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Michio Kaku: The Universe in a Nutshell (Full Presentation) | Big Think

  • Michio Kaku: The Universe in a Nutshell | Big Think

    42:14

    Michio Kaku: The Universe in a Nutshell
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    OVERVIEW:

    In a profoundly informative and deeply optimistic discussion, Professor Michio Kaku delivers a glimpse of where science will take us in the next hundred years, as warp drives, teleportation, inter-dimensional wormholes, and even time travel converge with our scientific understanding of physical reality. While firing up our imaginations about the future, he also presents a succinct history of physics to the present.
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    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
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    TRANSCRIPT:

    My name is Professor Michio Kaku. I’m a professor of theoretical physics at the City University of New York and I specialize in something called string theory. I’m a physicist.
    Some people ask me the question, “What has physics done for me lately? I mean, do I get better color television, do I get better internet reception with physics?” And the answer is yes. You see, physics is at the very foundation of matter and energy. We physicists invented the laser beam, we invented the transistor. We helped to create the first computer. We helped to construct the internet. We wrote the World Wide Web. In addition, we also helped to invent television, radio, radar, microwaves, not to mention MRI scans, PET scans, x-rays. In other words, almost everything you see in your living room, almost everything you see in a modern hospital, at some point or other, can be traced to a physicist.

    Now, I got interested in physics when I was a child. When I was a child of eight, something happened to me that changed my life and I wanted to be part of this grand search for a theory of everything. When I was eight, a great scientist had just died. I still remember my elementary school teacher coming into the...

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  • Michio Kaku: The Universe Is a Symphony of Vibrating Strings | Big Think

    4:07

    Michio Kaku: The Universe Is a Symphony of Vibrating Strings
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    The co-founder of Field String Theory explains why the universe has 11 dimensions rather than any other number.
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    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
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    TRANSCRIPT:

    Question: Why are there only 11 dimensions in the universe rather than something higher? (Submitted by John Menon)

    Michio Kaku: I work in something called String Theory, that’s what I do for a living. In fact, that’s my day job. I’m the co-founder of String Field Theory, one of the main branches of String Theory. The latest version of String Theory is called M-Theory, “M” for membrane. So we now realize that strings can coexist with membranes. So the subatomic particles we see in nature, the quartz, the electrons are nothing but musical notes on a tiny vibrating string.

    What is physics? Physics is nothing but the laws of harmony that you can write on vibrating strings. What is chemistry? Chemistry is nothing but the melodies you can play on interacting vibrating strings. What is the universe? The universe is a symphony of vibrating strings. And then what is the mind of God that Albert Einstein eloquently wrote about for the last 30 years of his life? We now, for the first time in history have a candidate for the mind of God. It is, cosmic music resonating through 11 dimensional hyperspace.

    So first of all, we are nothing but melodies. We are nothing but cosmic music played out on vibrating strings and membranes. Obeying the laws of physics, which is nothing but the laws of harmony of vibrating strings. But why 11? It turns out that if you write a theory in 15, 17, 18 dimensions, the theory is unstable. It has what are called, anomalies. It has singularities. It turns out that mathematics alone prefers the universe being 11 dimensions.

    Now some people have toyed with 12 dimensions. At Harvard University, for example, some of the physicists there have shown that a 12-dimensional theory actually looks very similar to an 11-dimensional theory except it has two times, double times rather than one single time parameter. Now, what would it be like to live in a universe with double time? Well, I remember a movie with David Niven. David Niven played a pilot, who was shot down over the Pacific, but the angels made a mistake, he was not supposed to die that day. And so the angels brought him back to life and said, “Oh, sorry about that. We killed you off by accident; you were not supposed to die today.”

    So in a great scene, David Niven then walks through a city where time has stopped. Everyone looks like this. And there’s David Niven just wandering around looking at all these people. That’s a world with double time. David Niven has one clock, but everyone else has a separate clock and these two clocks are perpendicular to each other. So if there’s a double time universe, you could walk right into a room, see people frozen in time, while you beat to a different clock. That’s a double time universe.

    Now this is called F-Theory, “F” for father, the father of strings. It’s not known whether F-Theory will survive or not; however, M-Theory in 11 dimension is the mother of all strings. And that theory works perfectly fine. So to answer your question, in other dimensions, dimensions beyond 11, we have problems with stability, these theories are unstable, they decay back down to 11 dimensions, they have what are called anomalies, singularities, which kill an ordinary theory. So the mathematics itself forces you to 11 dimensions.

    Also because this is a Theory of Everything, there’s more room in higher dimensions to put all the forces together. When you put gravity, electromagnetism and the nuclear force together, four dimensions is not big enough to accommodate all these forces. When you expand to 11 dimensions, bingo, everything forms perfectly well.

  • Michio Kaku: Is God a Mathematician? | Big Think

    5:34

    Is God a Mathematician?
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    OVERVIEW
    In this Big Think video, Dr. Michio Kaku explains why he believes in an intelligent creator and describes God as a “mathematician” and “cosmic music.” “I have concluded that we are in a world made by rules created by an intelligence,” Kaku says. “To me it is clear that we exist in a plan which is governed by rules that were created, shaped by a universal intelligence and not by chance.” “The final solution resolution could be that god is a mathematician,” says Kaku. “The mind of god, we believe, is cosmic music. The music of strings resonating through 11-dimensional hyperspace.”
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    MICHIO KAKU
    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
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    Michio Kaku: Some people ask the question of what good is math? What is the relationship between math and physics? Well, sometimes math leads. Sometimes physics leads. Sometimes they come together because, of course, there’s a use for the mathematics. For example, in the 1600s Isaac Newton asked a simple question: if an apple falls then does the moon also fall? That is perhaps one of the greatest questions ever asked by a member of Homo sapiens since the six million years since we parted ways with the apes. If an apple falls, does the moon also fall?

    Isaac Newton said yes, the moon falls because of the Inverse Square Law. So does an apple. He had a unified theory of the heavens, but he didn't have the mathematics to solve the falling moon problem. So what did he do? He invented calculus. So calculus is a direct consequence of solving the falling moon problem. In fact, when you learn calculus for the first time, what is the first thing you do? The first thing you do with calculus is you calculate the motion of falling bodies, which is exactly how Newton calculated the falling moon, which opened up celestial mechanics.

    So here is a situation where math and physics were almost conjoined like Siamese twins, born together for a very practical question, how do you calculate the motion of celestial bodies? Then here comes Einstein asking a different question and that is, what is the nature and origin of gravity? Einstein said that gravity is nothing but the byproduct of curved space. So why am I sitting in this chair? A normal person would say I'm sitting in this chair because gravity pulls me to the ground, but Einstein said no, no, no, there is no such thing as gravitational pull; the earth has curved the space over my head and around my body, so space is pushing me into my chair. So to summarize Einstein's theory, gravity does not pull; space pushes. But, you see, the pushing of the fabric of space and time requires differential calculus. That is the language of curved surfaces, differential calculus, which you learn in fourth year calculus.

    So again, here is a situation where math and physics were very closely combined, but this time math came first. The theory of curved surfaces came first. Einstein took that theory of curved surfaces and then imported it into physics.

    Now we have string theory. It turns out that 100 years ago math and physics parted ways. In fact, when Einstein proposed special relativity in 1905, that was also around the time of the birth of topology, the topology of hyper-dimensional objects, spheres in 10, 11, 12, 26, whatever dimension you want, so physics and mathematics parted ways. Math went into hyperspace and mathematicians said to themselves, aha, finally we have found an area of mathematics that has no physical application whatsoever. Mathematicians pride themselves on being useless. They love being useless. It's a badge of courage being useless, and they said the most useless thing of all is a theory of differential topology and higher dimensions.

    Well, physics plotted along for many decades. We worked out atomic bombs.

    Read more on:

  • How your immortal consciousness will travel the universe | Michio Kaku | Big Think

    4:12

    How your immortal consciousness will travel the universe
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    In about 100 years, theoretical physicist Michio Kaku believes we'll explore the universe as pure consciousness — traveling at the speed of light, looking at asteroids, comets, meteors, and eventually the stars. All of this within the laws of physics, he says. Through recent brain imaging, we know know that the prefrontal cortex of teenagers is fully formed. This induces them to take risks. Also, when guys who talk with pretty girls, we also know it's that blood drains from their brains. Well, their prefrontal cortex. This makes them liable to act mentally retarded. The Connectome Project will map the entire brain in about 100 years.
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    MICHIO KAKU

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
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    TRANSCRIPT:

    MICHIO KAKU: We physicists are now looking into the brain itself. And we can see blood flow. And we can even see thoughts, thoughts as they're being created. And we can now show that certain old wives' tales are correct. Every parent, for example, believes that their teenage children suffer from brain damage. It's partially true. Scanning the prefrontal cortex of teenagers, you find that it's not fully formed. And that's why they take risks, because they don't understand how dangerous certain things are. Another old wives' tale is, when a man talks to a pretty girl, he starts to act stupid. Absolutely true.

    We have brain scanned men talking to pretty girls, and what happens is blood drains from the prefrontal cortex. And they start to act mentally retarded. Absolutely true. We can quantify the effect. We could measure it by measuring the drop in blood flow to the cerebral cortex. Now, I personally believe that one day, we will digitize the entire human brain. And what are we going to do with it? I think we're going to shoot it into outer space. We're going to put our Connectome on a laser beam and shoot it to the moon. We will be on the moon, our consciousness will be on the moon, in one second, one second, without booster rockets, without all the dangers of radiation or weightlessness. We'll be on the moon in one second. We'll shoot it to Mars.

    We'll be on Mars. In 20 minutes, we'll be on Mars. We'll shoot it to Alpha Centauri. We'll be on the nearby stars in four years. And what is on the moon? On the moon is a computer that downloads this laser beam with your consciousness on it, downloads it and puts it into an avatar, an avatar that looks just like you-- handsome, strong, beautiful, whatever, and immortal. And you can walk on the moon. You can then go and explore Mars. In fact, I think that once we have a laser porting perfected, you'll have breakfast in New York. And then you'll go to the moon for brunch on the moon. You go to Mars for lunch, and then you go to the asteroid belt in the afternoon for tea. And then you come back to Earth that evening.

    This is all within the laws of physics. And I'll stick my neck out. I think this actually exists already. I think outside the planet Earth, there could be a highway, a laser highway of laser beams shooting the consciousness of aliens at the speed of light, laser porting across the galaxy. And we humans are too stupid to know it. How would we even know that this laser superhighway exists? How would we even detect it with our technology? Our technology today is so primitive, that we wouldn't even be able to know that this already exists. So in other words, I think laser porting is the way that we will ultimately explore the universe.

    We'll explore the universe as pure consciousness traveling at the speed of light, looking at asteroids, comets, meteors, and eventually the stars, at the speed of light-- all of this within the laws of physics. When will this happen? Perhaps in 100 years. The Connectome Project will map the entire brain in about 100 years. And then, what do we do with it? I say, we shoot it to the stars.

  • Michio Kaku The Universe in a Nutshell Español

    42:14

    Traducción del video de Michio Kaku “The Universe in a Nutshell” por Ricardo Quiroz, versión original disponible en youtube.com/watch?v=0NbBjNiw4tk

    Michio Kaku- El universo en pocas palabras

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  • Michio Kaku Explains String Theory

    4:03

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    The co-founder of Field String Theory explains why the universe has 11 dimensions rather than any other number.

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    MICHIO KAKU

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    TRANSCRIPT:

    Question: Why are there only 11 dimensions in the universe rather than something higher? (Submitted by John Menon)


    Michio Kaku: I work in something called String Theory, that’s what I do for a living. In fact, that’s my day job. I’m the co-founder of String Field Theory, one of the main branches of String Theory. The latest version of String Theory is called M-Theory, “M” for membrane. So we now realize that strings can coexist with membranes. So the subatomic particles we see in nature, the quartz, the electrons are nothing but musical notes on a tiny vibrating string.


    What is physics? Physics is nothing but the laws of harmony that you can write on vibrating strings. What is chemistry? Chemistry is nothing but the melodies you can play on interacting vibrating strings. What is the universe? The universe is a symphony of vibrating strings. And then what is the mind of God that Albert Einstein eloquently wrote about for the last 30 years of his life? We now, for the first time in history have a candidate for the mind of God. It is, cosmic music resonating through 11 dimensional hyperspace.


    So first of all, we are nothing but melodies. We are nothing but cosmic music played out on vibrating strings and membranes. Obeying the laws of physics, which is nothing but the laws of harmony of vibrating strings. But why 11? It turns out that if you write a theory in 15, 17, 18 dimensions, the theory is unstable. It has what are called, anomalies. It has singularities. It turns out that mathematics alone prefers the universe being 11 dimensions.


    Now some people have toyed with 12 dimensions. At Harvard University, for example, some of the physicists there have shown that a 12-dimensional theory actually looks very similar to an 11-dimensional theory except it has two times, double times rather than one single time parameter. Now, what would it be like to live in a universe with double time? Well, I remember a movie with David Niven. David Niven played a pilot, who was shot down over the Pacific, but the angels made a mistake, he was not supposed to die that day. And so the angels brought him back to life and said, “Oh, sorry about that. We killed you off by accident; you were not supposed to die today.”


    So in a great scene, David Niven then walks through a city where time has stopped. Everyone looks like this. And there’s David Niven just wandering around looking at all these people. That’s a world with double time. David Niven has one clock, but everyone else has a separate clock and these two clocks are perpendicular to each other. So if there’s a double time universe, you could walk right into a room, see people frozen in time, while you beat to a different clock. That’s a double time universe.


    Now this is called F-Theory, “F” for father, the father of strings. It’s not known whether F-Theory will survive or not; however, M-Theory in 11 dimension is the mother of all strings. And that theory works perfectly fine. So to answer your question, in other dimensions, dimensions beyond 11, we have problems with stability, these theories are unstable, they decay back down to 11 dimensions, they have what are called anomalies, singularities, which kill an ordinary theory. So the mathematics itself forces you to 11 dimensions.


    Also because this is a Theory of Everything, there’s more room in higher dimensions to put all the forces together. When you put gravity, electromagnetism and the nuclear force together, four dimensions is not big enough to accommodate all these forces. When you expand to 11 dimensions, bingo, everything forms perfectly well.

  • Michio Kaku: String Theory Is The Only Game In Town | Big Think

    4:02

    Michio Kaku: String Theory Is The Only Game In Town
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    The co-founder of Field String Theory explains why the universe has 11 dimensions rather than any other number.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Question: Why are there only 11 dimensions in the universe rather than something higher? (Submitted by John Menon)

    Michio Kaku: I work in something called String Theory, that’s what I do for a living. In fact, that’s my day job. I’m the co-founder of String Field Theory, one of the main branches of String Theory. The latest version of String Theory is called M-Theory, “M” for membrane. So we now realize that strings can coexist with membranes. So the subatomic particles we see in nature, the quartz, the electrons are nothing but musical notes on a tiny vibrating string.

    What is physics? Physics is nothing but the laws of harmony that you can write on vibrating strings. What is chemistry? Chemistry is nothing but the melodies you can play on interacting vibrating strings. What is the universe? The universe is a symphony of vibrating strings. And then what is the mind of God that Albert Einstein eloquently wrote about for the last 30 years of his life? We now, for the first time in history have a candidate for the mind of God. It is, cosmic music resonating through 11 dimensional hyperspace.

    So first of all, we are nothing but melodies. We are nothing but cosmic music played out on vibrating strings and membranes. Obeying the laws of physics, which is nothing but the laws of harmony of vibrating strings. But why 11? It turns out that if you write a theory in 15, 17, 18 dimensions, the theory is unstable. It has what are called, anomalies. It has singularities. It turns out that mathematics alone prefers the universe being 11 dimensions.

    Now some people have toyed with 12 dimensions. At Harvard University, for example, some of the physicists there have shown that a 12-dimensional theory actually looks very similar to an 11-dimensional theory except it has two times, double times rather than one single time parameter. Now, what would it be like to live in a universe with double time? Well, I remember a movie with David Niven. David Niven played a pilot, who was shot down over the Pacific, but the angels made a mistake, he was not supposed to die that day. And so the angels brought him back to life and said, “Oh, sorry about that. We killed you off by accident; you were not supposed to die today.”

    So in a great scene, David Niven then walks through a city where time has stopped. Everyone looks like this. And there’s David Niven just wandering around looking at all these people. That’s a world with double time. David Niven has one clock, but everyone else has a separate clock and these two clocks are perpendicular to each other. So if there’s a double time universe, you could walk right into a room, see people frozen in time, while you beat to a different clock. That’s a double time universe.

    Now this is called F-Theory, “F” for father, the father of strings. It’s not known whether F-Theory will survive or not; however, M-Theory in 11 dimension is the mother of all strings. And that theory works perfectly fine. So to answer your question, in other dimensions, dimensions beyond 11, we have problems with stability, these theories are unstable, they decay back down to 11 dimensions, they have what are called anomalies, singularities, which kill an ordinary theory. So the mathematics itself forces you to 11 dimensions.

    Also because this is a Theory of Everything, there’s more room in higher dimensions to put all the forces together. When you put gravity, electromagnetism and the nuclear force together, four dimensions is not big enough to accommodate all these forces. When you expand to 11 dimensions, bingo, everything forms perfectly well.

  • How Science Could Prove the Existence of God | Michio Kaku | Google Zeitgeist

    2:41

    Dr. Michio Kaku refutes Stephen Hawking's idea that there was 'no time' before the big bang for God to create the universe and reconciles theological differences between Buddhism and Presbyterian Christianity.

    Google Zeitgeist is a collection of talks by people who are changing the world. Hear entrepreneurs, CEOs, storytellers, scientists, and dreamers share their visions of how we can shape tomorrow.

    Dr. Michio Kaku is one of the most widely recognized figures in science in the world today. He is an internationally recognized authority in two key areas. The first is Einstein’s unified field theory, which Dr. Kaku is attempting to complete. The other is to predict trends affecting business, medicine, finance, and our way of life, based on the latest research in science. He has written four New York Times Bestsellers: The Future of Humanity, The Future of The Mind, Physics of The Future, and Physics of The Impossible. All achieved top spots on the New York Times, Amazon, and Barnes & Noble bestsellers Lists, and #1 hardcover, non-fiction book in the country for The Future of The Mind. Kaku has over 3 million fans on Facebook and well over half a million people follow his tweets on Twitter.
    Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair in Theoretical Physics at the City Univ. of New York. He graduated from Harvard University in 1968 (summa cum laude and 1st in his physics class). He received his Ph.D. in physics from the UC Berkeley in 1972, and has been a professor at CUNY for almost 30 years; he has taught at Harvard and Princeton as well. His goal is to complete Einstein’s dream of a “theory of everything,” to derive an equation, perhaps no more than one inch long, which will summarize all the physical laws of the universe. He is the co-founder of string field theory, a major branch of string theory, which is the leading candidate today for the theory of everything. His Ph.D. level textbooks are required reading at many of the world’s leading physics laboratories.

  • Michio Kaku: Whats the Fate of the Universe? Its in the Dark Matter | Big Think

    5:08

    Michio Kaku: What's the Fate of the Universe? It's in the Dark Matter
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    Michio Kaku on what makes a supergenius.
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    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
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    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: If you watch the Big Bang Theory on CBS television you see these clueless nerds who are doormats when it comes to the opposite sex, right. And you realize is there any basis in reality? First of all none of my friends are like that and all my friends are physicists, right.

    Well there is a kernel of truth and that is some of these individuals may suffer from something called Asperger’s Syndrome which is a mild form of autism. These people are clueless when it comes to social interactions. They don’t look you in the eye, for example. And yet they have fantastic mental and mathematical capabilities. We think, for example, that Isaac Newton had Asperger’s. The greatest scientist of all time was very strange. He had no friends to speak of. He could not carry a decent conversation and yet here he was spitting out some of the greatest theories in the history of science. Calculus. The Universal Law of Gravitation. The Theory of Optics. And we think he had Asperger’s Syndrome.

    Now Asperger’s Syndrome is a mild form of autism and in autism we have what are called savants. That is people that have an IQ of maybe 80 but have incredible mathematical and musical abilities. In fact, some of these individuals can hear one symphony and just play it by memory on a piano. Other people could be in a helicopter, have a helicopter ride over Manhattan, see the entire New York harbor and then from memory sketch the entire harbor. In fact, if you want to see it go to JFK Airport in New York City and you will see it as you enter the international terminal. So what is it about these people? Well, first of all a lot of them had injuries to the left temporal lobe. One individual had a bullet as a child go right through the left temporal lobe. Another person dove into a swimming pool and injured very badly the left temporal lobe. And these people wound up with incredible mathematical abilities as a consequence. And so what is it about their brains?

    Well Einstein’s brain has actually been preserved. Einstein when he died had an autopsy in which case the pathologist stole the brain without permission of the family. He just realized that he was sitting next to something historic, took the brain, took it home with him, and it was sitting in a jar in his home for decades. He even drove across the country with the jar inside his trunk. And there’s even a TV special where you can actually see the cut up brain of Albert Einstein. And you realize first of all the brain is a little bit different. You can’t tell by looking at it that it’s so remarkably different but you realize that the connections between the prefontal cortex and the parietal lobe – a connection that is accentuated in people that do abstract reasoning is thickened. So there definitely is a difference in the brain of Einstein. But the question is did it make Einstein or did Einstein make this change of the brain?

    Are champions born or are they made? That still is not known because people who exercise mental abilities, mathematical abilities, they can thicken that part of the brain themselves. So we know that people who do well in mathematics, brain scans clearly show that their brains are slightly different from the average brain. So in conclusion, we’re still children with regards to understanding how this process takes place. Tonight don’t go home and bang yourself on the left temporal lobe. We don’t know how it works. We just know that in a tiny fraction of these cases people with injury to the left temporal lobe, some of the become super geniuses.

    Directed/Produced by Jonathan Fowler and Dillon Fitton

  • Michio Kaku: The Birth-Pangs of a Planetary Civilization | Big Think

    5:22

    Michio Kaku: The Birth-Pangs of a Planetary Civilization
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    The Internet, the European Union, and the Olympics are all signs that, within the next 100 years, mankind will become a truly planetary civilization.
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    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Question: How long will it take to reach a type one civilization at our current rate of advancement? (Submitted by Miguel Godinez)

    Michio Kaku: Miguel, you ask an interesting question about the future of civilization itself. Nikolai Kardashev, a Soviet Astrophysicist in the 1960’s, was frustrated trying to analyze signals from intelligent life in outer space. What are we looking for? So he began to rank civilizations on a scale of Type I, Type II, Type III.

    Type I civilization is truly planetary. They absorb all the light coming in from their mother star and they control all planetary forms of energy. For example, they might be able to modify the weather. They may be able to control earthquakes and volcanoes. That’s Type I.

    A Type II civilization is stellar. They control the entire energy output of a star. Type III is galactic, they control the energy output of the entire galaxy.

    Now to put things into perspective, Flash Gordon, or Buck Rogers would be… would be living in a Type I civilization where they control all forms of planetary energy. They can simply rocket anywhere on the planet Earth at ease.

    Type II might be “Star Trek.” The Federation of Planets has only colonized a few neighboring planetary systems. They can barely manipulate the energy output of a single star, so the Federation of Planets would be Type II.

    But even Captain Picard and William Shatner live in fear of a Type III galactic civilization, and that is The Borg or the Empire of the “Empire Strikes Back” or the aliens of “Independence Day,” They would be truly galactic in scope, able to harness the energy of black holes, for example. And there might even be Type IV. Type IV is extragalactic, for example, on “Star Trek” we have the Cue. The Cue might be a candidate for a Type IV civilization.

    Now what are we on this scale? We are Type 0. That’s where we rate. We get our energy from dead plants, oil and coal. Now Carl Sagan tried to refine it a bit, he estimated that we’re actually about a .7. If you are a .7 civilization, that means you are about 100 years from attaining Type I status. This means we can see evidence of this everywhere we go. The internet is the beginning of a Type I telephone system. We’re privileged to be alive to witness the beginning of a telephone system of the next hundred years.

    The European Union is the beginning of a Type I economy. Why do we even have the European Union? Of course, these countries hate each other; they’ve been warring with each other for thousands of years, ever since the ice melted in Europe. Why are these countries, these mortal enemies, ganging together to fund the European Union? Well, to compete with us. And who are we? We are NAFTA. So, we are seeing the beginning of a gigantic global trading blocks.

    English will probably be the planetary language, you can go anywhere on the planet Earth and the educated already speak English, they are bi-lingual, and on the internet, the number one language on the Internet is English, followed by Mandarin. We’re seeing the beginning of a planetary culture. Everywhere you go you see rock n’ roll, you see Gucci bags, you see high fashion, you see a very similar global culture. A culture of high fashion, Hollywood, glitz, Rock n’ Roll, blue jeans. That same kind of culture, youth culture, the culture of the rich, is now going around the planet Earth.

    You see the beginning of planetary sports, the Olympics, soccer games. Realize that in the old days, you had...

    Read the full transcript at

  • Michio Kaku: There are 2 types of god. Only one is within the boundary of science.

    3:39

    There are 2 types of god. Only one is within the boundary of science.
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    Science is about natural law, while religion is about ethics. As long as you keep these two separate, Kaku says, there's no problem at all. Problems arise, however, when the natural sciences begin to pontificate upon ethics and when religious people begin to pontificate about natural law.

    Albert Einstein believed in the god of Spinoza — not a personal god, but one who has set order and harmony in the fabric of the universe. You can put the laws of physics as we know them on a simple sheet of paper — amazing! It didn't have to be that way, says Kaku.

    The existence of God is not testable because such a review is not reproducible or falsifiable, as most scientific investigations are. In this sense, Kaku says the question and answer whether God exists rests outside the normal boundaries of science.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    MICHIO KAKU: Well, when you talk about religion, I like to quote from Galileo. Galileo said, the purpose of science is to determine how the heavens go. The purpose of religion is to determine how to go to heaven. So in other words, science is about natural law. It's about the laws of nature. While religion is about ethics, about how to go to heaven, how to be a good person, how to earn the favor of God. So you see, as long as you keep these two separate, there's no problem at all. The problem occurs when people from the natural sciences begin to pontificate upon ethics and when religious people begin to pontificate about natural law. That's where we get into trouble. Now, the boundary of the two, the question arises. Can you prove the existence of God? Well, first of all, let's be clear about this.

    There are two kinds of God. Einstein was very clear about this, two kinds of God. The first God is a personal god, the God that you pray to, the God that gives you your bicycle for Christmas, the God that smites the Philistines and destroys your enemies. That's the personal God. Einstein did not believe that the God of the universe created us just so you can get that wagon for a Christmas present. You see, Einstein believed in another god, the god of Spinoza, the god of liveness, the god of order, harmony. The universe could have been random. It could have been chaotic. It could have been messy. But the universe is actually quite elegant, quite simple, and in fact, is gorgeous. You can put the laws of physics as we know them on a simple sheet of paper amazing. It didn't have to be that way.

    Therefore, you ask the question, is the existence of God provable? Well, what is science? Science is based on things that are testable, reproducible, and falsifiable. But you see, the existence of God is not testable. It's not reproducible. We cannot reproduce God at will. You cannot put an angel inside a box and demand that miracles take place. It doesn't work that way. That's why religion is based on faith rather than things that are objectively testable, falsifiable, and reproducible. Now, that doesn't mean that God doesn't exist. I don't know. I don't know if God exists or not. All I'm saying is that science is limited by looking at what is testable, reproducible, and falsifiable. There are areas where you push the boundaries of that, like the Big Bang.

    You cannot reproduce the Big Bang. You cannot test the Big Bang. It's like a detective story. You can only look at the clues, the clues left over from the Big Bang. So to calculate the instant of creation is, in some sense, outside science, because it's not reproducible. You cannot reproduce the Big Bang. But you can then trace the history of what happened afterwards, like a murder mystery. And that's where a lot of science is done. And that's why I say that the existence of God is not within the normal boundaries of science.

  • The World in 2030 by Dr. Michio Kaku

    1:4:01

    The World in 2030: How Science will Affect Computers, Medicine, Jobs, Our Lifestyles and the Wealth of our Nations
    Wednesday, October 28, 2009

    Dr. Michio Kaku is a theoretical physicist and the Henry Semat Professor at the City College of New York and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, where he has taught for more than 30 years. He is a graduate of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and earned his doctorate from the University of California at Berkeley.

    Dr. Kaku is one of the founders of string field theory, a field of research within string theory. String theory seeks to provide a unified description for all matter and the fundamental forces of the universe.

    His book The Physics of the Impossible addresses how science fiction technology may become possible in the future. His other books include Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universes, Time Warps, and the Tenth Dimension , selected as one of the best science books of 1994 by both the New York Times and The Washington Post, and Parallel Worlds: A Journey Through Creation, Higher Dimensions, and the Future of the Cosmos , a finalist for the Samuel Johnson Prize.

  • Michio Kaku - How are Multiple Universes Generated?

    9:43

    Cosmologists believe that multiple universes really exist; they call the whole vast collection, which might even be infinite in number, the 'multiverse'.

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  • Tea with Michio Kaku | The Economist

    10:10

    Michio Kaku on the next 100 years

    In his new book, Physics of the Future, Michio Kaku predicts how technology will revolutionise life in the 22nd century

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  • Michio Kaku: A Black Hole in Our Own Backyard?

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  • Michio Kaku: Consciousness Can be Quantified

    4:46

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    One of the great questions in all of science is where consciousness comes from. When it comes to consciousness, Kaku believes different species have different levels of consciousness, based on their feedback loops needed to survive in space, society, and time. According to the theoretical physicist, human beings' ability to use past experiences, memories, to predict the future makes us distinct among animals — and even robots (they're currently unable to understand, or operate within, a social hierarchy).

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    MICHIO KAKU

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    TRANSCRIPT:

    MICHIO KAKU: In the entire universe, there are two great unsolved problems. The two greatest problems in all of science, first of all, is about the very big. It's about the origin of the universe. Why did it bang? Why do we have an expanding universe? And I personally work on something called the multiverse, which we think is the dominant source of theories that gives us the universe before creation itself-- the multiverse. But there is also the mystery of inner space, not outer space.

    And that's the human mind. Where does consciousness come from? And I think that in my book, The Future of the Mind, I try to make a stab at what is consciousness? First of all, let me explain my theory. I have my own theory of consciousness. I think consciousness is the sum total of all feedback loops necessary to create a model of yourself in space, in society, and in time. Now, I'm a physicist. We like to measure things and quantify things. I think there is a unit of consciousness. If consciousness is a sum total of all feedback loops necessary to create a picture of yourself in space, in society, and in time, then the unit of consciousness is a thermostat.

    A thermostat has one unit of consciousness, because it has one feedback loop-- measures temperature. Now, a plant has maybe five units of consciousness, because plants have to regulate temperature. They have to regulate humidity, the direction of gravity, when to sprout. So there are maybe five or so feedback loops in a plant. Then we go to alligators. The alligators are masters of the back part of the brain. And then you have maybe several hundred feedback loops that govern space. That's what alligators are very good at.

    Their brain, if you look at the parts of the back of the brain, we, too, have the reptilian brain that governs our understanding of space, where we are in space. And then, going forward in time, evolution gave us the monkey brain, the center of the brain, the limbic system. And the limbic system, in turn, governs society. It governs where we are with respect to our elders, our children, other human beings. Pack mentality, wolves, all of them have a developed central part of the brain, the monkey brain. And then the front part of the brain is what distinguishes us from the animals. It is the temporal brain that constantly simulates the future.

    Animals don't do that. In fact, animals don't even have much of a memory. When you look at a brain scan of what is the brain doing when it's thinking, thinking hard? What is the brain doing? You find out that the prefrontal cortex is active, and it is accessing memories of the past. You see, animals don't do that. Animals have not much of a memory. They don't see the future, because there's no necessity to see the future. There's no necessity to have much of a memory. In fact, the purpose of memory could be to simulate the future. Animals don't need it.

    Why didn't the dinosaurs become intelligent? Well, they didn't need to become intelligent, because we humans sometimes overexaggerate the importance of intelligence. Intelligence is not necessary to live in the forest, but we are maladapted to live in the forest. We don't run very fast. We can't fly. Our skin...

    For the full transcript, check out

  • Michio Kaku: Telepathy Is Easier Than You Think | Big Think

    1:06

    Telepathy Is Easier Than You Think
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    Some have proposed using quantum entanglement (the invisible umbilical cord that exists between objects) as a form of telepathy. But there are much more practical ways of achieving telepathy that already exist.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
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  • Michio Kaku: Let’s not advertise our existence to aliens | Big Think Top Ten 2018

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  • Michio Kaku: Can Nanotechnology Create Utopia?

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  • Why Michio Kaku wants to avoid alien contact at all costs | Big Think

    3:38

    Why Michio Kaku wants to avoid alien contact at all costs
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    If advanced alien civilizations do exist, theoretical physicist Michio Kaku asks, why would they want anything to do with us? It would be like an academic talking to a squirrel, he suggests, and he has a great point. Hollywood and science fiction novels have conditioned us for years to believe that aliens either want to hang out on our intellectual level and learn from us... or destroy us. If alien life really does have the technology and know-how to make it all the way here, perhaps we should just play it cool and not assume that we are the top species in the universe. Besides, if we play our cards wrong and go all Will Smith in Independence Day on our smart new neighbors, it could be the end of us. Mankind's biggest folly, Kaku suggests, might just be in its insistence that we are an exceptional species. Michio Kaku's latest book is the wonderful and enlightening The Future of Humanity: Terraforming Mars, Interstellar Travel, Immortality, and Our Destiny Beyond Earth.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: We have this mental image that a flying saucer will circle the White House lawn, land on the White House lawn and give us a bounty of all sorts of technological goodies to initiate an age of Aquarius on the planet earth. Personally, I don’t think that’s going to happen. For example, if you’re in the forest do you go out and talk to the squirrels and the deer? Maybe you do for a while, but after a while, you get bored because they don’t talk back to you because they have nothing interesting to tell you because they can’t relate to our values and our ideas. If you go down to an anthill do you go down to the ants and say I bring you trinkets; I bring you bees; take me to your aunt queen; I give you nuclear energy. So I think for the most part the aliens are probably not going to be interested in us because we’re so arrogant to believe that we have something to offer them. Realize that they could be thousands, maybe millions of years ahead of us in technology and they may have no interest in interacting with us in the same way that we don’t necessarily want to deal with the squirrels and the deer in the forest.

    Now some people say that we should not try to make contact with them because they could be potentially dangerous. For the most part, I think they’re going to be peaceful because they’ll be thousands of years ahead of us, but we cannot take the chance. So I personally believe that we should not try to advertise our existence to alien life in outer space because of the fact that we don’t know their intentions.

    Then the other question is what happens if they’re evil? Well, I think the question of evil is actually a relative question because the real danger to a deer in the forest is not the hunter with a gigantic rifle; he’s not the main danger to a deer in the forest. The main danger to a deer in the forest is the developer; the guy with blueprints; the guy in a three-piece suit; the guy with a slide rule and calculator; the guy that’s going to pave the forest and perhaps destroy whole ecosystems.

    In other words, the aliens don’t have to be evil in order to be dangerous to us, they might not care, they just might not care about us and in the process pave us over. In fact, if you read the novel War of the Worlds the Martians in HG Wells seminal novel were not evil in the sense they wanted to torture us and they wanted to do all sorts of barbaric things to humanity. No, we were just in the way. And so I think that is a potential problem. We could be in the way of a very advanced civilization that simply is not evil but simply views us as we would view squirrels and deer in the forest. So personally I think that we should not advertise our existence when we go into outer spac...

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  • Michio Kaku, The Future of the Mind

    1:7:23



    Michio Kaku discusses his new book at Politics & Prose bookstore in Washington, D.C. This event was recorded live on March 28, 2014.

    Founded by Carla Cohen and Barbara Meade in 1984, Politics & Prose Bookstore is Washington, D.C.'s premier independent bookstore and cultural hub, a gathering place for people interested in reading and discussing books. Politics & Prose offers superior service, unusual book choices, and a haven for book lovers in the store and online. Visit them on the web at

  • Michio Kaku: How to Stop Robots From Killing Us

    4:16

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    Michio Kaku on what makes a supergenius.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    MICHIO KAKU

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: If you watch the Big Bang Theory on CBS television you see these clueless nerds who are doormats when it comes to the opposite sex, right. And you realize is there any basis in reality? First of all none of my friends are like that and all my friends are physicists, right.


    Well there is a kernel of truth and that is some of these individuals may suffer from something called Asperger’s Syndrome which is a mild form of autism. These people are clueless when it comes to social interactions. They don’t look you in the eye, for example. And yet they have fantastic mental and mathematical capabilities. We think, for example, that Isaac Newton had Asperger’s. The greatest scientist of all time was very strange. He had no friends to speak of. He could not carry a decent conversation and yet here he was spitting out some of the greatest theories in the history of science. Calculus. The Universal Law of Gravitation. The Theory of Optics. And we think he had Asperger’s Syndrome.


    Now Asperger’s Syndrome is a mild form of autism and in autism we have what are called savants. That is people that have an IQ of maybe 80 but have incredible mathematical and musical abilities. In fact, some of these individuals can hear one symphony and just play it by memory on a piano. Other people could be in a helicopter, have a helicopter ride over Manhattan, see the entire New York harbor and then from memory sketch the entire harbor. In fact, if you want to see it go to JFK Airport in New York City and you will see it as you enter the international terminal. So what is it about these people? Well, first of all a lot of them had injuries to the left temporal lobe. One individual had a bullet as a child go right through the left temporal lobe. Another person dove into a swimming pool and injured very badly the left temporal lobe. And these people wound up with incredible mathematical abilities as a consequence. And so what is it about their brains?


    Well Einstein’s brain has actually been preserved. Einstein when he died had an autopsy in which case the pathologist stole the brain without permission of the family. He just realized that he was sitting next to something historic, took the brain, took it home with him, and it was sitting in a jar in his home for decades. He even drove across the country with the jar inside his trunk. And there’s even a TV special where you can actually see the cut up brain of Albert Einstein. And you realize first of all the brain is a little bit different. You can’t tell by looking at it that it’s so remarkably different but you realize that the connections between the prefontal cortex and the parietal lobe – a connection that is accentuated in people that do abstract reasoning is thickened. So there definitely is a difference in the brain of Einstein. But the question is did it make Einstein or did Einstein make this change of the brain?


    Are champions born or are they made? That still is not known because people who exercise mental abilities, mathematical abilities, they can thicken that part of the brain themselves. So we know that people who do well in mathematics, brain scans clearly show that their brains are slightly different from the average brain. So in conclusion, we’re still children with regards to understanding how this process takes place. Tonight don’t go home and bang yourself on the left temporal lobe. We don’t know how it works. We just know that in a tiny fraction of these cases people with injury to the left temporal lobe, some of the become super geniuses.





    Directed/Produced by Jonathan Fowler and Dillon Fitton

  • Michio Kaku: 99.99% of species go extinct. What is humanity’s future? | Big Think

    3:01

    Michio Kaku: 99.99% of species go extinct. What is humanity’s future?
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    The great science fiction writer Isaac Asimov put a terrifying question on humanity's radar: Where will we be 50,000 years from now?

    Humanity is close to exhausting the known laws of physics; it's the unknown – the unified theory of everything – that could dominate our destiny in the coming millennia. And that destiny is almost certainly tied to space travel. Why?

    Extinction is the norm, says Michio Kaku, 99.99% of all species on Earth eventually go extinct. Mother Nature and the laws of physics have a death warrant for humanity, says Kaku. [U]ltimately our destiny will be in outer space.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    MICHIO KAKU: When I was a child, I, too, read Isaac Asimov's Foundation series, and it forced you to confront the question: Where will we be 50,000 years from now?

    Now, remember, science fiction, when I was a kid, was just shoot 'em up cowboy movies in outer space. That's all it was. However, Isaac Asimov forced you to come to grips with the fact that we're going to be exhausting the known laws of physics pretty soon. We have a very good grasp of the electromagnetic, the strong, the weak forces, gravity, but beyond that lies the unified field theory; the theory that eluded Einstein for the last 30 years of his life, the theory that I work on professionally -- that's my day job; I work on something called string theory, which we think is the theory of everything, and this theory could dominate our destiny in the coming millennia. Now, this means, of course, starships. Already, NASA has something called the 100 Year Starship program, very ambitious, however, a lot of it's still theoretical. We don't know for sure what it would take to go to the stars. Stephen Hawking, my colleague, the late Stephen Hawking, talked about shooting computer chips, tiny computer chips boosted by laser beams to 20% the speed of light, capable of reaching Alpha Centauri in 20 years time. But then, of course, we want to go beyond that. One day, we're going to have fusion rockets, anti-matter rockets, rockets that can take us to the nearby stars, not just computer chips, but people. And then beyond that, who knows? Maybe our destiny really does lie in outer space.

    Remember that on the earth, 99.9% of all species eventually go extinct. Extinction is the norm. We think of Mother Nature as being warm and cuddly, and for the most part, she is. But sometimes, the savagery of Mother Nature is revealed. And if you don't believe me, dig underneath your feet. Right under your feet, right now, are the bones, the bones of all the different organisms, of fossils, the 99.9% that were doomed by the laws of nature. And the laws of physics also doom the entire planet Earth. And that's why I say, given the fact that Mother Nature and the laws of physics have a death warrant for humanity, that ultimately our destiny will be in outer space.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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  • Michio Kaku: Why Physics Ends the Free Will Debate | Big Think

    1:49

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    Einstein believed that free will was just an illusion, and that awareness of this lack kept him from taking himself and others too seriously. But Einstein was plain wrong, says Dr. Kaku
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:
    Newtonian Determinism says that the universe is a clock, a gigantic clock that’s wound up in the beginning of time and has been ticking ever since according to Newton’s laws of motion. So what you’re going to eat 10 years from now on January 1st has already been fixed. It’s already known using Newton’s laws of motion. Einstein believed in that. Einstein was a determinist.

    Does that mean that a murderer, this horrible mass murderer isn’t really guilty of his works because he was already preordained billions of years ago? Einstein said well yeah, in some sense that’s true that even mass murderers were predetermined, but he said, they should still be placed in jail.

    Heisenberg then comes along and proposes the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and says: ”Nonsense. There is uncertainty. You don’t know where the electron is. It could be here, here or many places simultaneously.” This of course Einstein hated because he said God doesn’t play dice with the universe. Well hey, get used to it. Einstein was wrong. God does play dice. Every time we look at an electron it moves. There is uncertainty with regards to the position of the electron.

    So what does that mean for free will? It means in some sense we do have some kind of free will. No one can determine your future events given your past history. There is always the wildcard. There is always the possibility of uncertainty in whatever we do.

    So when I look at myself in a mirror I say to myself what I'm looking at is not really me. It looks like me, but it’s not really me at all. It’s not me today now. It’s me a billionth of a second ago because it takes a billionth of a second for light to go from me to the mirror and back.
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  • Michio Kaku: The Theory of Everything

    3:29

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    Other Frequent contributors include Michio Kaku & Neil DeGrasse Tyson.

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  • Michio Kaku: Space Bubble Baths and the Free Universe | Big Think

    5:25

    Michio Kaku: Space Bubble Baths and the Free Universe
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    How can you create a universe from nothing? Well if you calculate the total matter of the universe it is positive. If you calculate the total energy of the universe it is negative because of gravity. Gravity has negative energy. When you add the two together what do you get? Zero, so it takes no energy to create a universe. Universes are for free. A universe is a free lunch.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: We have found the Higgs boson. So then the next question is what's next? Well the Large Hadron Collider, this machine that is 27 miles in circumference, costing 10 billion dollars is big enough to create the next generation of particles. So the Higgs boson in some sense is the last hurrah for the old physics, the old physics of what is called the standard model, which gives us quarks and electrons. The new theory is going to take us into dark matter. Now we know dark matter exists. Dark matter is invisible, so if I held it in my hand you wouldn't see it. In fact, it would go right through my fingers, go right through the rock underneath my feet and go all the way to China. It would reverse direction and come back from China all the way here to New York City and go back and forth.

    So dark matter has gravitational attraction, but it is invisible and we are clueless as to what dark matter really is. The leading candidate for dark matter today is called the sparticle. The sparticle is the next octave of the string. Now look around you. Everything around you, we think, is nothing but the lowest vibration of a vibrating string, the lowest octave in some sense, but a string of course has higher octaves, higher notes. We think that dark matter could in fact be nothing but a higher vibration of the string. So we think that 23% of the universe, which is the dark matter's contribution to the universe, comes from a higher octave of the string. Now the standard model which we have ample verification of only represents four percent of the universe. So the universe of atoms, protons, neutrons, neutrinos - that universe only represents four percent of what there is. 23% is dark matter, which we think is the next vibration up of the string and then 73% of the universe is dark energy.

    Dark energy is the energy of nothing. It's the energy of the vacuum. Between two objects in outer space there is nothing, nothing except dark energy, dark energy, which is pushing the galaxies apart. So when people say if the universe is expanding they say two things, what's pushing the galaxies apart and what is the universe expanding into. Well what's pushing the galaxies apart is dark energy, the energy of nothing. Even vacuum has energy pushing the galaxies apart. And then what is the universe expanding into? Well if the universe is a sphere of some sort and we live on the skin of the sphere and the sphere is expanding what is the sphere expanding into? Well obviously a bubble, a balloon expands into the third dimension even though the people living on the balloon are two dimensional.

    So when our universe expands what does it expand into? Hyperspace, a dimension beyond what you can see and touch. In fact, string theory predicts that there are 11 dimensions of hyperspace, so we're nothing but a soap bubble floating in a bubble bath of soap bubbles and so in some sense the multiverse can be likened to a bubble bath. Our universe is nothing but one bubble, but there are other bubbles. When two bubbles collide that could merge into a bigger bubble, which could be the big bang. In fact, that is what probably the big bang is or perhaps a bubble fissioned in half and split off into two bubbles. That could be the big bang. Or perhaps the universe popped into existence out of nothing. That is also a possibility...

    Read the full transcript at

  • Dr Michio Kaku Explains The Theory of Everything | Cafe Classroom

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    World-renowned theoretical physicist and futurist Dr. Michio Kaku opens the door to humanity’s future through his groundbreaking research: string theory, also known as the theory of everything. Much of Dr. Kaku’s work and research is rooted in a quest for discovering a single unifying theory that can unite Albert Einstein’s earlier findings in quantum physics.

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  • Michio Kaku - What is a Theory of Everything?

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    A 'theory of everything' is the ultimate workings of #physics, the ideas and equations that undergird the physical universe at its deepest level. What can theory of everything explain? And what can it not explain? To have a theory of everything, what do you need? And if you get it, what can you do with it?

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    Michio Kaku is an American theoretical physicist, the Henry Semat Professor of Theoretical Physics in the City College of New York of City University of New York, a futurist, and a communicator and popularizer of #science.

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    Closer to Truth presents the world’s greatest thinkers exploring humanity’s deepest questions. Discover fundamental issues of existence. Engage new and diverse ways of thinking. Appreciate intense debates. Share your own opinions. Seek your own answers.

  • ➡️ The Best Big Bang Theory By Michio Kaku And Lawrence Krauss Documentary

    50:28

    Here is the best theory of Big Bang by Michio Kaku And Lawrence Krauss. Watch full to understand the bigger idea of the big bang, and it's amazing theories.

  • Michio Kaku on The Future of Humanity

    42:42

    An enlightening conversation with the famed theoretical physicist, futurist, and co-founder of String Field Theory. This fireside chat will cover a range of topics from quantum computing, how AI can improve our quality of life, to potential life on Mars and why he is determined to complete Einstein’s theory of everything.

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    Speaker(s): Michio Kaku and Taylor Wilson

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  • Michio Kaku On The Meaning Of Life & The Universe

    3:46

    Michio Kaku discusses his thoughts on the meaning of life and the universe.

  • Michio Kaku: The Future of Quantum Computing | Big Think

    3:15

    The Future of Quantum Computing
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    Today's robots are less intelligent than cockroaches, but advances in quantum computing—transferring information using atoms rather than silicon—could revolutionize the field of AI.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Question: Will quantum computing make self-aware AI more likely? (Submitted by Antonio Amorelli)

    Michio Kaku: Antonio, quantum computers is the wildcard. It could be a game changer. It could change the entire landscape of artificial intelligence. Let me explain. At the present time, our most advanced robots, some of which are built in Japan and also at MIT have the collective intelligence and wisdom of a cockroach; a mentally challenged cockroach; a lobotomized, mentally challenged cockroach. These cockroaches take about six hours to walk across the room. They enter a room. They see lines, circles, squares, triangles, but they don’t know the fact that they’re looking at chairs, desks, tables, people, lamps. They see better than us. They don’t know what they are seeing. Also they hear better than us, but they don’t understand what they are hearing. So we need a new architecture and then, in 10 years, silicon power may run its course and the silicon revolution may actually collapse. We’re used to the fact that computers double in power every 18 months. That can’t go on forever. Moore’s Law, which is the foundation of modern society, may eventually collapse in 10, 15 years, so we physicists are looking for a replacement. A replacement, molecular computers, atomic computers, optical computers and quantum computers.

    Quantum computers compute on atoms, not silicon. They are as small as you can get in terms of information storage—you can’t get smaller than an individual electron—and they work by looking at the spin, at the orientation of electrons. If I put an electron in a magnetic field, it can spin up or it can spin down. That would be a one and that would be a zero. But in quantum mechanics it could also be in between zero and one, so a bit one, a bit zero could become a Q bit, anything between zero and one. Now, to be fair, the world’s record for a quantum computer calculation is: three times five is fifteen. Now you probably already knew that: three times five is fifteen. But remember that calculation was done on five atoms, so here is a homework assignment for you. Take five atoms and make a computation three times five is fifteen and then you begin to realize how difficult it is to make quantum computers. The problem is interference. Cosmic rays, a rumbling truck outside your door, small tremors in the earth, they create vibrations sufficient to destroy the spin of the electron. And that is the problem. That is the reason why we don’t have quantum computers. And remember if you can solve this problem, if you can create a quantum computer that computes on individual atoms and electrons you would be heralded as the next Thomas Edison.

    Recorded September 29, 2010
    Interviewed by Paul Hoffman

  • UBC Connects with Michio Kaku - Michios Vision for the Future

    5:03

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    In his characteristic fun, friendly and highly accessible manner, theoretical physicist and bestselling author Michio Kaku presents a succinct history of physics and makes a compelling case for why this particular branch of science is the key to pretty much everything.

    He argues that physicists may soon shrink the science of the Big Bang into an equation as small as Einstein’s famous e=mc², and that advances in string theory may allow us to escape the heat death of the universe, explore the multiverse, and unlock the secrets of existence.

    Whether you slept through high school science or are about to defend your thesis in quantum physics, your curiosity and imagination is sure to be ignited by this spellbinding session with one of the world’s most famous scientists.

    About the Speaker:

    A graduate of Harvard and UC Berkeley, Dr. Michio Kaku is one of the most widely recognized figures in science in the world today. He is an internationally recognized authority in Einstein’s unified field theory and is highly respected for predicting trends affecting business, medicine, finance, and our way of life, based on the latest research in science. He has authored three New York Times bestsellers, appears regularly on national and international TV, and hosts numerous science TV and radio programs. He has more than three million Facebook fans and more than half a million Twitter followers.

    He holds the Henry Semat Chair in Theoretical Physics at the City University of New York where he has taught for almost 30 years. A co-founder of string theory, his goal is to complete Einstein’s dream of a “theory of everything” and to derive an equation-perhaps no more than one inch long-which will summarize all the physical laws of the universe.

  • Michio Kaku: How can we predict success in humans?

    4:59

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    The brain evolved in three parts, from back to front: First, the so-called reptilian brain or spatial brain; then the monkey or social brain; and the most recently evolved section is the frontal lobe, which understands time.What's so special about this temporal ability? It allows humans to forecast into the future—to consciously plan, dream and strategize. That's a unique trait in the animal kingdom. Physicist Michio Kaku believes this trait may also define success among our species, as evidenced by the global correlation in the marshmallow test: Those who wait for the second marshmallow tend to be more successful in life. Listen to Kaku explain why that ability to look ahead and not take shortcuts may be an important predictor of success.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    MICHIO KAKU

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    TRANSCRIPT:

    MICHIO KAKU: Well, if you look at the history of the evolution of the brain itself, you realize that the brain is basically in three parts. The back of the brain is the so-called reptilian brain, the oldest brain, the brain of space, the brain of a reptile, that has to locate its prey, its mate, and understand its position in space; that's the back of the brain. As we evolved to the front, we evolved the monkey brain, the brain of society, hierarchy, emotions; the brain that tells you about manners, about etiquette, how to respect your elders. That's the central part of the brain, the monkey brain.

    Then the front part of the brain is the most important part for us, that distinguishes us from the animals. You see, the animals have a back of the brain, the spatial brain. The animals have a social brain, like wolves. They have a pecking order in the center of the brain.

    So what do we have? What do we have that the animals don't necessarily have? The front part of the brain governs time. It constantly thinks about the future. It constantly reruns alternate scenarios of what could be the future, plans, dreams, strategizes. Animals don't do that.

    When animals hibernate, it's not that they say, 'Oh, I've got to hibernate. Time for me to get ready to hibernate.' Nope. Animals simply say: Instinct tells me I've got to get ready, and I've got to hibernate.

    So what is it that makes humans different from animals? And how is it related to success as a human? It's the ability to see the future, to see the future in all its messiness, to be able to re-create scenarios of the future which are realistic.

    Now, let's go to a psychologist and ask him a simple question: Is there a test that correlates children with success in life? That's a big question. Success in life and childhood—is there a test that you can perform? It's not perfect, of course. But yeah, there is a test that's been done around the world. You test kids, and a few decades later, you try to find out if they're successful or not.

    And you find that, yes, there's one characteristic that does seem to correlate with success in life, lower divorce rate, higher income, higher social status. What is that one characteristic? It's measured by the marshmallow test. The marshmallow test—you give children the option of eating a marshmallow now or two marshmallows a few hours later. And then you follow these kids for decades in different countries. Now, it's not perfect, of course. But you'll find that there is a measurable correlation.

    Now, what's the lesson here? The lesson is the kids who wanted two marshmallows later saw the future. They are the ones who want to plan, the ones who want to go to college, the ones who want to make something of themselves, that hold out. Now, who are the ones who simply get that first marshmallow? It's not perfect, but a lot of them want shortcuts, shortcuts in life, the easy way out.

    Now, let's do a science experiment that all of us can perform. If...

    For the full transcript, check out

  • Michio Kaku: Genetic and digital immortality are within reach | Big Think

    3:13

    Michio Kaku: Genetic and digital immortality are within reach
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    Through the Connectome Project we may soon be able to map the pathways of the entire human brain, including memories, and create computer programs that evoke the person the digitization is stemmed from.

    We age because errors build up in our cells — mitochondria to be exact.

    With CRISPR technology we may soon be able to edit out errors that build up as we age, and extend the human lifespan.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    MICHIO KAKU: The rate at which we are learning about longevity Gives one pause. It makes you realize that perhaps digital and genetic immortality are Within reach. Already, in Silicon Valley, there are companies which, for a price, will digitize everything known about you your credit card transactions, your emails, Instagrams. Everything known about you can be digitized. And we have something called the Connectome Project, which will map the pathways of the entire human brain all your memories, all your quirks, personalities, everything digitized. And we'll put it on a disk. And for the most part, we'll put it in a library. Today, you go to the library, and you take a book out About Winston Churchill. In the future, you'll go to the library and talk to Winston Churchill, because all his speeches, his mannerisms, his memories, his letters, Have been digitized. I would love to talk to Einstein. I would love to talk to him, even if it's a computer program that has digitized everything known about him his work, his writings, His speeches, everything, and a holographic image, so that I can talk to him. And one day, we might be digitized, as well. We'll be able to talk to our great-great-great-great-great grandkids, and they'll be able to talk to their great-great-great-great-great Ancestors, as well. Because we become immortal. Not only that, but we're now beginning to isolate the genes which control the aging process. First of all, let's take a car. Where does aging take place in a car? Aging takes place in the engine. Why? That's where you have moving parts and combustion. Well, where, in the cell, do we have the power house of a cell? Mitochondria. Bingo, we now know where most of the errors build up in a cell. And with CRISPR technology, we may be able to edit out the errors that build up and extend the human lifespan. For example, a mouse can live to be about roughly two years of age, and then it dies of old age. But the Greenland shark can live to be over 400 years of age. And that's just not hearsay. By looking at the eyeball of the Greenland shark, it adds layers at a very precise rate in the eye. By analyzing and counting the layers, we see that the Greenland shark can live almost 500 years in age. So in other words, genetically speaking, it may be possible to extend the human lifespan. So genetic and biological immortality are definitely in the cards.
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  • Michio Kaku: Why Batteries Are Primitive | Big Think

    1:50

    Michio Kaku: Why Batteries Are Primitive
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    Every Wednesday, Michio Kaku will be answering reader questions about physics and futuristic science. If you have a question for Dr. Kaku, just post it in the comments section below and check back on Wednesdays to see if he answers it. Today, Dr. Kaku addresses a question posed by Felipe Cespedes:

    Why is battery or portable energy technology so primitive? What time frame would you give for when Laptops will hold a single charge for a week?
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: 100 years ago Henry Ford and Thomas Edison were friends. They were rivals, but they were friends and they made a bet as to how the cars of the future would evolve. Edison thought it would be the electric car and he pioneered many inventions in batteries. Ford said: “No, no way. I mean it’s going to be fossil fuels. It’s going to be gasoline.” Well everybody knows who won, but the real question is who will win in the future? Will Thomas Edison have his revenge? And the answer is very simple. It comes from physics.

    If you take gasoline realize that in some sense you’re looking at concentrated sunlight, concentrated sunlight from the time of the dinosaurs. It is packed with energy. Per kilogram the number of jewels of energy inside gasoline is much larger than the energy content of a battery, so it takes a very large cumbersome battery to compensate for the energy contained in gasoline, which is really quite efficient. It has been refined over decades. Pollutes like hell, but it is very efficient. That is why we need a new generation of batteries.

    Some people think that nano batteries may be the future. It turns out that if you want to store energy you can store energy in parallel plates. These are called capacitors, plus, minus, plus, minus, plus, minus plates. Plates can be made extremely thin, as thin as molecules meaning that in principle you can store and enormous amount of energy using carbon nano fibers and plates called graphene.

    Some people think that nanotechnology may give us super batteries, but not yet. Nanotechnology is still in its infancy, so we just have to get used to the fact that gasoline is still very efficient.

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    Jonathan Fowler & Elizabeth Rodd
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  • Michio Kaku - Does the Cosmos have a Reason?

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    Cosmologists now develop credible theories about the beginning and end of our universe and theory-based speculations about vast numbers of multiple universes. But does the cosmos have a reason?

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    If advanced alien civilizations do exist, theoretical physicist Michio Kaku asks, why would they want anything to do with us? It would be like an academic talking to a squirrel, he suggests, and he has a great point. Hollywood and science fiction novels have conditioned us for years to believe that aliens either want to hang out on our intellectual level and learn from us... or destroy us. If alien life really does have the technology and know-how to make it all the way here, perhaps we should just play it cool and not assume that we are the top species in the universe. Besides, if we play our cards wrong and go all Will Smith in Independence Day on our smart new neighbors, it could be the end of us. Mankind's biggest folly, Kaku suggests, might just be in its insistence that we are an exceptional species. Michio Kaku's latest book is the wonderful and enlightening The Future of Humanity: Terraforming Mars, Interstellar Travel, Immortality, and Our Destiny Beyond Earth.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    MICHIO KAKU

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: We have this mental image that a flying saucer will circle the White House lawn, land on the White House lawn and give us a bounty of all sorts of technological goodies to initiate an age of Aquarius on the planet earth. Personally, I don’t think that’s going to happen. For example, if you’re in the forest do you go out and talk to the squirrels and the deer? Maybe you do for a while, but after a while, you get bored because they don’t talk back to you because they have nothing interesting to tell you because they can’t relate to our values and our ideas. If you go down to an anthill do you go down to the ants and say I bring you trinkets; I bring you bees; take me to your aunt queen; I give you nuclear energy. So I think for the most part the aliens are probably not going to be interested in us because we’re so arrogant to believe that we have something to offer them. Realize that they could be thousands, maybe millions of years ahead of us in technology and they may have no interest in interacting with us in the same way that we don’t necessarily want to deal with the squirrels and the deer in the forest.


    Now some people say that we should not try to make contact with them because they could be potentially dangerous. For the most part, I think they’re going to be peaceful because they’ll be thousands of years ahead of us, but we cannot take the chance. So I personally believe that we should not try to advertise our existence to alien life in outer space because of the fact that we don’t know their intentions.


    Then the other question is what happens if they’re evil? Well, I think the question of evil is actually a relative question because the real danger to a deer in the forest is not the hunter with a gigantic rifle; he’s not the main danger to a deer in the forest. The main danger to a deer in the forest is the developer; the guy with blueprints; the guy in a three-piece suit; the guy with a slide rule and calculator; the guy that’s going to pave the forest and perhaps destroy whole ecosystems.


    In other words, the aliens don’t have to be evil in order to be dangerous to us, they might not care, they just might not care about us and in the process pave us over. In fact, if you read the novel War of the Worlds the Martians in HG Wells seminal novel were not evil in the sense they wanted to torture us and they wanted to do all sorts of barbaric things to humanity. No, we were just in the way. And so I think that is a potential problem. We could be in the way of a very advanced civilization that simply is not evil but simply views us as we would view squirrels and deer in the forest. So personally I think that we should not advertise our existence when we go into outer spac...

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  • Michio Kaku: X-Ray Vision and Telepathy Already Exist | Big Think

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    Michio Kaku: X-Ray Vision and Telepathy Already Exist
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    Technology already allows for primitive versions of superhuman abilities. One day we might also have contact lenses that allow us to surf the Internet and see infrared radiation.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Question: Will we one day evolve to have superhuman abilities like infrared-sight or telepathy or telekinesis? (Submitted by Roy Janho)

    Michio Kaku: Roy, at the present time our senses are inadequate to do the things you mentioned. However, with the addition of technology it is very easy to imagine a time in the future when we would have super-senses. For example, our eyeball can only see red, green and blue, the primary colors, but animals can see different colors. Bees, for example, can see ultraviolet radiation. That is how they lock onto the sun. When it’s raining and it’s cloudy you think that bees would starve to death because they don’t know where the flower patch is. Wrong, they lock onto to sun, and under ultraviolet radiation bees can see the sun.

    So for us, however, we can’t see infrared. We can’t see ultraviolet. However, it is possible that one day we’ll have contact lenses... contact lenses with full internet capability so we will blink and we will be online. And these contact lenses could be sensitive to infrared or ultraviolet radiation in which case we could see radiation that is invisible to us.

    Already, it’s possible to get the x-ray vision of Superman. If you think of Superman comics you think: No way, you can’t have x-ray vision. You have to have a photographic film behind the person. You would have to shine x-rays, develop the film to get the x-ray of the person. You can’t do that with an eyeball. It turns out we can. There is something called backscattered x-rays which gives you x-ray vision a la Superman almost indistinguishable from the x-ray vision of Superman comics. Here is how you do it: You get a light bulb that emits x-ray radiation that floods a room. The x-rays bounce off the walls. Then you put on special goggles or lenses which are sensitive to x-rays. X-rays hit the wall, go behind the person’s back, go through the person and into your goggles. That is how you do it without photographic film. It’s called backscattered x-rays. It already exists and in fact because of the 9/11 attack there has been a rush... a rush to put backscattered x-rays in airports at the present time. In fact, it’s already causing civil liberties lawsuits because some people don’t want their privacy invaded. They don’t want a Superman to look at them with their x-ray vision.

    So... and even telepathy. We have certain forms of telepathy even today by putting MRI scans and EG scans onto our brainwaves, so we can actually peer now into the fabric of our own thoughts. It’s rather primitive. However, we have a dictionary, a dictionary of objects like dogs, cats, houses and brain patterns. So by looking at a person’s brain pattern through an MRI you can actually tell if the person is looking at a dog or a cat. That exists today. In the future our vocabulary of maybe 20 pictures may be increased to a few thousand and at that point that is beginning to look like real telepathy.

    Recorded September 29, 2010
    Interviewed by Paul Hoffman

  • Michio Kaku on aliens, robots and leaving Earth | nzherald.co.nz

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  • Michio Kaku: Fusion Really Is 20 Years Away | Big Think

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    Michio Kaku

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NY
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  • Michio Kaku on the God Particle

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  • Michio Kaku: The Secret Weapon of American Science

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    One of the great questions in all of science is where consciousness comes from. When it comes to consciousness, Kaku believes different species have different levels of consciousness, based on their feedback loops needed to survive in space, society, and time. According to the theoretical physicist, human beings' ability to use past experiences, memories, to predict the future makes us distinct among animals — and even robots (they're currently unable to understand, or operate within, a social hierarchy).

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    MICHIO KAKU

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    TRANSCRIPT:

    MICHIO KAKU: In the entire universe, there are two great unsolved problems. The two greatest problems in all of science, first of all, is about the very big. It's about the origin of the universe. Why did it bang? Why do we have an expanding universe? And I personally work on something called the multiverse, which we think is the dominant source of theories that gives us the universe before creation itself-- the multiverse. But there is also the mystery of inner space, not outer space.

    And that's the human mind. Where does consciousness come from? And I think that in my book, The Future of the Mind, I try to make a stab at what is consciousness? First of all, let me explain my theory. I have my own theory of consciousness. I think consciousness is the sum total of all feedback loops necessary to create a model of yourself in space, in society, and in time. Now, I'm a physicist. We like to measure things and quantify things. I think there is a unit of consciousness. If consciousness is a sum total of all feedback loops necessary to create a picture of yourself in space, in society, and in time, then the unit of consciousness is a thermostat.

    A thermostat has one unit of consciousness, because it has one feedback loop-- measures temperature. Now, a plant has maybe five units of consciousness, because plants have to regulate temperature. They have to regulate humidity, the direction of gravity, when to sprout. So there are maybe five or so feedback loops in a plant. Then we go to alligators. The alligators are masters of the back part of the brain. And then you have maybe several hundred feedback loops that govern space. That's what alligators are very good at.

    Their brain, if you look at the parts of the back of the brain, we, too, have the reptilian brain that governs our understanding of space, where we are in space. And then, going forward in time, evolution gave us the monkey brain, the center of the brain, the limbic system. And the limbic system, in turn, governs society. It governs where we are with respect to our elders, our children, other human beings. Pack mentality, wolves, all of them have a developed central part of the brain, the monkey brain. And then the front part of the brain is what distinguishes us from the animals. It is the temporal brain that constantly simulates the future.

    Animals don't do that. In fact, animals don't even have much of a memory. When you look at a brain scan of what is the brain doing when it's thinking, thinking hard? What is the brain doing? You find out that the prefrontal cortex is active, and it is accessing memories of the past. You see, animals don't do that. Animals have not much of a memory. They don't see the future, because there's no necessity to see the future. There's no necessity to have much of a memory. In fact, the purpose of memory could be to simulate the future. Animals don't need it.

    Why didn't the dinosaurs become intelligent? Well, they didn't need to become intelligent, because we humans sometimes overexaggerate the importance of intelligence. Intelligence is not necessary to live in the forest, but we are maladapted to live in the forest. We don't run very fast. We can't fly. Our skin...

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  • Michio Kaku: The Search for Life on Mars | Big Think

    2:46

    Michio Kaku: The Search for Life on Mars
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    Where should NASA go to look for intelligent life on Mars? To get to the truth, journalists say follow the money. Astronomers say follow the water. Dr. Michio Kaku says if you were a Martian on Mars three billion years ago when Mars was probably a lush environment with liquid water oceans—and you realized that the water was escaping to the icecaps, escaping into outer space or going into the permafrost, then you would probably go either into outer space to leave Mars or drill into the permafrost or go into the polar icecaps. So I think that's what NASA is going to do next.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Dr. Michio Kaku: Congratulations to NASA! NASA scored a gold medal on Mars, a ten. It was a perfect launch, perfect execution, and the dismount was a perfect ten on the Red Planet. But that's just the first step of many steps to come. Next we want to go to perhaps the polar icecaps or perhaps even drill underground.

    If you were a Martian on Mars three billion years ago when Mars was practically a—probably a lush environment with liquid water oceans—and you realized that the water was escaping to the icecaps, escaping into outer space or going into the permafrost, where would you go? Journalists say follow the money. Astronomers say follow the water. And if the water is going to go into outer space, underground or the polar icecaps, you would also probably go either into outer space to leave Mars or drill into the permafrost or go into the polar icecaps. So I think that's what NASA is going to do next. Of course, it's more difficult to land on the polar icecaps because the terrain is quite rocky.

    Also, rock retrieval; we need to actually take rocks from Mars and bring them back to earth because we have tantalizing evidence that possibly microbial life existed on Mars. We have Mars rocks right here on the planet earth, and when you slice them open you see little tiny, squiggly things that look like multi-celled organisms. Well, we're not sure. It's a raging debate. Some people say bah-humbug, it's nothing but a crystalline structure that seems to look like a multi-cell organism. The result of the question is we have to have rock retrieval and after that I think perhaps we should put a blimp or a helicopter on Mars. Now the atmosphere of Mars is quite thin, only one percent the atmospheric pressure here on the planet earth, so the wings of the helicopter or the size of a blimp would have to be different to compensate for that.

    And then of course we should try for a manned mission to Mars. But let's be real. It's going to be expensive and it will take time. It costs $10,000 to put a pound of anything into near earth orbit. Imagine your body made out of solid gold and that's the cost to put you into orbit around the planet earth. To put you on the moon costs about $100,000 a pound. To put you on Mars costs about a million dollars a pound. So think twice before you think that we're going to go to Mars with astronauts in the next few years. It's going to take decades to prepare for a manned mission to Mars.

    Directed / Produced by Jonathan Fowler & Elizabeth Rodd

  • Michio Kaku: What Put the Bang in the Big Bang? | Big Think

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    Michio Kaku: What Put the Bang in the Big Bang?
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    Michio Kaku on what makes a supergenius.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: If you watch the Big Bang Theory on CBS television you see these clueless nerds who are doormats when it comes to the opposite sex, right. And you realize is there any basis in reality? First of all none of my friends are like that and all my friends are physicists, right.

    Well there is a kernel of truth and that is some of these individuals may suffer from something called Asperger’s Syndrome which is a mild form of autism. These people are clueless when it comes to social interactions. They don’t look you in the eye, for example. And yet they have fantastic mental and mathematical capabilities. We think, for example, that Isaac Newton had Asperger’s. The greatest scientist of all time was very strange. He had no friends to speak of. He could not carry a decent conversation and yet here he was spitting out some of the greatest theories in the history of science. Calculus. The Universal Law of Gravitation. The Theory of Optics. And we think he had Asperger’s Syndrome.

    Now Asperger’s Syndrome is a mild form of autism and in autism we have what are called savants. That is people that have an IQ of maybe 80 but have incredible mathematical and musical abilities. In fact, some of these individuals can hear one symphony and just play it by memory on a piano. Other people could be in a helicopter, have a helicopter ride over Manhattan, see the entire New York harbor and then from memory sketch the entire harbor. In fact, if you want to see it go to JFK Airport in New York City and you will see it as you enter the international terminal. So what is it about these people? Well, first of all a lot of them had injuries to the left temporal lobe. One individual had a bullet as a child go right through the left temporal lobe. Another person dove into a swimming pool and injured very badly the left temporal lobe. And these people wound up with incredible mathematical abilities as a consequence. And so what is it about their brains?

    Well Einstein’s brain has actually been preserved. Einstein when he died had an autopsy in which case the pathologist stole the brain without permission of the family. He just realized that he was sitting next to something historic, took the brain, took it home with him, and it was sitting in a jar in his home for decades. He even drove across the country with the jar inside his trunk. And there’s even a TV special where you can actually see the cut up brain of Albert Einstein. And you realize first of all the brain is a little bit different. You can’t tell by looking at it that it’s so remarkably different but you realize that the connections between the prefontal cortex and the parietal lobe – a connection that is accentuated in people that do abstract reasoning is thickened. So there definitely is a difference in the brain of Einstein. But the question is did it make Einstein or did Einstein make this change of the brain?

    Are champions born or are they made? That still is not known because people who exercise mental abilities, mathematical abilities, they can thicken that part of the brain themselves. So we know that people who do well in mathematics, brain scans clearly show that their brains are slightly different from the average brain. So in conclusion, we’re still children with regards to understanding how this process takes place. Tonight don’t go home and bang yourself on the left temporal lobe. We don’t know how it works. We just know that in a tiny fraction of these cases people with injury to the left temporal lobe, some of the become super geniuses.

    Directed/Produced by Jonathan Fowler and Dillon Fitton

  • Michio Kaku: What If Einstein Is Wrong? | Big Think

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    What if Einstein is WRONG?
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    Dr. Kaku addresses the question What if Einstein's theory of relativity is wrong?

    Michio Kaku on what makes a supergenius.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: Many physicists had a heart attack when we got news from Geneva, Switzerland that Einstein might be wrong. All hell broke loose in the physics community. Every physicist I know was taking a position on this hot topic because relativity is the foundation of modern physics along with the Quantum Theory.

    Now what they found was if you take a beam of neutrinos from the atom smasher in Geneva, Switzerland, shoot the beam through the mountains from Switzerland to Italy over a distance of 454 miles, the neutrinos out-raced a light beam by a distance of 60 feet, 60 feet over a distance of 454 miles. Well, that doesn’t sound like much, but to a physicist this is a disaster. It means that the foundations of modern physics have to be called into question.
    First, it means that time travel could become commonplace because as you approach the speed of light time slows down. If you exceed the speed of light, time goes backwards. Remember that scene in Superman One when Lois Lane dies and Superman goes into outer space and goes around the planet earth in the opposite direction; the earth stops and then rotates in the opposite direction and then, all of the sudden, Lois Lane springs back to life? Well, that kind of scenario might be possible if the speed of light is not so special that particles can exceed the speed of light, not to mention that we’ll have to recalibrate everything - the age of the universe, the age of stars, the distance to the stars, the basic structure of modern electronics has to be changed, the GPS, nuclear weapons, all of that would have to be recalibrated and rethought through if Einstein’s theory of relativity is wrong.

    So what’s the solution to the problem? Well the solution to the problem is obviously they goofed. They made a mistake. I remember when I was a grad student years and years ago at Harvard. My advisor at Harvard was Professor Pound and he the famous Pound-Rebka Experiment where they shot a light beam from the top of Jefferson Hall to the bottom of Jefferson Hall. Now, there was a rival group, a rival group that also did the same experiment and they had to calculate the speed of light in the process. They found that the speed of light actually rose in the morning, peaked at noontime. Then the speed of light began to slow down at dinnertime and reached a minimum at midnight. Well, this was shocking. The speed of light, which governs the universe all of the sudden is wedded to lunchtime and dinnertime. So what's the problem? The problem was that this counter experiment, this rival experiment, was done outdoors, and the sensors were temperature-dependent, and of course it’s warmer at lunchtime and colder at midnight. Well, Professor Pound’s experiment was done indoors and therefore, didn’t have that kind of variation.
    The lesson here is: systematic errors creep into very delicate calculations. Some people think they found the source of the error. How do we know that from Switzerland to Italy the distance is 454 miles? Well, you use GPS, right? Obvious, but GPS is a relativistic system. It uses relativity and some physicists have claimed that they mis-calibrated the distance from the sensors to the satellite and satellite back down to Italy, a triangle; that one of the lengths of the triangle was mis-calibrated in the process of doing this experiment.

    Now, there is another counter example. Back in 1987, light from a gigantic supernova in the Magellanic Clouds hit the planet earth and, simultaneously with that, neutrinos were detected in gigantic neutrino detectors in Japan.

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  • What is a Higgs Boson? - Physicist Michio Kaku responds

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  • Michio Kaku - The Physics Behind Everyday Things

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  • What jobs will flourish in the future. And which you should avoid. | Michio Kaku | Big Think

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    What jobs will flourish in the future. And which you should avoid.
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    As robots and automation take over jobs, there will still be some occupations where humans will be preferred. Theoretical physicist and best-selling author Michio Kaku weighs in on the kind of job skills you need to have to stay employed and relevant in the near future.
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    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
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    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: People often ask me the question, “In the era of AI what jobs and what skills will I need?”

    Well, first of all let’s take a look at the first era of space exploration the 1960s.

    There was a crash program back then to miniaturize the transistor. That’s why our astronauts like John Glenn, they’re short people. They were tiny people.

    The Russian astronauts, they’re also very tiny because they have to fit inside the nose cone of a missile, and we scientists were given the mission to miniaturize transistors as far as possible.

    Now, as a consequence of that, we have what is called the Internet age today. All the goodies you see in your living room, all the telecommunication wonders of the Internet were in part a consequence of this mass drive to miniaturize transistors, because we were in the Cold War with the Soviet Union.

    Now, as we enter the second golden era there’s going to be yet another crash program to miniaturize computers even more.

    This means transistors made out of molecules, quantum computers, a whole new era of computation.

    So there could be yet another golden age of computer technology emerging because of the emphasis placed on going to Mars with the cheapest, lightest possible object, and this means even more computer power.

    Then the other question is: “Well, what are the jobs that are going to be there in the future?”

    Well, first of all I tell people that semiskilled work will be with us for many decades to come, including garbage men, sanitation workers, plumbers, policemen, gardeners, construction workers. You see, robots cannot pick up garbage. Robots cannot design a garden. Robots cannot solve a crime.

    We forget that robots are very bad at pattern recognition! Robots cannot fix your toilet, and they probably won’t be able to for many decades to come. In fact the Pentagon even sponsored the DARPA Challenge to create a Fukushima robot. Their job was to take our skills of today and build a robot that could clean up Fukushima.

    This means A, driving a car, B, getting out of the car, C, sweeping the floor, turning a valve and doing some simple maintenance work that a five-year-old kid could do. Well, the results are on the Internet. You can download them and they’re hilarious. You see many robots falling over with the inability to get up because they’re like an upside down turtle; they‘re simply stuck on the floor.

    We have a long ways to go before we master pattern recognition at the level of a plumber, at the level of a gardener.

    The job to avoid in the future, however, are the middleman jobs, for example, brokers and low-level tellers and accountants. For example, today when you go to a stockbroker you no longer buy stock. Now you may say to yourself, “That’s stupid, everybody knows when you go to a stockbroker you buy stock, I mean what else are you going to buy?” Well, no. You don’t buy stock when you go to a stockbroker. You can buy stock on your wristwatch so why bother to go to a stockbroker? Because you want something that stockbrokers provide that robots cannot. And that is intellectual capital. That means experience, know how, savvy, innovation, talent, leadership—none of which computers and robots can provide.

    So the large explosion of jobs in the future will be jobs that robots cannot do, i.e. Jobs involving pattern recognition and jobs involving common sense, as well as middlemen jobs that involve intellectual capital, ...

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