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Interstellar Highway System

  • Interstellar Highway System

    30:53

    Could advanced civilizations be using a network of black holes for interstellar travel? In our last video, the halo drive was discussed covering the basic physics of how this new system could potentially enable interstellar flight. Here, we go much deeper on the halo drive concept, answering many of the questions which have been raised, and going further by considering the possibilities of a galactic wide network of such systems.

    This video is based on research conducted at the Cool Worlds Lab at Columbia University. You can now support our research program directly here:

    Chapters:
    0:08 Introduction
    4:39 The Halo Drive
    7:14 Non-Binary Halo Drive
    13:41 Leaving the Black Hole
    18:40 Deceleration
    21:15 A Halo Network
    26:29 Civilizations around Black Holes

    Academic articles used:
    ► Kipping, David (2018), The Halo Drive: Fuel Free Relativistic Propulsion of Large Mases via Recycled Boomerang Photons, JBIS, In Press:
    ► Kipping, David (2017), Relativistic Light Sails, AJ, 153, 277:
    ► Dyson, Freeman (1963), Gravitational Machines, in A.G.W. Cameron, ed., Interstellar Communication, New York Benjamin Press:
    ► Breakthrough Starshot homepage:
    ► Cool Worlds video giving some background on Breakthrough Starshot:
    ► Cool Worlds video on relativistic moving mirrors:
    ► Cool Worlds video on mirror distortion effects:
    ► Semyonov, Oleg (2006), Radiation Hazard of Relativistic Interstellar Flight:
    ► Hoang et al. (2017), The interaction of relativistic spacecrafts with the interstellar medium, ApJ, 837, 16:
    ► Heger, et al. (2003), How massive single stars end their life, ApJ, 591, 288:


    Video materials used:
    ► Nuclear bomb footage:
    ► Shuttle footage:
    ► Astronaut footage, NASA (ISS):
    ► Simulation of binary black hole with disk by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center:
    ► Breakthrough Starshot footage from the Breakthrough Initiatives:
    ► Science Asylum for rotating black hole depiction and merry-go-round video:
    and
    ► Whirlpool video by whirlpoolhitman:
    ► Simulation of Gravity Probe B, video hosted by relgyro:
    ► Falling towards a black hole simulation produced for the Einstein Inside exhibition touring Germany, where it was shown at the Goethe University of Frankfurt, video hosted by Ziri Younsi:
    ► LISA simulation by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center:

    Special thanks to YouTuber Madd End for this fantastic artist's impression of the halo drive:

    Filmclips, in order of appearance;
    ► Terminator 3
    ► The Black Hole
    ► Interstellar
    ► Star Trek, The Next Generation

    Music is by Chris Zabriskie ( and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license ( in order of appearance;

    ► Music from Neptune Flux, We Were Never Meant to Live Here (
    ► Music from Neptune Flux, Stories About the World That Once Was (
    ► Cylinder Five (
    ► Cylinder Four (
    ► Cylinder Eight (
    ► The Sun is Scheduled to Come Out Tomorrow (
    In addition, music from OneGuitarOrchestra, acoustic cover of Hans Zimmer's No Time For Caution:
    ► Music from Neptune Flux, We Were Never Meant to Live Here (
    ► Music from Neptune Flux, That Hopeful Future Is All I've Ever Known (

    And also:
    ► Columbia University Department of Astronomy:
    ► Cool Worlds Lab website:

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  • Interstellar Highways

    25:40

    This episode discusses the idea over using chains of relays firing immensely powerful lasers or streams of particles to move spaceships between neighboring stars at near-light velocities.


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    Cover Art by Jakub Grygier:

    Music by:
    Dexter Britain
    Seeing the Future
    Kai Engel
    December
    Lombus
    Hydrogen Sonata
    Koalips
    Kvazar
    Frank Dorittke
    Morninglight
    Kai Engel
    Endless Story about Sun and Moon
    Brandon Liew
    Into the Storm

  • Living on a Generation Ship | Unveiled

    7:33

    Living on a generation ship... it could be humanity's last hope for its own survival in the future! For this video, Unveiled discovers what living on an interstellar generation ship would really be like... How big would the ship need to be? How fast would it need to travel? And how many astronauts would it need to hold? What do you think... Could you travel all across the universe and outer space inside a generation ship?

    This is Unveiled, giving you incredible answers to extraordinary questions!

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    #Universe #Space #Interstellar #Hyperspace #Multiverse #SolarSystem

  • Outward Bound: Colonizing Alpha Centauri

    41:09

    A journey out to the stars to colonize Alpha Centauri
    Visit our sponsor, Brilliant:
    We've looked at colonizing our own solar system, from Mars to Venus, and all the way inward to the Sun itself and out to the dark edges of the Oort Cloud. In this episode we conclude the Outward Bound Series by heading to our nearest neighboring star system, Alpha Centauri, and look at the trials and tribulations of colonizing binary star systems and red dwarves.

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    Script Editing
    Andy P
    Finrod Felagund
    Gregory Leal
    Keith Blockus
    Matthew Acker
    N Kern
    Sigmund Kopperud (Wicked Woxel)



    Graphics Team:
    Edward Nardella
    Jeremy Jozwik
    Jarred Eagley
    Justin Dixon
    Jeremy Jozwik
    Katie Byrne
    Kris Holland of Mafic Stufios:
    Luuk Warringa
    Mihail Yordanov
    Murat Mamkegh
    Nick Talmers Nieuwoudt
    Pierre Demet
    Sergio Botero:
    Stefan Blandin

    Music Supervisor
    Luca De Rosa

    Music:
    Markus Junnikkala, Hail the Victorious Dead
    Evan King, Altered Carbon
    Evan King , Overwatch
    Ender Guney, Epic Cinematic Trailer
    NJ Mandaville, Plagal
    Koalips, Kvazar
    Phase Shift, Mystic Forest
    Sergey Cheremisinov, Jump In Infinity
    Dan MCLeod, Stargazers
    Aerium, Waters of Atlantis
    Aerium, Fifth star of Aldebaran

    In memory of Link
    (2008 – Feb 20, 2018)
    You will be missed my furry friend

  • Interstellar Travel Challenges

    28:47

    This episode focuses on many of the problems with travel between stars at relativistic velocities, like collision avoidance, radiation, ship geometry, armor, and point-defense.

    We will also look at some of the possible engine types and discuss realistic maximum speeds they offer.

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    Special Thanks to Liam Davis of Lombus, for use of the song Hydrogen Sonata, available here:

  • How Long Would It Take To Travel the Solar System? | Unveiled

    7:13

    How Long To Travel The Solar System? ► Subscribe:
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    It's the ultimate road trip, across all of space, and to the outer edges of our solar system. You'd pass planets, asteroids, and glide through long stretches of apparent nothingness. But how long would it take to reach the edge of our star system? What would be your ETA? And what would you find there??

    What do you think? Let us know in the comments, and tell us more questions you'd like us to explore!

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  • 5 Amazing Ways That Could Make Interstellar Travel Possible

    6:31

    5 Amazing Ways That Could Make Interstellar Travel Possible

    It has already become a mantra: “humanity’s future is in the stars.” No matter what we’d do to conserve everything that there is in our planet, there will come a time that we’ll have to look up into the sky to find a new home.
    Modern thinkers, scientists and physicists, and even the movies, have all been telling us some clues on how to travel in space. And while we have yet to find out what works or not, here are 5 amazing ways that could make interstellar travel possible.

    5. Fusion Rockets
    Technically speaking, humans have long been doing space travels for years, thanks to rockets. For example, the fastest manned vehicle ever made was the Apollo 10 rocket. Built in 1969, the spaceship reached a speed of nearly 25,000 miles per hour.

    4. EM Drive
    What was once thought as a fantastical form of space propulsion, the EM Drive has now slowly become a concept that could actually work in the real world.
    This type of propulsion system basically operates in such a way that a magnetron pushes microwaves into a closed truncated cone. This in turn gets pushed against the short end of the cone, propelling the craft forward.

    3. Light Sails
    Light sail is another viable option for man to sail the stars without having the need to carry propellants or use any propulsion systems.
    Scientists proposed the idea of creating a kilometer-wide sail that is made of special materials. Once launched to space, the starship’s light sails would then ride along the beam of a gigantic space laser capable of generating tremendous amount of energy.

    2. Antimatter Drives
    According to reports, an antimatter space propulsion system will possibly be used for the first time within the next ten years.
    The concept about this system relies on the theory that when matter collides with its antimatter counterpart, both particles are annihilated. In the process, the annihilation would emit the rest mass as energy.

    1. Through the Einstein-Rosen Bridges
    Call it fiction but the theory of travelling Faster Than Light (or FTL) is based on scientific theories. One such popular theory is the existence of Einstein-Rosen bridges.
    Also known as wormholes, this means of interstellar travel basically leans on the possibility that there exist a shortcut through space caused by the warping of spacetime.

  • The Tesla Files: Secret Weapons for the U.S. Military - Full Episode | History

    42:22

    Love The Tesla Files? Stay up to date on all of your favorite History shows at

    Researcher Marc Seifer finds the smoking gun evidence proving the U.S. military wanted Tesla's secret files, and the team makes an astonishing connection between Wardenclyffe Tower and the New Yorker Hotel in Season 1, Episode 4, Secret Weapons. #TeslaFiles
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    Why were trunks belonging to genius inventor Nikola Tesla confiscated in 1943? Did they contain the plans for nearly free worldwide electricity, massive death rays, and other inventions out of the future? A new investigation driven by declassified CIA documents suggests a secret history of bitter rivalries, government conspiracies, Cold War and WW2 spycraft, extra-terrestrial communication, and amazing achievements of a truly gifted man – Nikola Tesla.

    HISTORY® is the leading destination for award-winning original series and specials that connect viewers with history in an informative, immersive, and entertaining manner across all platforms. The network’s all-original programming slate features a roster of hit series, premium documentaries, and scripted event programming.

  • Stunning New Universe Fly-Through Really Puts Things Into Perspective

    5:45

    This new European Southern Observatory animation was created to celebrate the opening of the new ESO Supernova Planetarium in Germany. It begins from the home of the new facility in Garching and zooms out to the “end of the Universe,” according to ESO. -- 10 Space Discoveries by the European Southern Observatory:

    Credit:
    ESO/L.Calçada/spaceengine.org. Music: Jennifer Galatis

  • 10 Mind-blowing Interstellar Propulsion Systems

    14:42

    An exploration of ten conceptual propulsion systems humans might some day use to explore interstellar space.

    Links:

    Cool Worlds Video on the Halo Drive:



    David Kipping's Paper:



    Event Horizon Episode with David Kipping:



    My Patreon page:



    Music:

    Cylinder Five by Chris Zabriskie is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
    Source:
    Artist:

    Cylinder Eight by Chris Zabriskie is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
    Source:
    Artist:

    Cylinder Three by Chris Zabriskie is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
    Source:
    Artist:

  • Voyager 1 and 2 - UPDATE Narrated Documentary

    19:48

    Voyager 1 and 2 update, female documentary narrator. Updates the Voyagers instrument status, Communication status, How we know Voyager 1 is in Interstellar Space, Where the Voyagers are headed now. Female documentary narrator.
    BACKGROUND MUSIC IN THIS VIDEO: All music is purchased, licensed, and copyrighted for use in video, film, television etc. and comes in 30 sec to 2 min clips. Available online at Audiosparx.com, Productiontrax.com, and Pond5.com

  • What Is The Interplanetary Transport Network? Free Travel Across the Solar System

    8:00

    Sure, if you've got lots of energy, you can zip around the Solar System. But if you’ve got time and rocket fuel is in short supply, you can take the Interplanetary Superhighway.

    References:




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    Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain / frasercain@gmail.com
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    It was with great fanfare that Elon Musk announced SpaceX’s plans to colonize Mars with the Interplanetary Transport System.

    I really wish they’d stuck to their original name, the BFR, the Big Fabulous Rocket, or something like that.

    The problem is that Interplanetary Transport System is way too close a name to another really cool idea, the Interplanetary Transport Network, which gives you an almost energy free way to travel across the entire Solar System. Assuming you’re not in any kind of rush.

    When you imagine rockets blasting off for distant destinations, you probably envision pointing your rocket at your destination, firing the thrusters until you get there. Maybe turning around and slowing down again to land on the alien world. It’s how you might drive your car, or fly a plane to get from here to there.

    But if you’ve played any Kerbal Space Program, you know that’s not how it works in space. Instead, it’s all about orbits and velocity. In order to get off planet Earth, you have be travelling about 8 km/s or 28,000 km/h sideways.

    So now, you’re orbiting the Earth, which is orbiting the Sun. If you want to get to Mars, you have raise your orbit so that it matches Mars. The absolute minimum energy needed to make that transfer is known as the Hohmann transfer orbit. To get to Mars, you need to fire your thrusters until you’re going about 11.3 km/s.

    Then you escape the pull of Earth, follow a nice curved trajectory, and intercept the trajectory of Mars. Assuming you timed everything right, that means you intercept Mars and go into orbit, or land on its surface, or discover a portal to hell dug into a research station on Phobos.

    If you want to expend more energy, go ahead, you’ll get there faster.

    But it turns out there’s another way you can travel from planet to planet in the Solar System, using a fraction of the energy you would use with the traditional Hohmann transfer, and that’s using Lagrange points.

    We did a whole video on Lagrange points, but here’s a quick refresher. The Lagrange points are places in the Solar System where the gravity between two objects balances out in five places. There are five Lagrange points relating to the Earth and the Sun, and there are five Lagrange points relating to the Earth and the Moon. And there are points between the Sun and Jupiter, etc.

    Three of these points are unstable. Imagine a boulder at the top of a mountain. It doesn’t take much energy to keep it in place, but it’s easy to knock it out of balance so it comes rolling down.

    Now, imagine the whole Solar System with all these Lagrange points for all the objects gravitationally interacting with each other. As planets go around the Sun, these Lagrange points get close to each other and even overlap.

    And if you time things right, you can ride along in one gravitationally balanced point, and the roll down the gravity hill into the grasp of a different planet. Hang out there for a little bit and then jump orbits to another planet.

    In fact, you can use this technique to traverse the entire Solar System, from Mercury to Pluto and beyond, relying only on the interacting gravity of all these worlds to provide you with the velocity you need to make the journey.

    Welcome to the Interplanetary Transport Network, or Interplanetary Superhighway.

    Unlike a normal highway, though, the actual shape and direction these pathways take changes all the time, depending on the current configuration of the Solar System.

    In a second, we’re going to talk about what missions have already used the ITN, and how humans could use this network to colonize the entire Solar System, but first, I’d like to thank Scotty Jones, Chris Benninger, and the rest of our 626 patrons for their generous support. If you love what we’re doing and want to help out, head over to patreon.com/universetoday.

    If you think this sounds like science fiction, you’ll be glad to hear that space agencies have already used a version of this network to get some serious science done.

  • The Interstellar Medium

    26:51

    This is part of my complete intro Astronomy class. If you want to watch all the videos in the correct order, please visit my website at


    The space between the stars is not completely empty. Here we learn about the dark, cold clouds that move around.

  • Hyperloop Explained

    11:55

    Hyperloop represents the greatest leap in transport infrastructure for generations. Here we explain the concept that's about to revolutionise our world. For more by The B1M subscribe now:

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  • SpaceX Interplanetary Transport System

    4:22

  • Can We Travel Faster Than Light? with Dr. Miguel Alcubierre

    1:4:03

    Can humanity build an Alcubierre warp drive?
    Can we go faster than light?

    Dr. Miguel Alcubierre was inspired by Star Trek the Next Generation's example of warp drive faster than light technology on the starship Enterprise. In 1994 he wrote a paper on how we could bend and warp space and time to travel faster than light within the rules of Einstein's general relativity. NASA has and is currently exploring if it is possible to bend the fabric of space and achieve hyper fast space travel with the Eagle Works lab. John Michael Godier spoke with Dr. Miguel Alcubierre on the feasibility of the Alcubierre warp drive and if there has been any developments within physics, including the use of dark matter or dark energy, and anti-gravity, to be able to make this possible.


    The warp drive: hyper-fast travel within general relativity, Alcubierre, 1994.


    Hyperfast Interstellar Travel in General Relativity,
    Krasnikov, 1995.


    Harold White, Warp Field Mechanics 101


    Harold White, Warp Field Mechanics 102



    Website:


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    Thank you
    Dr. Miguel Alcubierre
    Mark Rademaker
    Steve Ryan

  • A Journey to the End of the Universe

    30:01

    Could humans ever travel to other galaxies within their lifetime? The immense scale of the Universe seems to prohibit such voyages, after all the nearest galaxy is so far away that it takes light itself - the fastest thing in the Universe - 2.5 million years to complete the trip. Remarkably, there is a trick that might allow humans to accomplish this feat - join us today as we step onboard the constantly accelerating spaceship!

    Written and presented by Professor David Kipping.

    You can now support our research program and the Cool Worlds Lab at Columbia University:

    Chapters
    0:00 - Prologue
    2:57 - A Journey to Alpha Centauri
    11:27 - Returning from Distant Shores
    21:12 - Onward to the End

    Further reading and resources:

    ► Lee, J. & Cleaver, G., 2015, The Relativistic Blackbody Spectrum in Inertial and Non-Inertial Reference Frames:
    ► Yurtsever, U. & Wilkinson, S. 2015, Limits and Signatures of Relativistic Flight:
    ► Margalef-Bentabol, B., Margalef-Bentabol, J., Cepa, J., 2013, Evolution of the Cosmological Horizons in a Concordance Universe:
    ► Columbia University Department of Astronomy:
    ► Cool Worlds Lab website:

    Music is largely by Chris Zabriskie ( and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license ( in order of appearance;
    ► Cylinder Five (
    ► Music from Neptune Flux, The Oceans Continue to Rise
    ► Music from Neptune Flux, We Were Never Meant to Live Here
    ► Cylinder Two (
    ► Cylinder Four (
    ► Cylinder Eight (
    ► It's Always Darkest Before the Dawn by Hill, licensed through SoundStripe.com
    ► Cylinder Two (
    ► It's Always Darkest Before the Dawn by Hill, licensed through SoundStripe.com

    Video materials used:

    ► Intro/outro video by ESO/Mark Swinbank, Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, Flying through the MUSE view of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field:
    ► Voyager 2 footage courtesy NASA JPL:
    ► Nautilus X videos from f r a g o m a t i k: and
    ► Ship passing Moon & Mars taken from Beer from Mars by MoonMan Pictures:
    ► A Journey to Alpha Centauri video by ESO./L. Calçada/Nick Risinger (skysurvey.org):
    ► Relativistic travel through a lattice by Ute Kraus:
    ► Earth time lapse footage taken onboard the International Space Station by NASA's Earth Science & Remote Sensing Unit
    ► Fly-through space footage from Space.com:
    ► A Flight Through the Universe, by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Miguel Aragon & Alex Szalay (Johns Hopkins), Mark Subbarao (Adler Planetarium):
    ► Galaxy spinning animation by spacetelescope.org:
    ► Expanding universe animation by EposChronicles:

    Films clips used:
    ► Agora (2009)
    ► Star Trek (1966 - 1969)
    ► Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979)
    ► Interstellar (2014)
    ► The Expanse (2015 - present)
    ► 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)
    ► The Martian (2015)
    ► Passengers (2016)
    ► Alien (1979)
    ► Flame over India (1959)
    ► Star Trek: First Contact (1996)
    ► Prometheus (2012)
    ► Alien: Covenant (2017)
    ► Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987 - 1994)
    ► Planet Earth (2006)
    ► Elysium (2013)
    ► Alien: Resurrection (1997)
    ► Avengers: Endgame (2019)
    ► What Dreams May Come (1998)

    Special thanks to YouTuber Madd End for this fantastic artist's impression of the halo drive: Thumbnail image by Hazan:

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  • Oumuamua: An Interstellar Visitor

    5:52

    Astronomers are in a frenzy pointing their telescopes an alien visitor - the first asteroid which appears to have originated from outside the Solar System. So what do we know about this object, called 'Oumuamua, so far and how special is it really?

    ► Meech et al. (2017), Discovery and Characterization of the First Known Interstellar Object:
    ► Jewitt et al. (2017), Interstellar Interloper 1I/2017 U1: Observations from the NOT and WIYN Telescopes:
    ► Schneider (2017), Is 1I/2017 U1 really of interstellar origin?:
    ► Bannister et al. (2017), Col-OSSOS: Colors of the Interstellar Planetesimal 1I/2017 U1 in Context with the Solar System
    ► Columbia University Department of Astronomy:
    ► Cool Worlds Lab website:
    ► Background music by Thomas Bergersen Final Frontier:

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  • Artificial Spaceship Detected in the Solar System!

    8:23

    No really - there's an artificial probe detected by astronomers to be moving at speed through the Solar System this week! It's Cherry Red, looks like a car, and used to belong to Elon Musk. Ok sorry for the bait! These observations actually give us a sense as to what an artificial interstellar interloper might look like. But this week hasn't been all cherries as the President takes aim at WFIRST, a next-gen space telescope which was the top recommendation of the US astronomy community in the last decadal survey.

    ::More about this Video::

    ► Space-X website:
    ► Popular Mechanics article on the rotation rate of the Roadster:
    ► University of Hawaii news story on their images:
    ► MMT video by Tim Pickering:
    ► WFIRST NASA website:
    ► Astro2010 Decadal Survey:
    ► Columbia University Department of Astronomy:
    ► Cool Worlds Lab website:
    ► Background music by Evolv (Higher Learning) and Adrian Walther (Illuminate) licensed through Soundstripe.com

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  • The Spaceship Propulsion Compendium

    40:13

    An in-depth survey of the various technologies for spaceship propulsion, both from those we can expect to see in a few years and those at the edge of theoretical science. We'll break them down to basics and familiarize ourselves with the concepts.
    Note: I made a rather large math error about the Force per Power the EmDrive exerts at 32:10, initial tentative results for thrust are a good deal higher than I calculated compared to a flashlight.

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    Project Rho:


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  • How Will We Get to Alpha Centauri?

    3:47

    Humans are attempting to achieve interstellar travel. Here’s why some of the world’s greatest minds believe a nanocraft is the best way to journey into deep space.

    Watch More Space Crafts! |

    Read More:
    Alpha Centauri: A Triple Star System about 4 Light Years from Earth

    “A new study involving long-term monitoring of Alpha Centauri by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory indicates that any planets orbiting the two brightest stars are likely not being pummeled by large amounts of X-ray radiation from their host stars. This is important for the viability of life in the nearest star system outside the Solar System.”

    Engage Warp Drive! Why Interstellar Travel's Harder Than It Looks

    “How hard is it to hop to the nearest star system or soar across the galaxy? A typical Star Trek or Star Wars movie makes it look easy. When the heroes get a distant distress call, they use warp drive or hyperdrive and arrive at their destination within minutes or hours. If we got the right propulsion, would it be possible for us to voyage that quickly in real life?”

    Building Sails for Interstellar Probes Will Be Tough, but Not Impossible

    “Giant lasers may indeed launch fleets of spacecraft to Alpha Centauri, given breakthroughs in the science behind extraordinarily thin, incredibly reflective sails that can catch this laser light, a new study finds.”

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  • Why Does Everything In The Universe Spin?

    3:59

    The Earth and the Milky Way are constantly rotating, but why?

    Read More:
    How Fast Does the Earth Rotate?

    “The ground feels firm and solid beneath your feet. Of course, the Earth is rotating, turning once on its axis every day. Fortunately gravity keeps you firmly attached to the planet, and because of momentum, you don’t feel the movement – the same way you don’t feel the speed of a car going down the highway. But how fast does the Earth rotate?”

    Why does the Milky Way rotate?

    “We live in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way. It's called a barred spiral galaxy, which means that it has a spiral shape with a bar of stars across its middle.”

    Why and how do planets rotate?

    “Stars and planets form in the collapse of huge clouds of interstellar gas and dust. The material in these clouds is in constant motion, and the clouds themselves are in motion, orbiting in the aggregate gravity of the galaxy.”

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  • The Weird Detector

    9:50

    Arguably the greatest scientific discoveries are the unexpected ones. The discoveries that defy explanation and for which no theory or model predicted. Yet, looking for such signals is incredibly challenging. How can you look for something when you don't know what it looks like? This has been a problem we've thought about a lot here in the Cool Worlds Lab at Columbia University and this week we're thrilled to share the outcome of a new research project in this area. Graduate student Adam Wheeler presents the Weird Detector - an algorithm capable of finding the truly weird signals lurking in astronomical data!

    Our paper can be found at:
    ► Wheeler, Adam & Kipping, David (2019), The Weird Detector: Flagging periodic, coherent signals of arbitrary shape in time series photometry, MNRAS, 485, 5498 :

    Video materials and graphics used:
    ► Night sky time lapse:
    ► Milky Way animation by Stefan Payne-Wardenaar:
    ► Oumuamua animation:
    ► Kepler video available at the NASA Kepler homepage:
    ► TESS video available at the NASA TESS homepage:
    ► Binary Stars:
    ► James Davenport starpot simulation:
    ► Sunspot footage from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory:
    ► Binary orbit gallery by Adrian Price-Whelan:
    ► Earth-Moon tidal bulge animation by Kevin Gill:
    ► Flare and complex flare figures from Davenport et al. (2014):
    ► Comet video from
    ► TESS comet video

    Filmclips, in order of appearance;
    ► Star Trek, The Next Generation

    ► Music from Neptune Flux, We Were Never Meant to Live Here by Chris Zabriskie ( licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
    ► Cylinder Eight ( by Chris Zabriskie ( licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
    ► Background song 3 is Waking Up by Atlas, licensed through SoundStripe.com:

    And also...
    ► Columbia University Department of Astronomy:
    ► Cool Worlds Lab website:

    ::Playlists For Channel::

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  • Hiker Trailer Rally and the Great Yellowstone Adventure

    11:02

    Filmed June 27 to July 12, 2019. Attending the first ever Hiker Trailer rally in Colorado, and then the start of the Great Yellowstone Adventure with my best friend, Julie!

    Love IO? Join the inner circle! patreon.com/InterstellarOrchard

    Companion blog posts:
    Hiker Rally and six month review of living in a Hiker Trailer -
    The Great Yellowstone Adventure part 1 (The front country) -
    The Great Yellowstone Adventure part 2 (The Grand Canyon of Yellowstone) -

  • Minecraft Acid Interstate V3

    2:48

    – Song is Singa by Topaz



    This video took 250+ hours of total recording time (~20 hours for the final rendering), almost one year to produce, and years of ᴇsᴏᴛᴇʀɪᴄ knowledge of a variety of Minecraft mods, especially the GLSL Shaders Mod.

    Please share this vid or somethin, it's cool when lots of people enjoy them.


    –– Downloads ––
    Video downloads are available in 1080p, 1440p, or 2160p (4K), and in either 60, 90 or 144 FPS. 144 FPS downloads are only available on Mega:



    Project files, including world save:



    –– Details [ ᴡᴀʀɴɪɴɢ: ᴅ ᴇ ᴇ ᴘ ! ] ––
    - Recorded with Minema at 3840x2160, 90 FPS
    - Recorded on Minecraft 1.7.10, as it is the last Minecraft version with Minema's chunk preloading feature
    - Terrain generated on Minecraft 1.2.5 with a retro terrain mod called Generator Ports
    - Track was put together using MCEdit and WorldEdit Wrapper
    - Shaderpack was built off SEUS v10.2 preview
    - Macros and Keybinds Mod was used to automate the recording setup
    - Sony Vegas was used for general editing while setting up the track
    - After Effects was used for final arrangements and rendering
    - Encoded with FFmpeg

    The rest of these details are mostly things I want to remind myself of later. Very technical, will not hold your hand but I will try to answer any questions if you ask in the comments.

    Frustum Culling (the culling of chunks from the GPU renderer if they are outside the field-of-view) had to be disabled. This is because large-scale terrain deformations I do in this video make culled chunks visible to the player. I disabled frustum culling by editing the Mineshot and Minema source code (thanks to BarracudaATA for making them open source and easy to compile). Disabling frustum culling takes an insane amount of VRAM, this prompted me to upgrade from a 780 Ti to a 980 Ti.

    While playing around in the Minema source code, I managed to get chunk preloading to work with Optifine (the two are normally incompatible). This means I could have potentially recorded at far+ view distances with chunk preloading. However, I chose not to do this because I was already using nearly 6 GB of VRAM with a regular far view distance.

    The Non-Euclidean Terrain Transitions, require that frustum culling is disabled, and chunk preloading is enabled. The transitions work by having both terrain models within in the player's view distance (in the world they are placed side-by-side), merging the terrains into the same position in a vertex shader, and then deciding which terrain is visible inside a fragment shader by constructing a second pseudo-frustum out of the cobblestone gateways. Because 2 terrain models are loaded within a single view-distance, the size of the terrain models must shrink to fit inside the view-distance. I covered this up by having the fog reduce the visibility distance whenever the player is near a transition. The terrain endpoints were stretched in the shadow-map to keep them contiguous.

    For every Acid Interstate video, I sync things by recording a copy of the video with the coordinates open. I use this copy of the video as a coordinate reference. For this video I created a beatmap, and then used the coordinate reference to find the coordinates of torch-outposts and endpoints for terrain animations.

    The terrain animations were controlled by the player's world space x coordinate. This works out because the player's camera path consists of straight linear movement towards x+ (the ascent at the beginning of the video is controlled by a vertex shader displacement). This was done because neither of the GLSL Mod's time variables (worldTime and frameTimeCounter) can be consistently synchronized between recordings.

    I ripped out the default day-night cycle and implemented my own inside the shaderpack. Doing this allowed me to adjust the length of the day to better fit with the song. This also allowed me to skip the nighttime because it didn't really fit.

    The video recording was split into 6 segments, each covering about 2,000 blocks. The segments were then combined in my editing software. I split the recording because Optifine does some sort of model-space refresh every ~4,000 blocks, and sometimes chunk preloading stops functioning after the refresh. Splitting the segments up into smaller chunks also allows for less recording commitment, and helps flush memory bottlenecks, however it exasperates issues if recordings are not perfectly synchronized. Splitting recordings also means I'll have to deal with 36 video files for the VR cubemap.


    –– M E ––
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    Discord: Strutting#1529


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  • Photonic Propulsion: Mars in 3 Days?

    5:14

    We can get to Mars in 3 days, . . .sort of, maybe. In this episode of SciShow Space Reid Reimers explains the possibilities of photonic propulsion in use with space travel.

    Hosted by: Reid Reimers
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  • Leaving the bubble, and Im not coming back | Colonia life #1

    7:29

    I have packed my stuff and i'm ready to leave the bubble to head towards Colonia.

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  • Worlds Future MEGAPROJECTS

    31:08

    A documentary on the ten most ambitious mega-projects currently under development around the world, featuring: Dubai World Central Airport (United Arab Emirates); Songdo International Business District (South Korea); Tokyo-Osaka Maglev Train (Japan); Masdar City (United Arab Emirates); The Grand Canal (Nicaragua); National Trunk Highway System (China); International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor [ITER] - Fusion (France); World's Tallest Building (Azerbaijan); Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (India); King Abdullah Economic City (Saudi Arabia).

    Subscribe to TDC:

    Like our page on Facebook

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    Background music by:
    Chris Zabriskie (free music archive)

    Kevin MacLeod
    Incompetech.com
    Purple Planet


    All images and videos are used under the 'Fair Use' provision of United States Copyright Law:


    modi news cnn iran world building high speed rail obama trump china

  • Nobel Prize for Exoplanets!

    8:06

    The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics has just been announced, with one half going to the first discovery of an exoplanet around a Sun-like star. Here’s our brief take on why this is great news for those who love planets.

    Presented by Prof. David Kipping. All planetary images and videos shown are artistic representations.

    References:
    ► Mayor & Queloz, 1995, A Jupiter-mass companion to a solar-type star, Nature, 378, 355:
    ► Latham et al., 1989, The unseen companion of HD114762: a probable brown dwarf, Nature, 339, 38:
    ► Campbell, Walker & Yang, 1988, A Search for Substellar Companions to Solar-type Stars, ApJ, 331, 902:
    ► Hatzes &Cochran, 1993, Long-Period Radial Velocity Variations in Three K Giants, ApJ, 413, 339:
    ► Wolszczan & Frail, 1992, A planetary system around the millisecond pulsar PSR1257+12, Nature, 355, 145

    Video materials and graphics used:
    ► GJ 357 animations by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Chris Smith:
    ► Trappist-1 animation by ESO/L. Calçada/spaceengine.org:

    Music used, in chronological order:
    ► Music from Neptune Flux, We Were Never Meant to Live Here by Chris Zabriskie ( licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
    ► Cylinder Two ( by Chris Zabriskie ( licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
    ► Sad Game Boy by Mikey Geiger, licensed through SoundStripe.com:

    And also...
    ► Columbia University Department of Astronomy:
    ► Cool Worlds Lab website:

    Latest Cool Worlds Videos ►
    Cool Worlds Research ►
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    #NobelPrize #Exoplanets #CoolWorlds

  • Outward Bound: Colonizing Jupiter

    30:41

    Jupiter and its moon are a rarely considered prospect for colonization, but potentially the ripest opportunity for it in the solar system. In this episode of the Outward Bound series we will examine the options for colonizing each of Jupiter's primary moons and even discuss ways to colonize the giant planet itself.

    Visit our Website:
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    Cover Art by Jakub Grygier:


    Graphics Team:
    Edward Nardella
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    Justin Dixon
    Jeremy Jozwik
    Katie Byrne
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    Music:
    Markus Junnikkala, Hail the Victorious Dead
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    Aerium, Waters of Atlantis
    Chris Zabriskie, CGI Snake
    Kai Engel, Snowfall (Intro)

  • Single and Unconstrained

    12:00

    Transits. We all love them. Right now, we know of over four thousand exoplanets which transit their star and these transits teach us a lot about distant worlds. NASA's TESS mission is just getting started, looking to find even more transits! But TESS has a problem when it comes to long-period planets, because it only looks at most fields for a month - meaning sometimes it will see just a single transit of a planet. This makes it very tricky to determine the period and all sorts of biases affect our inference, as we explore in today's video!

    ► Kipping (2018), The Orbital Period Prior for Single Transits, RNAAS, submitted:
    ► Our previous episode about TESS:
    ► NASA TESS Mission Website:
    ► Villanova et al. (2018), An Estimate of the Yield of Single-Transit Planetary Events from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite:
    ► TESS Mission Website:
    ► Outro music by Thomas Bergersen Final Frontier:
    ► Columbia University Department of Astronomy:
    ► Cool Worlds Lab website:

    ::Playlists For Channel::

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  • Eyeball Earths

    7:18

    Earth-sized planets found in the habitable-zones of low-mass stars are likely to become tidally locked to the star, with one side baked in perpetual sunlight and other trapped in an eternal night. These so-called Eyeball Earths turn out to be extremely common and some famous examples include Proxima b and the planets around TRAPPIST-1. Here, we explain why this tidal locking happens and what it means for the potential habitability of these alien worlds.

    ::More about this Video::

    ► Discovery of a Planet around our Nearest Star: Proxima b Cool Worlds video by Dr Guillem Anglada:
    ► Proxima b: Transits, Habitability & How to Get There! Cool Worlds video by Prof Kipping:
    ► Gillon et al. (2017), Seven temperate terrestrial planets around the nearby ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1:
    ► Video of zonal winds on a tidally locked planet taken from Merlis & Schneider (2010), Atmospheric dynamics of Earth-like tidally locked aquaplanets:
    ► Leconte et al. (2015), Asynchronous rotation of Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars:
    ► Cool Worlds Lab website:
    ► Columbia University Department of Astronomy:
    ► Outro music by Daft Punk Harder, Better, Stronger, Faster: and

    ::Playlists For Channel::

    Latest Cool Worlds Videos ►
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    ::Follow us::

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    THANKS FOR WATCHING!! ヅ

  • Advanced Miners Guide : The Perfect Mining Spot

    17:49

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  • How Were The Stars Formed? - Professor Joseph Silk

    55:02

    The Milky Way galaxy was once ablaze with bright young stars. Today, star formation has calmed down, but we glimpse intense pockets of gas that are forming massive stars, testifying to the brilliant past. Stars form in clouds of interstellar gas that orbit their host galaxy. The clouds acquire more mass as gas accumulates, and the gaseous nebulae are soon massive enough to become unstable, due to the pull of their own gravity. As the clouds collapse, their central regions fragment into dense clumps of cold gas that eventually form stars.

    Dust particles are the key ingredients that eventually coalesce to form a disk-like structure with rocky cores that orbit the forming sun and agglomerate into planets. The entire solar system was formed out of interstellar grit.

    The transcript and downloadable versions of the lecture are available from the Gresham College website:

    Gresham College has been giving free public lectures since 1597. This tradition continues today with all of our five or so public lectures a week being made available for free download from our website. There are currently over 2,000 lectures free to access or download from the website.

    Website:
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  • What Caused Flight 72 to Lose Control in 2008?

    3:57

    On October 7, 2008, passengers and crew on Qantas Airlines Flight 72 were pulled up from their seats. Immediately after, the plane went into a dangerous and uncontrolled nosedive.

    From the Series: Air Disasters: Free Fall

  • Take a Ride on the Interplanetary Superhighway

    6:20

    Go to to get 20% off of an annual premium subscription!

    Normal interplanetary travel uses lots of fuel, but taking advantage of some quirks of gravity can let us travel between planets using hardly any fuel at all.

    Hosted by: Reid Reimers

    Head to for hand selected artifacts of the universe!
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  • Interstellar Highway

    3:49

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    Interstellar Highway · Immanuel Casto

    Cotto & Frullato Z The Crystal Gear (Original Score)

    ℗ 2017 Freak & Chic

    Released on: 2017-09-19

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  • Voyager Reaches Interstellar Space

    2:09

    After decades of exploration, Voyager 1 reaches a historic milestone for mankind--interstellar space. Learn how the team discovered the craft had reached the space between the stars.

  • China’s Super Highway: MEGAPROJECTS

    3:02

    China is building the largest highway system in the world. With over 65,000 miles completed in just 25 years, the project is the largest infrastructure initiative in world history and will be complete around 2020.

    Subscribe to TDC:

    You'll love our website:

    Like our page on Facebook

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    Music:
    Divider by Chris Zabriskie

  • Trumps Response to Interstellar Highway Comment

    39

  • Beam Powered Spaceships

    23:51

    Sign up with Skillshare for 2 months of Free classes:
    In order to get into space, we require either huge amounts of rocket fuel or dangerously powerful energy sources, making personal spacecraft a technology limited to science fiction. But by harnessing beamed power sources to run engines, we may be able to create a spaceplane cheap enough and safe enough that anyone could have one in the future.

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    Credits:
    Upward Bound: Beam Powered Spaceships
    Episode 192, Season 5 E27

    Written by:
    Isaac Arthur

    Editors:
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    Dan MacLeod, Alpha Protocol
    AJ Prasad, Staring Through (Part II)

  • Project Dragonfly. A Laser-Powered Probe to Alpha Centauri

    10:52

    The distances between stars are so vast, it’s hard to wrap your mind around it. Even our far flung Voyagers have barely reached interstellar space, and would take tens of thousands of years to get to even the nearest star.

    But scientists and engineers are considering what it would actually take to send a spacecraft to another star. It’s called Project Dragonfly, and would use existing or near future technologies to send a 3,000 kg spacecraft to Alpha Centauri within 100 years.

    Project Dragonfly paper


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  • Interstellar Highway

    3:33

  • NASAs Voyager 1 enters interstellar space

    1:21

    For more:
    NASA said Thursday that the Voyager 1 probe has become the first human-made object to leave our solar system and enter interstellar space.

  • Voyagers Ride on the Magnetic Highway

    1:13

    NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft has entered a new region of our solar system that scientists feel is the final area the spacecraft has to cross before reaching interstellar space.

  • Timeline of the Next 80 Years

    5:21

    What does the future hold for humanity and our changing climate in the 21st century? Using projections from the IPCC Fifth Report and the climate science literature, we've put together a timelapse showing what may lie ahead. On the left hand side of the screen you'll see an optimistic view, where although we continue to emit carbon dioxide at significant levels, investments in clean energy and mitigation try to curb the damage. On the right hand side, you'll see a future where humanity emits as much as we please and very little mitigation takes place.

    The data presented in this video are a projection of the 21st century. We used two of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP), presented in the IPCC Fifth Report, as plausible scenarios - although these are not strictly forecasts. Seasonal variations were added using a stochastic generator conditioned upon observed seasonal variability reported by NASA GISS. Similarly, seasonal variability in carbon dioxide levels were simulated based on historical seasonal variations about a moving average predicted using the RCP models. Special thanks to Gavin Schmidt for advice during the course of this video production.

    And sorry for the typo at the very end! *It’s!!!

    Resources:
    ► Big thanks to the huge team who helped put together the IPCC Fifth Report from which much of the projections in this video come from:
    ► Temperature spirals were inspired by Ed Hawkins:
    ► NASA GISS global mean temperature record used to generate seasonal variations:
    ► Visualizations of the Earth under RCP 8.5 and RCP 4.5 by Alex Kekesi, NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio and NASA Center for Climate Simulation:
    ► Carbon dioxide historical data comes from Mauna Loa:
    ► Represenative Concentration Pathays (RCP) Emission scenarios:
    ► Also recommend reading the SRES – Special Report on Emissions Scenarios:
    ► Knutti & Sedláček (2013), Robustness and uncertainties in the new CMIP5 climate model projections, Nature Clim Change, 3, 369
    ► Overland & Wang (2013), When will the summer Arctic be nearly sea ice free?, Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 2097:
    ► Huang, Yu, Guan, Wang & Guo (2016), Accelerated dryland expansion under climate change, Nature Clim Change, 6, 166:
    ► Annunzioa, Sandkera, Finegold & Min (2015), Projecting global forest area towards 2030, Forest Ecology & Management, 352, 124:
    ► Biodiversity projections from GloBio, Convention on Biological Diversity:
    ► Westerling (2018), Wildfire Simulations for California's Fourth Climate Change Assesment in Extreme Wildfire Events with a Warming Climate, Special Report for California's Fourth Climate Change Assesment:

    ► Intro music is Cylinder Four ( by Chris Zabriskie ( licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
    ► Background music is a cover of Isolated System, originally by Muse, performed by Nick Caville:

    And also...
    ► Columbia University Department of Astronomy:
    ► Cool Worlds Lab website:

    Latest Cool Worlds Videos ►
    Cool Worlds Research ►
    Cool Worlds Long Form Videos ►
    Guest Videos ►
    Q&A Videos ►
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    Science of TV/Film ►

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    THANKS FOR WATCHING!!

    #ClimateActionNow

  • The Voyager Probes Boldly Go Where None Have Gone Before | TIME

    3:30

    After 34 years in space, NASA's Voyager probes will soon cross the boundary of our solar system into interstellar space
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    The Voyager Probes Boldly Go Where None Have Gone Before | TIME

  • Voyager 1 space probe enters new realm

    55

    Voyager 1 space probe enters 'new realm'

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    A computerised animation of Voyager 1, which took off from Earth 36 years ago, as it enters a new region of space on its way out of our solar system. Scientists at New Mexico State University say the Nasa probe is now between the normal heliosphere and interstellar space -- a region known as the 'magnetic highway'. Massive changes in radiation levels alerted scientists to the atmospheric transition

  • What do the stars hold for the Trump administration? Here’s how NASA’s mission could change

    8:12

    Some big changes could be in store for American space exploration under President Trump and the Republican Congress. Sending more humans to the moon, as well as a mission to Jupiter’s moon Europa seem to be part of a plan that extends years beyond the Trump administration. Science correspondent Miles O'Brien explores how NASA’s mission could be reshaped.

  • Принцип Полета НЛО.Как Летают Инопланетные Корабли?

    42:01

    Принцип Полета НЛО.Как Летают Инопланетные Корабли?Есть много видеоматериалов с летающими НЛО (неопознанные летающие объекты). Летают такие НЛО бесшумно, с огромными скоростями. Могут вылетать из воды. Пишутся статьи, обсуждается на форумах такой вопрос: каков принцип полётов НЛО в атмосфере Земли? Летают они беззвучно, могут зависать в воздухе, выныривать из воды. Предлагается много различных экзотических способов, вплоть до антигравитации. Но на самом деле принцип полёта НЛО не простой, а очень простой. Такой, что им можем воспользоваться и мы, земляне. Здесь уместно вспомнить, что атмосферное давление давит на 1 см2 любой поверхности с силой 1 кгс. То есть, на 1 м2 действует сила 10000 кгс или 10 тонн. Это очень большая сила. Но эта сила действует на тело со всех сторон и поэтому компенсируется. В результате мы не можем использовать эту очень большую силу. Вот если бы удалось каким-либо способом уменьшать эту силу давления атмосферы с одной стороны тела, то тогда могла бы исполниться многовековая мечта человечества - летать свободно, как птицы. Типы нло.
    Анализ многочисленных наблюдений, свойств «поведения» и размеров НЛО позволяет условно разделить их на четыре основных типа, вне зависимости от их формы.
    1. Объекты небольшого размера, представляющие собой шары или диски диаметром от 20 см до 1 метра, которые осуществляют полеты на небольших высотах, иногда они выскакивают из объектов большего размера и возвращаются обратно. 2.НЛО яйцеобразной и дискообразной формы с диаметром 2-3 м. Как правило, они летают на малой высоте и чаще других типов НЛО «приземляются». Малые НЛО неоднократно видели отделяющимися от основных объектов и возвращающимися обратно.
    З. Основные НЛО, чаще всего диски диаметром 9-40 м, высота которых в центральной части составляет 1/5-1/10 их диаметра. Такие НЛО производят независимые полеты в любых слоях атмосферы и иногда совершают посадки. От них также могут отделяться объекты меньших размеров.
    4. Большие НЛО, чаще всего в форме цилиндров длиной 100-800 и более метров. Они появляются преимущественно в верхних слоях атмосферы, однако не совершают различных маневров, а иногда зависают на большой высоте. Пока не было отмечено случаев их посадки на землю, но много раз отмечалось, как от них отделялись объекты меньших размеров. Существует гипотеза, что большие НЛО могут осуществлять полеты в космосе. Известны также некоторые случаи наблюдения громадных дисков диаметром 100-350, иногда и более метров. Уфологи предполагают, что такие большие НЛО являются «материнскими кораблями», несущими на своем борту НЛО меньших размеров, и рассылают «НЛО-разведчики» в разные уголки нашей планеты.По данным международной уфологической организации «Contact international», различаются следующие формы НЛО:Круглые: дискообразные, в форме перевернутой тарелки, чаши, блюдца или мяча для регби, в виде двух сложенных вместе тарелок, шляпообразные, похожие на колокол, в форме сферы или шара, похожие на планету Сатурн, похожие на луковицу или волчок.
    Продолговатые: ракетоподобные, торпедообразные,цилиндрические, стержнеобразные, веретенообразные. Остроконечные: пирамидальные, в форме обычного или, усеченного конуса, похожие на воронку, стреловидные, в виде плоского треугольника, ромбовидные. Прямоугольные: брускоподобные, в форме куба или параллелепипеда, в форме плоского квадрата и прямоугольника.
    Необычной формы Подавляющее большинство неопознанных летающих объектов представляет собой классический вариант — «тарелку». Это обыкновенно плоский диск с куполообразной надстройкой сверху, а иногда снизу. Наиболее редкий случай правильный диск вообще без надстроек. В отдельных случаях НЛО походит на колокол. Подчас на поверхности объекта видны иллюминаторы, круглой или овальной формы. Иногда заметны добавочные приспособления: антенны, посадочные опоры и другие предметы, чье назначение пока что нам неизвестно.
    Часто встречающиеся формы НЛО имеют разновидности. Так, например, наблюдались диски с одной или двумя выпуклыми сторонами, шары с опоясывающими их кольцами или без них, сплюснутые и вытянутые сферы. Реже всего встречаются объекты прямоугольной и треугольной формы.

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