursten, Loïc Bommersbach and Sarah Charley






    Creator/Host: Dianna Cowern
    Editor: Levi Butner
    Research & Writing: Sophia Chen & Dianna & Imogen Ashford

    Sources:
    Current estimate of Antimatter, courtesy of Elise:
    Stefan Ulmer made a back-of-the-envelope calculation based on energy and power consumption. The explanation goes as follows:
    1. CERN produces 3e7 antiprotons per AD cycle or about 1e15 per year
    2. This is about 1e15*1.67e-27kg = 1.67 nanogram per year
    3. 1 gram of antiprotons has an energy (E=mc^2) of 9e13 Joule
    4. The efficiency of the antiproton production process is 1e-9, so you need a billion times more energy: 9e22 Joule
    5. The cost of power for CERN is 1kWh = 3.6e6 Joule = 0.1 euro
    6. So that would make 0.1/3.6e6*9e22 = 2.5e15 euro
    7. And it would take CERN 6e8 years

    (1999)

    - you can see the nuke city

    Mass of Fish: Contribution of Fish to the Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle


    Dirac’s attitude about the positive solution to his equation
    Dave’s Essay:

    Questions at CERN


    Creating Antihidrogen:


  • A Star Thats 200,000,000 Years Older than the Universe

    10:51

    I have a NEW channel ► Meet, Arnold! -

    If you like this video - put Thumb Up button (please) and
    Subscribe to Ridddle channel. We will make this universe smarter together!
    Okay, okay. I got to go..... See You Soooooooooooooooon dudes ;)

  • What is Farthest Away?

    7:14

    You can learn more at
    SUBSCRIBE so you don’t miss a video! ►►
    ↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓

    The edge of everything used to be the edge of the map. But now, thanks to what we know about astrophysics and the universe, the edge of everything might not even exist…

    REFERENCES:





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    Produced by PBS Digital Studios
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  • The Extreme Physics Pushing Moore’s Law to the Next Level

    11:52

    A look inside a new precision machine that wants to reinvent the chip making industry.
    »Subscribe to Seeker!
    »Watch more Focal Point |

    An integrated circuit, or chip, is one of the biggest innovations of the 20th century. The microchip launched a technological revolution, created Silicon Valley, and everyone’s got one in their pocket (read: smartphones).

    When you zoom in on one of these chips, you find a highly complex, nanoscale-sized city that’s expertly designed to send information back and forth.

    And chip manufacturers continue to shrink the size of microchips, hitting smaller and smaller milestones while also increasing the number of features a chip has. The result is an improved overall processing power.

    This is what’s been driving the semiconductor industry—a drumbeat called Moore’s Law.

    Moore's Law is the golden rule in computing: The number of transistors on a microchip can be expected to double every two years, while the cost of computers is cut in half. This basically means we'll have more speed, at less cost, over time. And so, we've been shrinking transistors (the tiny electric switches that process data for everything from clocks to AI algorithms) down to really, really tiny nanoscales.

    And though we've hit a physical limit on how small these transistors can get, Intel (and a couple other competitors, like Samsung and TSMC) are betting big on something new: EUV Lithography.

    Find out more about this next generation of chip technology that is taking Moore’s Law to a new level on this episode of Focal Point.

    #MooresLaw #MicroChip #SiliconValley #Computing #EUVLithography #Seeker #FocalPoint #Science
    ____________________

    Read More:

    EUV Lithography Finally Ready for Chip Manufacturing

    “The giant machine garnering all this attention is an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool. For more than a decade, the semiconductor-manufacturing industry has been alternately hoping EUV can save Moore’s Law and despairing that the technology will never arrive. But it’s finally here, and none too soon.”

    Moore's Law Keeps Going, Defying Expectations

    “It’s a mystery why Gordon Moore’s “law,” which forecasts processor power will double every two years, still holds true a half century later”

    Silicon Valley Owes Its Success To This Tech Genius You’ve Never Heard Of

    “They called Robert Noyce the Mayor of Silicon Valley, but like many in public office, his work wasn’t well known.”
    ____________________

    Our scientific understanding of the universe is advancing at an unprecedented rate. Join Focal Point as we meet the people building tomorrow’s world. Witness the astonishing discoveries that will propel humanity forward and zero-in on the places where science-fiction becomes science-reality.

    Seeker empowers the curious to understand the science shaping our world. We tell award-winning stories about the natural forces and groundbreaking innovations that impact our lives, our planet, and our universe.

    Visit the Seeker website

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  • x
  • Zooming Out From Earth to the Edge of the Observable Universe

    11:28

    We all know that the universe is big. But how big it is? Much bigger than you think. Let's start out by looking at the Earth, and then zoom out to progressively larger and larger structures, so that we can see just how big it is. Then let's get into our spaceship and blast off to the edge of the observable universe, so that we can see for ourselves!

    Music by Simulated Sun:



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    Check out my original content on Graphy:

    Mathematics Tutorials:
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  • How We’ll Find the Aliens in Our Solar System! | STELLAR

    7:04

    Thank you to Draper and its Hack the Moon initiative for supporting PBS Digital Studios | Learn more at

    I got to visit two awesome upcoming NASA missions searching for life in our solar system! The Mars 2020 rover mission targeting the Jezero Crater and the Europa Clipper reconnaissance mission to explore one of Jupiter's moons due to launch in 2023. I explore if alien life is possible, where we're most likely to find it and why.

    I know, this video is a bit different from most Physics Girl videos. It's part of a PBS miniseries called Stellar, done in collaboration with Matt O’Dowd from @PBSSpacetime and Joe Hanson from @It'sOkayToBeSmart. Over six episodes we travel to telescopes, go inside space research centers, and chat with amazing scientists. Next up is Joe's episode where he explores where life might be outside our solar system.

    Check out the other episodes in this series:
    The Quasar from The Beginning of Time | STELLAR

    Seeing a Black Hole with a Planet-Sized Telescope | STELLAR

    I Visited the First Gravitational Wave Detector! LIGO | STELLAR


    Stellar is a part of the PBS Summer of Space. There'll be lots of awesome space related content all summer long on PBS. See what's happening at

    #SummerOfSpacePBS #astrophysics #space

    Thanks to David Gruel, Brent Buffington and everyone at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory who helped us out!




  • Why are there giant concrete tunnels in the desert?

    11:25

    The Physics Girl team visited LIGO once again. This place is Dianna's obsession.

    If you liked this video check out these:
    I Visited the First Gravitational Wave Detector! LIGO | STELLAR

    Why aren't plants black? :herb:

    Thanks to LIGO Hanford, Michael Landry, Amber Strunk, Sharan Banagiri and Salvatore Vitale.




    Creator/Host: Dianna Cowern
    Editor: Levi Butner
    Research & Writing: Dianna & Imogen Ashford

  • How Earth Moves

    21:37

    It’s here! Science stuff, mind-blowing stuff, Vsauce stuff, oh my!! THE CURIOSITY BOX:

    Jake’s video about The Curiosity Box:

    Minute Physics on why December days are the longest:

    StandUpMaths on calendars and leap days:

    Tom Scott on the Equation of Time:

    My video on what would happen if the Earth stopped spinning:

    GREAT visuals showing how Earth moves around the sun:



    George Washington’s birthday:

    real-time sub solar point location:

    Lahaina noon images from the Oahu Astrophotography club:

    analemma:

    great solargraph and analemma images:

    interactive seasons and ecliptic simulator:

    Nasa video of seasonal movement of Earth:

    Tropical year:

    Earth rotation specifics:

    How Earth moves through the universe:






    minute physics on cab:

    PBS spacetime on the cosmic microwave background:





    CMB rest frame:




    Wikipedia:










    wikicommons images:





    To explore space, I highly recommend these:




    music by
    and

    Awesome 3D graphics by Eric Langlay:
    Lame 2D stuff by me.

  • Whats Inside A Black Hole? | Unveiled

    9:16

    What's Inside A Black Hole?
    Subscribe:

    Black holes are mysterious and bizarre objects in the universe that really have no explanation. In fact, we hardly know anything about what lies inside of a black hole. We know and understand what we see on the outside of a black hole, but we have no way of going inside one to take a look at what is really happening. Even if we sent a probe inside a black hole, it would not survive the journey, and there would be no way that the probe could transmit a signal outside once it had been sucked inside. This is because a black hole is the product of mass being squeezed together so densely, and so tightly, that it creates a gravitational pull that is so strong, that not even light can escape its grasp.

    Supermassive black holes with masses millions to billions of times that of the sun are thought to lurk at the hearts of all galaxies in the universe. You may notice that when you see a photo of a spiral galaxy, such as the Milky Way, in the center of the galaxy is a giant mass of light, which many people would think looks like a massive sun.

    But this is not light coming from the black hole itself. Remember, that light cannot escape the heavy gravitational pull. Instead, the light we see comes from the magnetic fields near a spinning black hole that propel electrons outward in a jet along the rotation axis. The electrons produce bright radio waves. Quasars are believed to produce their energy from massive black holes in the center of the galaxies in which the quasars are located. Because quasars are so bright, they drown out the light from all the other stars in the same galaxy.

    You’re probably asking, ‘well, what’s a quasar?’ A Quasar is the short name for ‘quasi-stellar object’ and is a very highly energetic object surrounding an actively feeding Supermassive Black Hole. In more basic terms, the Supermassive Black Hole in the middle of a galaxy feeds intermittently. As it feeds, gas swirls around it at incredible speeds and forms an insanely bright hot orbiting disk. And if the black hole is swallowing a large amount of material, this feeding is accompanied by gigantic jets of gas. These are called Quasar. They are essentially fueled by the Black Holes they orbit.

  • 5 SCARY Physics Experiments!

    8:09

    Top 5 creepy science experiments ft. iJustine
    Try Audible for 30 days visit or text physicsgirl to 500 500!

    Check out iJustine's video!

    If you liked this video check out these:
    MKBHD collab exploring hidden magnets

    WHICH TANK FILLS FIRST? ft. Simone Giertz


    Big thanks to UCSD Physics for lending us the Van de Graaf generator!






    Creator/Host: Dianna Cowern
    Editor: Levi Butner
    Camera: Tyler Davis Carey
    Research and Writing: Dianna & Imogen Ashford

  • How rainbows with NO COLOR are possible

    8:21

    What the heck are spider-web rainbows? What are these rare white rainbows, and how do they form?

    If you liked this video check out these:
    Does this look WHITE to you?

    The Projector Illusion:


    Special thanks to our Sally Ride level patrons: Alejandro Gutierrez, Brian O'Connell, Darkbit, Dave Butler, David Cichowski, Edi, Fabrice Eap, Henning Bitsch, Kenneth Hunter, Margaux Lopez, and Zalster.
    Join the Physics Girl Patreon community! ►►

    Thanks to: Brussels Airport (@BrusselsAirport) / Twitter, NWS Key West (@NWSKeyWest) / Twitter, Phil Plait (@BadAstronomer), Chris Cox, (c) Timm Chapman - Alex Tudorica, Colin Leonhardt at Birdseye View Photography, Craig Gardner (@rcraiggardner) / Twitter, Pascal (@Pascal_Brunet) / Twitter, Fabio de Albuquerque (@fabio914) / Twitter, Justin Hoover (@baselogik) / Twitter, Kayden Morrison.






    Creator/Host: Dianna Cowern
    Editor: Levi Butner
    Production Assistance: Heather Dewis

    Sources:
    The mathematical physics of rainbows and glories
    John A. Adam


    Raindrop and mist droplet sizes:











    Screenshotted articles about Fogbows/White Rainbows

  • Most People Don’t Know Wine Moves Like This | EVERYDAY MYSTERY

    10:25

    Wine legs aka wine tears or wine fingers are stranger than they seem.

    Check out Vsauce3 Can You Survive the Movies!


    Zero G with Veritasium and e-penser:


    Bursting Dropletes - The Lutetium Project


    Thanks to






    Creator/Host: Dianna Cowern
    Editor: Levi Butner
    Writer: Anna Leonard
    Producer: Imogen Ashford

    Thanks to Yonatan Dukler, Hangjie Ji, and Claudia Falcon!



    References:
    Dukler et. Al Paper

    Tears of wine: new insights on an old phenomenon

    Ars Technica

    APS Conference

    Bertozzi Research

    Tears of Wine 1992

    Royal Society Marangoni Effects in Welding

    Weld Penetration

    Comsol good image of surface of wine

    A detailed study of semiconductor wafer drying (application of marangoni effect)

  • This thing is -270°C and is EVERYWHERE

    9:57

    Download the PBS Video App:
    The universe is microwaving itself. A mystery signal discovered in the 1960s led to a Nobel prize.


    In this video, Dianna explores one of the most mysterious discoveries in physics - a constant microwave signal that seemed to be coming from everywhere in the universe. It turned out to be light from an unusual process 13.8 billion years ago.

    Special thanks to our Sally Ride level patrons: Alejandro Gutierrez, Brian O'Connell, Darkbit, Dave Butler, David Cichowski, Edi, Fabrice Eap, Henning Bitsch, Kenneth Hunter, Margaux Lopez, and Vincent Flores.
    Join the Physics Girl Patreon community! ►►

    Check out MinutePhysics - Why do compressed air cans get cold?


    If you liked this video check out these:
    Why is the universe flat?

    How the Edge of our Galaxy Defies Known Physics


    MANY thanks to: Nick Lucid, Katie Mack, Derek Muller, Henry Reich, Thom Ory and Edward Wright for helping with this video!

    Thanks to Levi Butner for inspiriting the idea for this video by asking me WAY too many questions during work! :)






    Creator/Host: Dianna Cowern
    Editor: Levi Butner
    Writing: Valerie Bentivegna
    Research/Copy Editing: Dianna Cowern

    Sources:
    Temperature and wavelength of original CMB:


    ESA Planck References:

    NASA WMAP Reference:

    Interview with John G. Cramer (via email)

    Nobel prize photo - Alexander Mahmoud 2018

  • The Truth About Gravity With Professor Jim Al-Khalili | Gravity And Me | Spark

    45:15

    Physics professor Jim Al-Khalili investigates the amazing science of gravity. A fundamental force of nature, gravity shapes our entire universe, sculpting galaxies and warping space and time. But gravity's strange powers, discovered by Albert Einstein, also affect
    our daily lives in the most unexpected ways. As Jim tells the story of gravity, it challenges his own understanding of the nature of reality.
    The science of gravity includes the greatest advances in physics, and Jim recreates groundbreaking experiments in gravity including
    when the Italian genius Galileo first worked out how to measure it.

    Gravity science is still full of surprises and Jim investigates the latest breakthrough - 'gravity waves' - ripples in the vast emptiness of space. He also finds out from astronauts what it's like to live without gravity.

    But gravity also directly affects all of us very personally - making a difference to our weight, height, posture and even the rate at which we age. With the help of volunteers and scientists, Jim sets out to find where in Britain gravity is weakest and so where we weigh the least. He also helps design a smartphone app that volunteers use to demonstrate how gravity affects time and makes us age at slightly different rates.

    And finally, Jim discovers that despite incredible progress, gravity has many secrets.

    Content Provided By TVF International. Any Queries Please Contact Us at hello@littledotstudios.com

    Subscribe to Spark for more amazing science, tech and engineering videos -

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    #JimAl-Khalili #weightloss #age #quantumphysics #gravity #quantummechanics #space #time #nature #science #technology #alberteinstein

  • The Secrets Of Quantum Physics with Jim Al-Khalili | Spark

    58:50

    Professor Jim Al-Khalili traces the story of arguably the most important, accurate and yet perplexing scientific theory ever: quantum physics.

    The story of quantum physics starts at the beginning of the 20th century with scientists trying to better understand how light bulbs work. This simple question soon led scientists deep into the hidden workings of matter, into the sub-atomic building blocks of the world around us. Here they discovered phenomena unlike any encountered before - a realm where things can be in many places at once, where chance and probability call the shots and where reality appears to only truly exist when we observe it.

    Albert Einstein hated the idea that nature, at its most fundamental level, is governed by chance. Jim reveals how in the 1930's, Einstein thought he'd found a fatal flaw in quantum physics. This was not taken seriously until it was tested in the 1960s. Professor Al-Khalili repeats this critical experiment, posing the question does reality really exist, or do we conjure it into existence by the act of observation?

    Elsewhere, we explore how the most famous law of quantum physics – The Uncertainty Principle – is obeyed by plants and trees as they capture sunlight during the vital process of photosynthesis. Could quantum mechanics explain the greatest mystery in biology - evolution?

    Content Provided By TVF International. Any Queries Please Contact Us at hello@littledotstudios.com

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    #Quantumphysics #life #subatomicparticles #engineering #science #technology #JimAl-Khalili #experiment #originoflife

  • bluedot 2018 | Jim Al-Khalili: Entanglement and Wormholes

    48:21

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most powerful and successful theories in all of science, but what it tells about the fundamental building blocks of matter can be very baffling. Physicists and chemists have had to get used to this strangeness, but biologists have so far got away without having to worry too much about it. However, times are changing. There is now solid evidence that many fundamental processes inside living cells rely on the weird rules of the quantum world, from enzymes to photosynthesis to the way our sense of smell works. There is even the hint that some birds navigate during migration thanks to quantum entanglement. This talk introduced the exciting new field of Quantum Biology by one of its foremost practitioners.

    bluedot is an award-winning weekend of discovery at the grounds of the Jodrell Bank deep space observatory. Set against a backdrop of the iconic Lovell Telescope, bluedot combines a truly stellar line-up of music with a ground-breaking programme of live science experiments, expert talks and immersive artworks.

    Follow bluedot:


  • Mysteries of Modern Physics by Sean Carroll

    1:6:39

    One of the great intellectual achievements of the twentieth century was the theory of quantum mechanics, according to which observational results can only be predicted probabilistically rather than with certainty. Yet, after decades in which the theory has been successfully used on an everyday basis, most physicists would agree that we still don’t truly understand what it means. I will talk about the source of this puzzlement, and explain why an increasing number of physicists are led to an apparently astonishing conclusion: that the world we experience is constantly branching into different versions, representing the different possible outcome of quantum measurements. This could have important consequences for quantum gravity and the emergence of spacetime.

    Sean Carroll is a theoretical physicist at the California Institute of Technology, and an External Professor at the Santa Fe Institute. He is the host of the weekly Mindscape podcast. He is the author of several books, most recently Something Deeply Hidden: Quantum Worlds and the Emergence of Spacetime.

  • 5 Fun Physics Phenomena

    5:28

    Five cool physics tricks, but how do they work?
    Explanations:
    Check out Audible.com:
    Leave your ideas in the comments below or subscribe for the answers next week.

    Chris Hadfield in AUS:
    All tickets now sold out.

    The Cane Balance:
    Slide your fingers in from the ends of a horizontal cane to find its centre of mass.

    Shot and Edited by Pierce Cook at the YouTube Space LA.

    Music by Amarante:

  • Only some humans can see this type of light

    9:46

    Polarized light is an unusual form of light. Can humans see when light is polarized?
    To learn more about Brilliant, go to

    Subscribe to physics girl:

    Check out the other YouTubers in this video!
    Léo Grasset (Dirty Biology)

    William Osman

    Allen Pan


    CREDITS
    Creator: Dianna Cowern
    Editing: Jabril Ashe
    Animations: Kyle Norby
    Research: Sophia Chen
    Adviser: Dan Walsh

    Thanks to Kyle Kitzmiller and Bill Herrington!







    PO Box 9281
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    Resources:

  • Black Holes and the Structure of Spacetime by Juan Maldacena

    1:29:32

    PUBLIC LECTURES

    Black Holes and the Structure of Spacetime by Juan Maldacena

    DATE: 25 May 2018, 16:00 to 18:00
    VENUE: Chandrasekhar Auditorium, ICTS, Bangalore


    Black holes are fascinating objects predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity. Though they were initially viewed as pathological and unphysical solutions, they were later understood to be a solid and generic outcome of the theory. They are objects where the distortion of space and time is so extreme that it defies imagination. Black holes give rise to paradoxes whose resolution requires us to modify our conception of spacetime. We will review how black holes went from being an apparently unphysical solutions to a central tool for discovering new perspectives on the nature of spacetime.

    Table of Contents (powered by
    0:00:00 PUBLIC LECTURE
    0:09:43 Black Holes and the Structure of Spacetime
    0:10:40 They are not black
    0:11:26 Principle of Relativity
    0:12:06 Special Relativity
    0:12:31 Both measure the same speed of light
    0:13:16 The twin paradox
    0:15:44 Gravity
    0:16:16 Einstein's happy thought:
    0:16:57 Feels weightless
    0:17:14 General Relativity
    0:17:57 Gravity changes the flow of time
    0:19:10 Karl Schwarzschild found the spacetime geometry outside a massive spherical body
    0:21:26 They are not falling freely!
    0:21:47 The geometry continues behind the horizon
    0:23:54 Space-time as a river
    0:25:49 1) Once you cross the horizon, you cannot get out!
    0:26:13 Real black holes
    0:26:39 How do we see them?
    0:27:14 Many galaxies similar to ours have these black holes at the center.
    0:27:59 Black hole collisions produce gravity waves
    0:28:33 Interesting theoretical aspects
    0:28:54 Interesting properties
    0:30:30 Area law - The area of the horizon always increases.
    0:31:25 We have discussed black holes according to Einstein's theory of general relativity,
    0:31:51 White Black holes!
    0:33:39 Why? Relativistic quantum mechanics
    0:33:49 The vacuum
    0:36:28 The life of a black hole
    0:38:02 Theoretical problems with black hole temperature
    0:38:46 Temperature
    0:39:19 Heat and entropy (disorder)
    0:40:36 What are the constituents of a black hole?
    0:41:08 Information loss
    0:42:36 We need a theory that puts together quantum mechanics and gravity
    0:42:52 String theory
    0:43:58 Holography
    0:45:57 Black holes correspond to a large number of particles on the boundary
    0:46:56 The theory on the boundary obeys the rules of quantum mechanics
    0:47:28 Emergent geometry
    0:47:55 If a man does not keep pace with his companions,
    0:49:10 State of the quantum system.
    0:50:04 What is a black hole in the spacetime
    0:50:08 Back to the sentence
    0:50:13 Make a couple of changes
    0:51:14 More changes...
    0:51:24 No words...
    0:52:00 If the changes were produced by a reversible process, e.g. an encryption algorithm.
    0:53:06 Laws of physics on the boundary change the state of the boundary theory.
    0:54:02 Using holography to learn about strongly interacting theories:
    0:55:14 Black holes as sources of information
    0:56:09 Entanglement and geometry
    0:56:51 Two sided Schwarzschild solution
    0:58:43 Wormhole interpretation.
    0:59:27 Not the typical science fiction wormhole
    1:01:19 In the exact theory,
    1:02:42 Analogy
    1:03:51 A forbidden meeting
    1:05:39 Black hole interior
    1:06:36 Conclusions
    1:07:14 The end
    1:07:23 Q&A

  • 10 Real Things That Defy The Laws Of Physics

    12:13

    10 Real Things That Defy The Laws Of Physics

    The human race has come a long way all thanks to our knowledge of science. We now have a far much better understanding of why and how things happen in a certain way.
    But that is not to say we have it all figured out. Some laws of Physics become obsolete when we consider a couple of stuff around us. And that’s the focus of our video today – 10 things that don’t care what Physics says.
    #10 Particles That Travel Faster Than Light
    Light travels at a speed of 299,792,458 meters per second. Commonly, this is the highest known speed that any particle can travel at. And that’s for a good reason.
    One of the 20th century’s brightest minds Albert Einstein had drawn this conclusion. According to his special relativity theory, the speed of light is the maximum pace for both energy and matter.
    The law has been used extensively in the world of Physics and is a core component in Einstein’s theory. And it’s no surprise. Albert was an intelligent chap and wielded a certain kind of influence in the scientific community – he still does, by the way.
    But in 2011, something interesting happened. A group of physicists behind the Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tracking Apparatus (OPERA) experiment discovered that some particles can travel faster than light.
    In the experiment, the scientists beamed neutrinos from CERN lab near Geneva, Switzerland to the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy. The distance between the two is approximately 730 kilometers.
    The result?
    The beam of neutrinos reached its destination about 60 nanoseconds early meaning it traveled at a speed faster than that of light, hence, quashing Einstein's special theory of relativity. Of course, there was a lot of skepticism in the science community when this revelation was released but more tests proved wrong a law that had been around for over a century.
    #9 Tetraneutron
    A tetraneutron is hypothetical for a larger part with papers from as far back as 1965 disputing its existence. Tetraneutron here refers to a lone cluster of four neutrons, existing without any protons. This is impossible when you take into account the instability of neutrons.
    There have always been attempts to observe them, though. One of these was in 2001 led by theoretical physicist Francisco-Miguel Marques at Ganil accelerator in Caen, France.
    The researchers fired atomic nuclei at a carbon target – this is a standard practice in most particle accelerator experiments. In this experiment, the scientists used beryllium-14, beryllium-15, and lithium-11.
    By doing this, they were trying to separate beryllium’s cluster of four neutrons. They observed a single flash of light and hypothesized that it could have been caused by four neutrons hitting the same place at the same time. But since their results couldn’t be replicated, this observation was written off.
    Another close-enough experiment was conducted in 2016 in Japan. In this case, a beam of helium-8 was fired at helium-4, occasionally producing beryllium-8 nuclei. The tetraneutron might have appeared briefly in this experiment.
    #8 The Quantum Zeno Effect
    Wikipedia defines the quantum Zeno effect as the suppression of unitary time evolution in quantum systems provided by measurement, interactions with the environment, stochastic fields and so on.
    In simpler terms, the quantum Zeno effect refers to a situation where a system is adamant to change because of being under constant observation.
    It sounds crazy since the behavior of a particle isn’t usually determined with whether the said particle is being watched or not. A decaying sample, for instance, will go on doing so regardless of whether you have your eyes peeled on it or not. This is so since there is no connection between being watched and decaying.
    Take uranium for instance. It’s a highly unstable substance and will undergo radioactive decay over time. But when scientists in Texas sat down to watch a sample, nothing happened. But when they left, the decay went on as usual.
    #7 Starlite
    Starlite first became known to the public in 1990 thanks to BBC which featured it on the program “Tomorrow’s World”. It was a kind of a heat barrier that was quite revolutionary at that time.

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  • Looking Into the Center of the Galaxy

    10:17

    Astrophysicist Rachel Smith is an observer of forming stars. From 20,000 light years away, Smith trawls the frontiers of our galaxy searching through the chemistry of where in the universe Earth-like planets could exist.

    “You have a puzzle with a million or a billion pieces, and we’ve got one piece,” explains Smith. “I’m interested in the chemistry of what’s going on from where we are to where the center of our galaxy is.”

    In episode five of The Most Unknown, Smith travels to Hawaii’s W.M. Keck Observatory with astrobiologist Luke McKay to explore the Milky Way using Keck’s powerful twin telescopes perched atop the Big Island’s dormant Mauna Kea volcano.

    Subscribe to MOTHERBOARD:

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  • How To Levitate | The Edge of Science | Extended Cut

    40:35

    Is levitation possible? YouTube Originals and BBC Studios bring you The Edge of Science, a scientific dive into the outer reaches of our understanding. Follow host and science enthusiast, Rick Edwards as he taps into the scientific community of YouTube to help him fulfill a lifetime's ambition - to levitate himself. Physics girl (Dianna Cowern) and science inventor, Colin Furze, join Rick and together, they will experiment their way into getting Rick off the ground, by physics alone. Can they do it?

    Love learning on YouTube? Check out YouTube's new and improved learning hub (youtube.com/learning) for everything from well-being to history to how tos and all of the things in between. You'll also find more great YouTube Originals content full of your favourite YouTube Creators.

    This is a commercial channel from BBC Studios. Service & Feedback

  • The Most MYSTERIOUS Object in the Universe

    7:01

    Physics Girl astrophysics series - Brown Dwarfs are among the most recently observed objects in the universe. They have at MOST 8% the mass of the Sun. The lower mass boundary is not known! So they are halfway between stars and gas giant planets. Astrophysicist Daniella Bardalez Gagliuffi sits down with Dianna Cowern to discuss the latest research and the history of Brown Dwarfs

    Check out PBS Digital Studios' Above the Noise: Are Internet Trolls Born or Made?


    If you liked this video check out these:
    What is a Black Hole? - Stephen Hawking's final theory

    Why is the universe flat?


    Creator: Dianna Cowern
    Editing: Jabril Ashe
    Original animations: Kyle Norby

    Thanks to Daniella Bardalez Gagliuffi!






    PO Box 9281
    San Diego, CA 92169

    Original article theorizing brown dwarfs:
    Sources and more reading:


  • Why RED BUBBLES are impossible… or are they?!

    10:41

    Take a look at a bubble and you’ll see all the colors of the rainbow... right? WRONG. Bubbles are actually missing colors!

    Check out Self-Evident on PBS Voices:

    My Patreon!

    If you liked this video, check out:
    Only some humans can see this type of light:
    How rainbows with NO COLOR are possible:






    Creator/Host: Dianna Cowern
    Editor: Levi Butner
    Production Assistant: Hope Butner

    Thanks to
    Ben Ryder for the amazing footage of wave interference from his YouTube channel:
    The awesome folks who shared their bubble pictures with me on twitter!: Andy Callaway, Philip Palermo, lifewithjess, Danny Thomas, Cate McCleery, @SbastienAndrie4, and so many more that didn't make it into the video.

    Special thanks to our Sally Ride level patrons: David Cichowski, Fabrice Eap, Henning Bitsch, Kenneth Hunter, Margaux Lopez, Patrick Olson, Vikram Bhat, wc993219.
    Join the Physics Girl Patreon community! ►►

    Sources:
    Wave interference video footage provided by Ben Ryder's YouTube channel:

  • Physics of the universe

    32

    UCD physicist Dr Lorraine Hanlon talks about the sun's vital role as a giver of life on earth and outlines how astronomers explore the many stars and galaxies in the universe.

    In the clip, Lorraine refers to the 1:4 scale model of XMM-Newton, an ESA earth-orbiting satellite observatory, donated to University College Dublin by the European Space Authority, and on public display at UCD Science.

    Physics is one of the subjects available through the Science programme at UCD. It is also possible to study Physics with Astronomy & Space Science. More at

  • There Are Mysterious Objects at the Edge of Sagittarius A*, Here’s What We Know

    2:51

    Astronomers observed dust clouds lurking around the black hole at our galaxy’s center. They weren’t of that much interest, until they started behaving in unusual ways.

    What Does It Sound Like When Black Holes Smash Into Each Other? -

    Thumbnail image courtesy W. M. Keck Observatory.

    Read More:

    More Mystery Objects Detected Near Milky Way’s Supermassive Black Hole

    “Astronomers have discovered several bizarre objects at the Galactic Center that are concealing their true identity behind a smoke screen of dust; they look like gas clouds, but behave like stars.”

    Mysterious 'Puffy' Objects Lurk Near the Milky Way's Monster Black Hole

    “The team discovered these objects by measuring the wavelengths of light released by the structures of gas and dust at the galaxy's center using the Keck Observatory's OH-Suppressing Infrared Imaging Spectrograph.”

    Mysterious Objects Have Been Detected Coming Way Too Close to The Milky Way's Black Hole

    “During the 1970s, astronomer became aware of a massive radio source at the center of our galaxy that they later realized was a Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) – which has since been named Sagittarius A*.”

    ____________________

    Elements is more than just a science show. It’s your science-loving best friend, tasked with keeping you updated and interested on all the compelling, innovative and groundbreaking science happening all around us. Join our passionate hosts as they help break down and present fascinating science, from quarks to quantum theory and beyond.

    Seeker explains every aspect of our world through a lens of science, inspiring a new generation of curious minds who want to know how today’s discoveries in science, math, engineering and technology are impacting our lives, and shaping our future. Our stories parse meaning from the noise in a world of rapidly changing information.

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  • The Edge of Science | Nury Vittachi | TEDxYouth@TSIS

    15:23

    People assume scientists are only interested in physical things. But in truth, surprisingly open-minded or even mystical, discussing concepts of other dimensions, time travel and higher consciousness. Novelist and science writer Nury Vittachi opens the door to a scientific glimpse of the other side.

    People assume scientists are only interested in physical things. But in truth, surprisingly open-minded or even mystical, discussing concepts of other dimensions, time travel and higher consciousness. Novelist and science writer Nury Vittachi opens the door to a scientific glimpse of the other side.

    This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

  • Can you solve the BOWL RIDDLE? ft. Kurt Hugo Schneider Part 1/3

    6:43

    Answer to the bowl riddle:
    Three tricky riddles! See if you can solve (1) the bucket riddle (2) the clock puzzle (3) the bowl riddle! ft. musician and producer Kurt Hugo Schneider!

    Check out Kurt's channel!


    Creator: Dianna Cowern
    Editing: Jabril Ashe and Dianna
    Research: Dan Walsh




  • What Size Magnet Can ERASE a Credit Card?

    10:09

    Check out Samy's channel:
    Don’t try this at home! The experiments and products shown in this episode were used in the name of science.

    If you liked this video check out these:
    The HIDDEN Magnets in Your Phone!

    How to shrink a quarter with electricity







    Creator/Host/Writer/Editor: Dianna Cowern
    Editor: Jabril Ashe
    Science Consultant: Dan Walsh
    Videography: Dianna, Jabril and Trace Dominguez

    Thanks to Rachel Cohen for the idea for this video and for her help!

    Thank to Casey Wessel, Demetra Airaudi, and Josh from the farmers’ market.

  • WHICH TANK FILLS FIRST? ft. Simone Giertz

    7:33

    Dianna Cowern from Physics Girl and Simone Giertz take this viral bucket riddle to the real world with a physical test. Which tank will fill first?

    Subscribe to Physics Girl:
    Subscribe to Simone Giertz!
    Try 23andMe at

    If you liked this video check out these:
    I built an acoustic LEVITATOR! Making liquid float on air

    Can you solve the bowl riddle? ft. Kurt Hugo Schneider







    Creator: Dianna Cowern
    Editor: Jabril Ashe

    Thanks to Kyle Kitzmiller and Simone Giertz!

    The answer to the second riddle is F. But only if you again make many ridiculous assumptions that are not specified in these ridiculous viral riddles.

  • How Miracle Berries Alter Your Taste Buds

    4:47

    We gave Physics Girl, Space Time, Above the Noise, and Two Cents some miracle berry pills and lemons, tabasco sauce, tomatoes, and a bunch of other random foods, to figure out if this miraculous taste-modifying protein has any limits. Also, we needed a good excuse to make Eon's host Kallie Moore eat a tomato.


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    You might also like:

    You Can Taste Garlic with Your Feet!?


    Why Do Things Taste Sweet?


    What Happens When You Eat Too Much?


    Why Does Toothpaste Make Orange Juice Taste Bad?


    Frying Your Way to Better Chicken


    Why Can’t You Buy *Fresh* Olives?





    Credits:
    Producer: Melissa Salpietra
    Host/Writer: George Zaidan
    Scientific Consultants: Steven D. Munger, Ph.D., Yuzo Ninomiya, Ph.D.

    Executive Producer: George Zaidan
    Executive Producer: Hilary Hudson

    Music:
    Bongo Madness
    Alandra Lightflower Jones - Strike it up


    Sources:

    Mechanism of the Action of Taste-modifying Protein


    Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin


    Intracellular acidification is required for full activation of the sweet taste receptor by miraculin


    Sour-To-Sweet Miracle Mechanism Revealed


    Taking A Trip Down Sensory Lane



    Ever wonder why dogs sniff each others' butts? Or how Adderall works? Or whether it's OK to pee in the pool? We've got you covered: Reactions a web series about the chemistry that surrounds you every day.

    Produced by the American Chemical Society. Join the American Chemical Society!

  • What is the MAGIC RUSSIAN DIAMOND?

    8:28

    In the early 2000s, physicist found a diamond they’d been searching for. Find out what it was used for.
    Visit Lockheed Martin’s Website:

    Check out JTV’s asterism video!


    If you liked this video check out these:
    The Most MYSTERIOUS Object in the Universe

    IMPOSSIBLE Zero G Skyscraper


    Creator: Dianna Cowern
    Editing: Jabril Ashe and Dianna
    Animations: Kyle Norby
    Research: Sophia Chen and Dianna

    Many MANY thanks to Ben Bloomberg, Jenny Schloss, and Kyle Kitzmiller






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  • How Does Nature Create Itself?

    14:52

    Watch over 2,400 documentaries for free for 30 days AND get a free Nebula account by signing up at and using the code upandatom. Once you sign up you'll get an email about Nebula. If you don't get one, contact the curiosity stream support team and they will set you up with a free Nebula account right away.

    Nebula:

    Hi! I'm Jade. If you'd like to consider supporting Up and Atom, head over to my Patreon page :)


    Subscribe to Up and Atom for videos about hard stuff explained less hard


    *ALL THE LINKS*
    Play the game of life
    Play any cellular automata
    Gemini
    Rule 30 simulator
    Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction
    Self assembling wires
    Origami robots
    Roombots
    Wooden ferris wheel
    Math posters
    Curiosity Stream deal
    Nebula

    *Sources*
    A New Kind of Science - Stephen Wolfram

    Wheels, Life and Other Mathematical Amusements - Martin Gardner

    Game of life - Robert Wainwright



    *A big thank you to my AMAZING PATRONS!*
    Ryan Lewis Baron de Ropp, Karsten Nohl, Christopher Robert, Thorsten Auth, Purple Penguin, Thomas Krause, Gadi Shalom, Chris Flynn, David Johnston, Rick DeWitt, Yana Chernobilsky, Lynn Shackelford, Adam Thornton, Andrew Pann, Anne Tan, eris esoteric, Artem G., Aaron Dorn, Paul Barclay, John Cooper, Shawn Patrick James Kirby, Austin Rose, Zhong Cheng Wang, Mark, Corey Sampson, John Klinkner, Daniel Eliassen, Damien Holloway, Mikely Whiplash, John Lakeman, Jana Christine Saout, George Fletcher, Michael Dean, Marcus Dentrey, Chris Amaris, Matt G, KhAnubis, Broos Nemanic, Dag-Erling Smørgrav, John Shioli, Todd Loreman, Susan Jones, Joseph, Chris Teubert, Dylan Kolstad, Paul Burke, Michael Hunter, Fran, Christopher Milton, Joe, Chester Stadler, John Sokolowski, Bruce England, Robert J Frey, The Doom Merchant, Richard de Rozario, Christian Czekay, Martin Zenuik, Wolfgang Ripken, Jeremy Bowkett, Vincent Karpinski, Nicolas Frias, Christopher Phipps, Louis M, kadhonn, ThE rANdoMSTRaNGeR, Moose Thompson, Hal Roseman, Israel Shirk, 12tone, Sam Graf, George Xu, Andrew, Tamara McDermott, Charles from USA, Hassan Sedaghat, S, Sam Ross, Kay, Peter Walsh, Osa and Beth Fitch, Garrett Chomka, Jeff Schwarz, Josh B, Zach Tinawi, Bobby Butler, Rebecca Lashua, Pat Gunn, Jasper Capel, Luc Ritchie, Elze Kool, Aditya Anantharaman, Frédéric Junod, Vincent Seguin, Bernard Wei, Paul Bryan, Michael Brunolli, Shawn, Ken Takahashi, Jesse Clark, Steven Wheeler, Atila Pires dos Santos, Philip Freeman, Jareth Arnold, Simon Barker, Simon Tobar, Dennis Haupt, Ginny Liz, Lou, Alan McNea, Renato Pereira, Simon Dargaville and Magesh.

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    *Creator*
    Jade Tan-Holmes

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    Simon Morrow
    simonmorrow.com

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    Tom Groenestyn

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