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Michio Kaku: The Universe in a Nutshell (Full Presentation) | Big Think

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  • Michio Kaku: The Universe in a Nutshell | Big Think

    42:14

    Michio Kaku: The Universe in a Nutshell
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    OVERVIEW:

    In a profoundly informative and deeply optimistic discussion, Professor Michio Kaku delivers a glimpse of where science will take us in the next hundred years, as warp drives, teleportation, inter-dimensional wormholes, and even time travel converge with our scientific understanding of physical reality. While firing up our imaginations about the future, he also presents a succinct history of physics to the present.
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    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
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    TRANSCRIPT:

    My name is Professor Michio Kaku. I’m a professor of theoretical physics at the City University of New York and I specialize in something called string theory. I’m a physicist.
    Some people ask me the question, “What has physics done for me lately? I mean, do I get better color television, do I get better internet reception with physics?” And the answer is yes. You see, physics is at the very foundation of matter and energy. We physicists invented the laser beam, we invented the transistor. We helped to create the first computer. We helped to construct the internet. We wrote the World Wide Web. In addition, we also helped to invent television, radio, radar, microwaves, not to mention MRI scans, PET scans, x-rays. In other words, almost everything you see in your living room, almost everything you see in a modern hospital, at some point or other, can be traced to a physicist.

    Now, I got interested in physics when I was a child. When I was a child of eight, something happened to me that changed my life and I wanted to be part of this grand search for a theory of everything. When I was eight, a great scientist had just died. I still remember my elementary school teacher coming into the...

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  • Michio Kaku: The Theory of Everything | Big Think

    3:29

    Michio Kaku: The Theory of Everything
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    Every Wednesday, Michio Kaku will be answering reader questions about physics and futuristic science. If you have a question for Dr. Kaku, just post it in the comments section below and check back on Wednesdays to see if he answers it.

    Today, Dr. Kaku addresses a question posed by Bruce Vang Vang: What will we gain if we eventually discover the Theory of Everything?

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    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ABOUT BIG THINK:

    Smarter Faster™
    Big Think is the leading source of expert-driven, actionable, educational content -- with thousands of videos, featuring experts ranging from Bill Clinton to Bill Nye, we help you get smarter, faster. Subscribe to learn from top minds like these daily. Get actionable lessons from the world’s greatest thinkers & doers. Our experts are either disrupting or leading their respective fields. We aim to help you explore the big ideas and core skills that define knowledge in the 21st century, so you can apply them to the questions and challenges in your own life.

    Other Frequent contributors include Michio Kaku & Neil DeGrasse Tyson.

    Michio Kaku Playlist:
    Bill Nye Playlist:
    Neil DeGrasse Tyson Playlist:

    Read more at Bigthink.com for a multitude of articles just as informative and satisfying as our videos. New articles posted daily on a range of intellectual topics.

    Join Big Think Edge, to gain access to a world-class learning platform focused on building the soft skills essential to 21st century success. It features insight from many of the most celebrated and intelligent individuals in the world today. Topics on the platform are focused on: emotional intelligence, digital fluency, health and wellness, critical thinking, creativity, communication, career development, lifelong learning, management, problem solving & self-motivation.

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  • How your immortal consciousness will travel the universe | Michio Kaku | Big Think

    4:12

    How your immortal consciousness will travel the universe
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    In about 100 years, theoretical physicist Michio Kaku believes we'll explore the universe as pure consciousness — traveling at the speed of light, looking at asteroids, comets, meteors, and eventually the stars. All of this within the laws of physics, he says. Through recent brain imaging, we know know that the prefrontal cortex of teenagers is fully formed. This induces them to take risks. Also, when guys who talk with pretty girls, we also know it's that blood drains from their brains. Well, their prefrontal cortex. This makes them liable to act mentally retarded. The Connectome Project will map the entire brain in about 100 years.
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    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
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    TRANSCRIPT:

    MICHIO KAKU: We physicists are now looking into the brain itself. And we can see blood flow. And we can even see thoughts, thoughts as they're being created. And we can now show that certain old wives' tales are correct. Every parent, for example, believes that their teenage children suffer from brain damage. It's partially true. Scanning the prefrontal cortex of teenagers, you find that it's not fully formed. And that's why they take risks, because they don't understand how dangerous certain things are. Another old wives' tale is, when a man talks to a pretty girl, he starts to act stupid. Absolutely true.

    We have brain scanned men talking to pretty girls, and what happens is blood drains from the prefrontal cortex. And they start to act mentally retarded. Absolutely true. We can quantify the effect. We could measure it by measuring the drop in blood flow to the cerebral cortex. Now, I personally believe that one day, we will digitize the entire human brain. And what are we going to do with it? I think we're going to shoot it into outer space. We're going to put our Connectome on a laser beam and shoot it to the moon. We will be on the moon, our consciousness will be on the moon, in one second, one second, without booster rockets, without all the dangers of radiation or weightlessness. We'll be on the moon in one second. We'll shoot it to Mars.

    We'll be on Mars. In 20 minutes, we'll be on Mars. We'll shoot it to Alpha Centauri. We'll be on the nearby stars in four years. And what is on the moon? On the moon is a computer that downloads this laser beam with your consciousness on it, downloads it and puts it into an avatar, an avatar that looks just like you-- handsome, strong, beautiful, whatever, and immortal. And you can walk on the moon. You can then go and explore Mars. In fact, I think that once we have a laser porting perfected, you'll have breakfast in New York. And then you'll go to the moon for brunch on the moon. You go to Mars for lunch, and then you go to the asteroid belt in the afternoon for tea. And then you come back to Earth that evening.

    This is all within the laws of physics. And I'll stick my neck out. I think this actually exists already. I think outside the planet Earth, there could be a highway, a laser highway of laser beams shooting the consciousness of aliens at the speed of light, laser porting across the galaxy. And we humans are too stupid to know it. How would we even know that this laser superhighway exists? How would we even detect it with our technology? Our technology today is so primitive, that we wouldn't even be able to know that this already exists. So in other words, I think laser porting is the way that we will ultimately explore the universe.

    We'll explore the universe as pure consciousness traveling at the speed of light, looking at asteroids, comets, meteors, and eventually the stars, at the speed of light-- all of this within the laws of physics. When will this happen? Perhaps in 100 years. The Connectome Project will map the entire brain in about 100 years. And then, what do we do with it? I say, we shoot it to the stars.

  • Michio Kaku: Escape to a Parallel Universe | Big Think

    7:48

    Michio Kaku: Escape to a Parallel Universe
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    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
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    Card: How might the universe end?

    Michio Kaku: Well, when we try to look at the whole universe itself -- many people ask the question, Well Professor, how do you know -- how do you know that the universe is expanding? How do you know that it came from a big bang? How can you project so far into the future, billions to trillions of years into the future? Well one way we do this is by looking at the Doppler shift. Now, the doppler shift is something that even children are familiar with. When children play Star Wars with each other, they go err, err, err with their rocket ships. Right? Well, what makes that err, sound? It's the Doppler effect. When a car moves toward you, the pitch is higher, when the car moves away from you the pitch is lower. And it sounds like this. Eee err. We've all heard it. Same thing with starlight. When yellow light moves toward you, it turns greenish and bluish. When the yellow light moves away from you it turns reddish.

    Now, how can you memorize this? Well, I was reading a paper a few years ago and I read this fascinating story of a high school physics teacher who got a speeding ticket for running a red light. The physics teacher went to the blackboard and said, Your Honor. My car was moving toward a yellow light. Light is compressed in a forward direction when you move toward it, and therefore it turned green. This is the Doppler shift, he said. And he went to the black board and he correctly wrote down all the equations of the Doppler shift. And then this high school physics teacher said, Your Honor. I do not deserve a traffic ticket. Well, the judge scratched his head and according to the article, the judge said, Well, I guess there is a law higher than the state of New Jersey, and these are the laws of physics. But then, according to the article, there was a high school kid in the court room and he raised his hand and he said, Your Honor, I'm just a high school kid, but I happen to be in his high school physics class and he just taught this a couple of weeks ago that this only happens when you approach the speed of light. End of article.

    To this day, I still don't know what happened to that poor high school kid. But I tell my students, that if I'm ever in court arguing a speeding ticket or red light, they better not raise their hand if they know what's good for them and they know what's good for their grade.

    So, when we look in the heavens, we look at starlight emitted from distant galaxies and we find that the light is slightly reddish. Redder than it's supposed to be. That means that these objects, the gigantic galaxies are moving away from us and therefore the universe is expanding. Well, we could run the video tape backwards, and by running the video tape backwards we could then calculate when all these galaxies came from a single point. And that's how we calculate the age of the universe, by simply hitting the rewind button when we calculate the expansion of the universe.

    So by running the video tape backwards, we see that the universe is about 13.7 billion years old, plus or minus 1%. So, we now know the age of the universe. 13.7 billion years by running the video tape backwards. But what happens if we hit fast forward. What happens if we go forward in time billions of years? Well, here it gets murkier. But by analyzing how the universe has been expanding in the past, we used to think that the universe is slowing down. We used to think the universe is aging and therefore it's slowing down; running out of steam. Wrong. We now believe that the universe is speeding up. It's actually accelerating, in runaway mode which means that in stead of dying in a big crunch, we'll probably die in a big freeze.

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  • Michio Kaku: The Universe Is a Symphony of Vibrating Strings | Big Think

    4:07

    Michio Kaku: The Universe Is a Symphony of Vibrating Strings
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    The co-founder of Field String Theory explains why the universe has 11 dimensions rather than any other number.
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    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
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    TRANSCRIPT:

    Question: Why are there only 11 dimensions in the universe rather than something higher? (Submitted by John Menon)

    Michio Kaku: I work in something called String Theory, that’s what I do for a living. In fact, that’s my day job. I’m the co-founder of String Field Theory, one of the main branches of String Theory. The latest version of String Theory is called M-Theory, “M” for membrane. So we now realize that strings can coexist with membranes. So the subatomic particles we see in nature, the quartz, the electrons are nothing but musical notes on a tiny vibrating string.

    What is physics? Physics is nothing but the laws of harmony that you can write on vibrating strings. What is chemistry? Chemistry is nothing but the melodies you can play on interacting vibrating strings. What is the universe? The universe is a symphony of vibrating strings. And then what is the mind of God that Albert Einstein eloquently wrote about for the last 30 years of his life? We now, for the first time in history have a candidate for the mind of God. It is, cosmic music resonating through 11 dimensional hyperspace.

    So first of all, we are nothing but melodies. We are nothing but cosmic music played out on vibrating strings and membranes. Obeying the laws of physics, which is nothing but the laws of harmony of vibrating strings. But why 11? It turns out that if you write a theory in 15, 17, 18 dimensions, the theory is unstable. It has what are called, anomalies. It has singularities. It turns out that mathematics alone prefers the universe being 11 dimensions.

    Now some people have toyed with 12 dimensions. At Harvard University, for example, some of the physicists there have shown that a 12-dimensional theory actually looks very similar to an 11-dimensional theory except it has two times, double times rather than one single time parameter. Now, what would it be like to live in a universe with double time? Well, I remember a movie with David Niven. David Niven played a pilot, who was shot down over the Pacific, but the angels made a mistake, he was not supposed to die that day. And so the angels brought him back to life and said, “Oh, sorry about that. We killed you off by accident; you were not supposed to die today.”

    So in a great scene, David Niven then walks through a city where time has stopped. Everyone looks like this. And there’s David Niven just wandering around looking at all these people. That’s a world with double time. David Niven has one clock, but everyone else has a separate clock and these two clocks are perpendicular to each other. So if there’s a double time universe, you could walk right into a room, see people frozen in time, while you beat to a different clock. That’s a double time universe.

    Now this is called F-Theory, “F” for father, the father of strings. It’s not known whether F-Theory will survive or not; however, M-Theory in 11 dimension is the mother of all strings. And that theory works perfectly fine. So to answer your question, in other dimensions, dimensions beyond 11, we have problems with stability, these theories are unstable, they decay back down to 11 dimensions, they have what are called anomalies, singularities, which kill an ordinary theory. So the mathematics itself forces you to 11 dimensions.

    Also because this is a Theory of Everything, there’s more room in higher dimensions to put all the forces together. When you put gravity, electromagnetism and the nuclear force together, four dimensions is not big enough to accommodate all these forces. When you expand to 11 dimensions, bingo, everything forms perfectly well.

  • Michio Kaku: Is God a Mathematician? | Big Think

    5:34

    Is God a Mathematician?
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    OVERVIEW
    In this Big Think video, Dr. Michio Kaku explains why he believes in an intelligent creator and describes God as a “mathematician” and “cosmic music.” “I have concluded that we are in a world made by rules created by an intelligence,” Kaku says. “To me it is clear that we exist in a plan which is governed by rules that were created, shaped by a universal intelligence and not by chance.” “The final solution resolution could be that god is a mathematician,” says Kaku. “The mind of god, we believe, is cosmic music. The music of strings resonating through 11-dimensional hyperspace.”
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    MICHIO KAKU
    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
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    Michio Kaku: Some people ask the question of what good is math? What is the relationship between math and physics? Well, sometimes math leads. Sometimes physics leads. Sometimes they come together because, of course, there’s a use for the mathematics. For example, in the 1600s Isaac Newton asked a simple question: if an apple falls then does the moon also fall? That is perhaps one of the greatest questions ever asked by a member of Homo sapiens since the six million years since we parted ways with the apes. If an apple falls, does the moon also fall?

    Isaac Newton said yes, the moon falls because of the Inverse Square Law. So does an apple. He had a unified theory of the heavens, but he didn't have the mathematics to solve the falling moon problem. So what did he do? He invented calculus. So calculus is a direct consequence of solving the falling moon problem. In fact, when you learn calculus for the first time, what is the first thing you do? The first thing you do with calculus is you calculate the motion of falling bodies, which is exactly how Newton calculated the falling moon, which opened up celestial mechanics.

    So here is a situation where math and physics were almost conjoined like Siamese twins, born together for a very practical question, how do you calculate the motion of celestial bodies? Then here comes Einstein asking a different question and that is, what is the nature and origin of gravity? Einstein said that gravity is nothing but the byproduct of curved space. So why am I sitting in this chair? A normal person would say I'm sitting in this chair because gravity pulls me to the ground, but Einstein said no, no, no, there is no such thing as gravitational pull; the earth has curved the space over my head and around my body, so space is pushing me into my chair. So to summarize Einstein's theory, gravity does not pull; space pushes. But, you see, the pushing of the fabric of space and time requires differential calculus. That is the language of curved surfaces, differential calculus, which you learn in fourth year calculus.

    So again, here is a situation where math and physics were very closely combined, but this time math came first. The theory of curved surfaces came first. Einstein took that theory of curved surfaces and then imported it into physics.

    Now we have string theory. It turns out that 100 years ago math and physics parted ways. In fact, when Einstein proposed special relativity in 1905, that was also around the time of the birth of topology, the topology of hyper-dimensional objects, spheres in 10, 11, 12, 26, whatever dimension you want, so physics and mathematics parted ways. Math went into hyperspace and mathematicians said to themselves, aha, finally we have found an area of mathematics that has no physical application whatsoever. Mathematicians pride themselves on being useless. They love being useless. It's a badge of courage being useless, and they said the most useless thing of all is a theory of differential topology and higher dimensions.

    Well, physics plotted along for many decades. We worked out atomic bombs.

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  • Michio Kaku The Universe in a Nutshell Full Presentation Big Think

    42:14

    Michio Kaku The Universe in a Nutshell Full Presentation Big Think

  • Michio Kaku: Whats the Fate of the Universe? Its in the Dark Matter | Big Think

    5:08

    Michio Kaku: What's the Fate of the Universe? It's in the Dark Matter
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    Michio Kaku on what makes a supergenius.
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    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
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    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: If you watch the Big Bang Theory on CBS television you see these clueless nerds who are doormats when it comes to the opposite sex, right. And you realize is there any basis in reality? First of all none of my friends are like that and all my friends are physicists, right.

    Well there is a kernel of truth and that is some of these individuals may suffer from something called Asperger’s Syndrome which is a mild form of autism. These people are clueless when it comes to social interactions. They don’t look you in the eye, for example. And yet they have fantastic mental and mathematical capabilities. We think, for example, that Isaac Newton had Asperger’s. The greatest scientist of all time was very strange. He had no friends to speak of. He could not carry a decent conversation and yet here he was spitting out some of the greatest theories in the history of science. Calculus. The Universal Law of Gravitation. The Theory of Optics. And we think he had Asperger’s Syndrome.

    Now Asperger’s Syndrome is a mild form of autism and in autism we have what are called savants. That is people that have an IQ of maybe 80 but have incredible mathematical and musical abilities. In fact, some of these individuals can hear one symphony and just play it by memory on a piano. Other people could be in a helicopter, have a helicopter ride over Manhattan, see the entire New York harbor and then from memory sketch the entire harbor. In fact, if you want to see it go to JFK Airport in New York City and you will see it as you enter the international terminal. So what is it about these people? Well, first of all a lot of them had injuries to the left temporal lobe. One individual had a bullet as a child go right through the left temporal lobe. Another person dove into a swimming pool and injured very badly the left temporal lobe. And these people wound up with incredible mathematical abilities as a consequence. And so what is it about their brains?

    Well Einstein’s brain has actually been preserved. Einstein when he died had an autopsy in which case the pathologist stole the brain without permission of the family. He just realized that he was sitting next to something historic, took the brain, took it home with him, and it was sitting in a jar in his home for decades. He even drove across the country with the jar inside his trunk. And there’s even a TV special where you can actually see the cut up brain of Albert Einstein. And you realize first of all the brain is a little bit different. You can’t tell by looking at it that it’s so remarkably different but you realize that the connections between the prefontal cortex and the parietal lobe – a connection that is accentuated in people that do abstract reasoning is thickened. So there definitely is a difference in the brain of Einstein. But the question is did it make Einstein or did Einstein make this change of the brain?

    Are champions born or are they made? That still is not known because people who exercise mental abilities, mathematical abilities, they can thicken that part of the brain themselves. So we know that people who do well in mathematics, brain scans clearly show that their brains are slightly different from the average brain. So in conclusion, we’re still children with regards to understanding how this process takes place. Tonight don’t go home and bang yourself on the left temporal lobe. We don’t know how it works. We just know that in a tiny fraction of these cases people with injury to the left temporal lobe, some of the become super geniuses.

    Directed/Produced by Jonathan Fowler and Dillon Fitton

  • Michio Kaku Explains String Theory | Big Think

    4:03

    Michio Kaku Explains String Theory
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    The co-founder of Field String Theory explains why the universe has 11 dimensions rather than any other number.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Question: Why are there only 11 dimensions in the universe rather than something higher? (Submitted by John Menon)

    Michio Kaku: I work in something called String Theory, that’s what I do for a living. In fact, that’s my day job. I’m the co-founder of String Field Theory, one of the main branches of String Theory. The latest version of String Theory is called M-Theory, “M” for membrane. So we now realize that strings can coexist with membranes. So the subatomic particles we see in nature, the quartz, the electrons are nothing but musical notes on a tiny vibrating string.

    What is physics? Physics is nothing but the laws of harmony that you can write on vibrating strings. What is chemistry? Chemistry is nothing but the melodies you can play on interacting vibrating strings. What is the universe? The universe is a symphony of vibrating strings. And then what is the mind of God that Albert Einstein eloquently wrote about for the last 30 years of his life? We now, for the first time in history have a candidate for the mind of God. It is, cosmic music resonating through 11 dimensional hyperspace.

    So first of all, we are nothing but melodies. We are nothing but cosmic music played out on vibrating strings and membranes. Obeying the laws of physics, which is nothing but the laws of harmony of vibrating strings. But why 11? It turns out that if you write a theory in 15, 17, 18 dimensions, the theory is unstable. It has what are called, anomalies. It has singularities. It turns out that mathematics alone prefers the universe being 11 dimensions.

    Now some people have toyed with 12 dimensions. At Harvard University, for example, some of the physicists there have shown that a 12-dimensional theory actually looks very similar to an 11-dimensional theory except it has two times, double times rather than one single time parameter. Now, what would it be like to live in a universe with double time? Well, I remember a movie with David Niven. David Niven played a pilot, who was shot down over the Pacific, but the angels made a mistake, he was not supposed to die that day. And so the angels brought him back to life and said, “Oh, sorry about that. We killed you off by accident; you were not supposed to die today.”

    So in a great scene, David Niven then walks through a city where time has stopped. Everyone looks like this. And there’s David Niven just wandering around looking at all these people. That’s a world with double time. David Niven has one clock, but everyone else has a separate clock and these two clocks are perpendicular to each other. So if there’s a double time universe, you could walk right into a room, see people frozen in time, while you beat to a different clock. That’s a double time universe.

    Now this is called F-Theory, “F” for father, the father of strings. It’s not known whether F-Theory will survive or not; however, M-Theory in 11 dimension is the mother of all strings. And that theory works perfectly fine. So to answer your question, in other dimensions, dimensions beyond 11, we have problems with stability, these theories are unstable, they decay back down to 11 dimensions, they have what are called anomalies, singularities, which kill an ordinary theory. So the mathematics itself forces you to 11 dimensions.

    Also because this is a Theory of Everything, there’s more room in higher dimensions to put all the forces together. When you put gravity, electromagnetism and the nuclear force together, four dimensions is not big enough to accommodate all these forces. When you expand to 11 dimensions, bingo, everything forms perfectly well.

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  • Michio Kaku: The Birth-Pangs of a Planetary Civilization | Big Think

    5:22

    Michio Kaku: The Birth-Pangs of a Planetary Civilization
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    The Internet, the European Union, and the Olympics are all signs that, within the next 100 years, mankind will become a truly planetary civilization.
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    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
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    TRANSCRIPT:

    Question: How long will it take to reach a type one civilization at our current rate of advancement? (Submitted by Miguel Godinez)

    Michio Kaku: Miguel, you ask an interesting question about the future of civilization itself. Nikolai Kardashev, a Soviet Astrophysicist in the 1960’s, was frustrated trying to analyze signals from intelligent life in outer space. What are we looking for? So he began to rank civilizations on a scale of Type I, Type II, Type III.

    Type I civilization is truly planetary. They absorb all the light coming in from their mother star and they control all planetary forms of energy. For example, they might be able to modify the weather. They may be able to control earthquakes and volcanoes. That’s Type I.

    A Type II civilization is stellar. They control the entire energy output of a star. Type III is galactic, they control the energy output of the entire galaxy.

    Now to put things into perspective, Flash Gordon, or Buck Rogers would be… would be living in a Type I civilization where they control all forms of planetary energy. They can simply rocket anywhere on the planet Earth at ease.

    Type II might be “Star Trek.” The Federation of Planets has only colonized a few neighboring planetary systems. They can barely manipulate the energy output of a single star, so the Federation of Planets would be Type II.

    But even Captain Picard and William Shatner live in fear of a Type III galactic civilization, and that is The Borg or the Empire of the “Empire Strikes Back” or the aliens of “Independence Day,” They would be truly galactic in scope, able to harness the energy of black holes, for example. And there might even be Type IV. Type IV is extragalactic, for example, on “Star Trek” we have the Cue. The Cue might be a candidate for a Type IV civilization.

    Now what are we on this scale? We are Type 0. That’s where we rate. We get our energy from dead plants, oil and coal. Now Carl Sagan tried to refine it a bit, he estimated that we’re actually about a .7. If you are a .7 civilization, that means you are about 100 years from attaining Type I status. This means we can see evidence of this everywhere we go. The internet is the beginning of a Type I telephone system. We’re privileged to be alive to witness the beginning of a telephone system of the next hundred years.

    The European Union is the beginning of a Type I economy. Why do we even have the European Union? Of course, these countries hate each other; they’ve been warring with each other for thousands of years, ever since the ice melted in Europe. Why are these countries, these mortal enemies, ganging together to fund the European Union? Well, to compete with us. And who are we? We are NAFTA. So, we are seeing the beginning of a gigantic global trading blocks.

    English will probably be the planetary language, you can go anywhere on the planet Earth and the educated already speak English, they are bi-lingual, and on the internet, the number one language on the Internet is English, followed by Mandarin. We’re seeing the beginning of a planetary culture. Everywhere you go you see rock n’ roll, you see Gucci bags, you see high fashion, you see a very similar global culture. A culture of high fashion, Hollywood, glitz, Rock n’ Roll, blue jeans. That same kind of culture, youth culture, the culture of the rich, is now going around the planet Earth.

    You see the beginning of planetary sports, the Olympics, soccer games. Realize that in the old days, you had...

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  • ➡️ The Best Big Bang Theory By Michio Kaku And Lawrence Krauss Documentary

    50:28

    Here is the best theory of Big Bang by Michio Kaku And Lawrence Krauss. Watch full to understand the bigger idea of the big bang, and it's amazing theories.

  • Michio Kaku: Will Mankind Destroy Itself? | Big Think

    6:02

    Will Mankind Destroy Itself?
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    OVERVIEW
    Theoretical physicist Michio Kaku sees two major trends today. One eventually leads to a multicultural, scientific, tolerant society that will expand beyond Earth in the name of human progress. The other trend leads to fundamentalism, monoculturalism, and -- eventually -- civilizational ruin. Whichever of these two trends wins out will determine the fate of mankind. No pressure, everyone.
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    MICHIO KAKU
    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
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    Question: What is the likelihood that mankind will destroy itself?

    Michio Kaku: I say looking at the next 100 years that there are two trends in the world today. The first trend is toward what we call a type one civilization, a planetary civilization, a civilization that resembles something out of Buck Rogers or Flash Gordon. A type two civilization is stellar. They consume so much energy they can play with stars. That is for example the Federation of Planets in Star Trek. Star Trek would represent the typical type two civilization. Then we have type three, which is galactic like the Borg or Independence Day or the empire of The Empire Strikes Back. That is a type three civilization, which is truly galactic. Now by the time you reach type two, you are immortal. Nothing known to science can destroy a type two civilization. Comets, meteors, earthquakes, even a supernova a type two civilization would be able to survive even a supernova.

    The danger is the transition between type zero and type one and that’s where we are today. We are a type zero civilization. We get our energy from dead plants, oil and coal. But if you get a calculator you can calculate when we will attain type one status. The answer is: in about 100 years we will become planetary. We’ll be able to harness all the energy output of the planet earth. We’ll play with the weather, earthquakes, volcanoes. Anything planetary we will play with. The danger period is now, because we still have the savagery. We still have all the passions. We have all the sectarian, fundamentalist ideas circulating around, but we also have nuclear weapons. We have chemical, biological weapons capable of wiping out life on earth.

    So I see two trends in the world today. The first trend is toward a multicultural, scientific, tolerant society and everywhere I go I see aspects of that birth. For example, what is the Internet? Many people have written about the Internet. Billions and billions of words written about the Internet, but to me as a physicist the Internet is the beginning of a type one telephone system, a planetary telephone system. So we’re privileged to be alive to witness the birth of type one technology, a planetary telephone system. What is English? English is the beginning of a type one language. Everywhere I go around the Earth, people speak English because that is the lingua franca of science, technology, business. They all speak English. It is the number one second language on the planet Earth. And what is the European Union? The European Union is the beginning of a type one economy. And how come these European countries, which have slaughtered each other ever since the ice melted 10,000 years ago, how come they have banded together, put aside their differences to create the European Union? Well to compete with us and who are we? We are NAFTA, so we’re beginning to see the beginning of a type one economy as well.

    Then we’re beginning to see the beginning of a type one culture. Everywhere I go you turn on the radio and what do you hear? Rock 'n' roll, you hear rap music. You hear youth music. Youth music is now planetary, knows no boundaries around the planet earth. Everywhere I go I see high fashion: Chanel, Gucci bags. We’re witnessing the birth of a planetary fashion.

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  • Michio Kaku - Nasa Rover Touches Down on Mars

    4:38

    Michio Kaku - Nasa Rover Touches Down on Mars
    February 18, 2021

  • Michio Kaku- The Universe in a Nutshell

    3:19

    Uploaded with Free Video Converter from Freemake

  • The Physics of the Future - Michio Kaku

    1:15:23

    Author and physicist Michio Kaku spoke at the Museum of Science on March 23, 2011.

  • Michio Kaku: 3 mind-blowing predictions about the future | Big Think

    15:09

    Michio Kaku: 3 mind-blowing predictions about the future
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    Carl Sagan believed humanity needed to become a multi-planet species as an insurance policy against the next huge catastrophe on Earth. Now, Elon Musk is working to see that mission through, starting with a colony of a million humans on Mars. Where will our species go next?

    Theoretical physicist Michio Kaku looks decades into the future and makes three bold predictions about human space travel, the potential of 'brain net', and our coming victory over cancer.

    [I]n the future, the word 'tumor' will disappear from the English language, says Kaku. We will have years of warning that there is a colony of cancer cells growing in our body. And our descendants will wonder: How could we fear cancer so much?
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    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).

    Read Michio Kaku's latest book The Future of Humanity: Our Destiny in the Universe at
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    MICHIO KAKU: We are entering what I call the next golden era of space exploration. We have not just new energy and new financing and money coming from Silicon Valley, we also have a new vision emerging. For Elon Musk of SpaceX it's to create a multi-planet species. However, for Jeff Bezos of Amazon, he wants to make Earth into a park so that all the heavy industries, all the pollution, goes into outer space. And Jeff Bezos wants to set an Amazon-type delivery system connecting the earth to the moon. And so he wants to lift all the heavy industries off the planet Earth to make Earth a paradise and to put all the heavy industries in outer space.

    Now, I once talked to Carl Sagan and he said that because the earth is in the middle of a shooting gallery of asteroids and comets and meteors, it's inevitable that we will be hit with a planet buster. Something like what hit the dinosaurs, 65 million years ago, we need an insurance policy. Now, he was clear to say that we're not talking about moving the population of the earth into outer space—that costs too much money. And we have problems of our own on the earth like global warming. We have to deal with those problems on the earth not flee to outer space. But as an insurance policy, we have to make sure that humans become a two-planet species. These are the words of Carl Sagan.

    And now, of course, Elon Musk has revived this vision by talking about a multi-planet species. He wants to put up to a million colonists on the planet Mars, sent to Mars by his rockets financed by a combination of public and private funding, including fusion rockets, ramjet fusion rockets, including anti-matter rockets. Some of these rockets, of course, their technologies won't be available till the next 100 years. However, the laws of physics make it possible to send postage-stamp-size chips to the nearby stars. So think of a chip, perhaps this big, on a parachute and have thousands of them sent into outer space energized by perhaps 800 megawatts of laser power. By shooting this gigantic bank of laser energy into outer space, by energizing all these mini-parachutes you could then begin to accelerate them to about 20% the speed of light. This is with doable technology today. It's just a question of engineering. It's a question of political will and economics but there's no physics, there's no law of physics preventing you from shooting these chips to 20% the speed of light. That means Proxima Centauri, part of the Alpha Centauri triple star system, could be within the range of such a device. Now think about that. That means that within 20 years, after 20 years of launch, we might be able to have the first starship go to a nearby planet. And it turns out that Proxima Centauri B is an Earth-like planet that circles around the closest star to the planet Earth—what a coincidence. So it means that we've already staked out our first destination for visitation by an interstellar starship. And that...

    Read the full transcript at

  • Michio Kaku The Universe in a Nutshell Español

    42:14

    Traducción del video de Michio Kaku “The Universe in a Nutshell” por Ricardo Quiroz, versión original disponible en youtube.com/watch?v=0NbBjNiw4tk

    Michio Kaku- El universo en pocas palabras

    Guión:

  • What jobs will flourish in the future. And which you should avoid. | Michio Kaku | Big Think

    5:18

    What jobs will flourish in the future. And which you should avoid.
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    As robots and automation take over jobs, there will still be some occupations where humans will be preferred. Theoretical physicist and best-selling author Michio Kaku weighs in on the kind of job skills you need to have to stay employed and relevant in the near future.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: People often ask me the question, “In the era of AI what jobs and what skills will I need?”

    Well, first of all let’s take a look at the first era of space exploration the 1960s.

    There was a crash program back then to miniaturize the transistor. That’s why our astronauts like John Glenn, they’re short people. They were tiny people.

    The Russian astronauts, they’re also very tiny because they have to fit inside the nose cone of a missile, and we scientists were given the mission to miniaturize transistors as far as possible.

    Now, as a consequence of that, we have what is called the Internet age today. All the goodies you see in your living room, all the telecommunication wonders of the Internet were in part a consequence of this mass drive to miniaturize transistors, because we were in the Cold War with the Soviet Union.

    Now, as we enter the second golden era there’s going to be yet another crash program to miniaturize computers even more.

    This means transistors made out of molecules, quantum computers, a whole new era of computation.

    So there could be yet another golden age of computer technology emerging because of the emphasis placed on going to Mars with the cheapest, lightest possible object, and this means even more computer power.

    Then the other question is: “Well, what are the jobs that are going to be there in the future?”

    Well, first of all I tell people that semiskilled work will be with us for many decades to come, including garbage men, sanitation workers, plumbers, policemen, gardeners, construction workers. You see, robots cannot pick up garbage. Robots cannot design a garden. Robots cannot solve a crime.

    We forget that robots are very bad at pattern recognition! Robots cannot fix your toilet, and they probably won’t be able to for many decades to come. In fact the Pentagon even sponsored the DARPA Challenge to create a Fukushima robot. Their job was to take our skills of today and build a robot that could clean up Fukushima.

    This means A, driving a car, B, getting out of the car, C, sweeping the floor, turning a valve and doing some simple maintenance work that a five-year-old kid could do. Well, the results are on the Internet. You can download them and they’re hilarious. You see many robots falling over with the inability to get up because they’re like an upside down turtle; they‘re simply stuck on the floor.

    We have a long ways to go before we master pattern recognition at the level of a plumber, at the level of a gardener.

    The job to avoid in the future, however, are the middleman jobs, for example, brokers and low-level tellers and accountants. For example, today when you go to a stockbroker you no longer buy stock. Now you may say to yourself, “That’s stupid, everybody knows when you go to a stockbroker you buy stock, I mean what else are you going to buy?” Well, no. You don’t buy stock when you go to a stockbroker. You can buy stock on your wristwatch so why bother to go to a stockbroker? Because you want something that stockbrokers provide that robots cannot. And that is intellectual capital. That means experience, know how, savvy, innovation, talent, leadership—none of which computers and robots can provide.

    So the large explosion of jobs in the future will be jobs that robots cannot do, i.e. Jobs involving pattern recognition and jobs involving common sense, as well as middlemen jobs that involve intellectual capital, ...

    For the full transcript, check out

  • Michio Kaku: What If Einstein Is Wrong? | Big Think

    5:11

    What if Einstein is WRONG?
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    Dr. Kaku addresses the question What if Einstein's theory of relativity is wrong?

    Michio Kaku on what makes a supergenius.
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    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: Many physicists had a heart attack when we got news from Geneva, Switzerland that Einstein might be wrong. All hell broke loose in the physics community. Every physicist I know was taking a position on this hot topic because relativity is the foundation of modern physics along with the Quantum Theory.

    Now what they found was if you take a beam of neutrinos from the atom smasher in Geneva, Switzerland, shoot the beam through the mountains from Switzerland to Italy over a distance of 454 miles, the neutrinos out-raced a light beam by a distance of 60 feet, 60 feet over a distance of 454 miles. Well, that doesn’t sound like much, but to a physicist this is a disaster. It means that the foundations of modern physics have to be called into question.
    First, it means that time travel could become commonplace because as you approach the speed of light time slows down. If you exceed the speed of light, time goes backwards. Remember that scene in Superman One when Lois Lane dies and Superman goes into outer space and goes around the planet earth in the opposite direction; the earth stops and then rotates in the opposite direction and then, all of the sudden, Lois Lane springs back to life? Well, that kind of scenario might be possible if the speed of light is not so special that particles can exceed the speed of light, not to mention that we’ll have to recalibrate everything - the age of the universe, the age of stars, the distance to the stars, the basic structure of modern electronics has to be changed, the GPS, nuclear weapons, all of that would have to be recalibrated and rethought through if Einstein’s theory of relativity is wrong.

    So what’s the solution to the problem? Well the solution to the problem is obviously they goofed. They made a mistake. I remember when I was a grad student years and years ago at Harvard. My advisor at Harvard was Professor Pound and he the famous Pound-Rebka Experiment where they shot a light beam from the top of Jefferson Hall to the bottom of Jefferson Hall. Now, there was a rival group, a rival group that also did the same experiment and they had to calculate the speed of light in the process. They found that the speed of light actually rose in the morning, peaked at noontime. Then the speed of light began to slow down at dinnertime and reached a minimum at midnight. Well, this was shocking. The speed of light, which governs the universe all of the sudden is wedded to lunchtime and dinnertime. So what's the problem? The problem was that this counter experiment, this rival experiment, was done outdoors, and the sensors were temperature-dependent, and of course it’s warmer at lunchtime and colder at midnight. Well, Professor Pound’s experiment was done indoors and therefore, didn’t have that kind of variation.
    The lesson here is: systematic errors creep into very delicate calculations. Some people think they found the source of the error. How do we know that from Switzerland to Italy the distance is 454 miles? Well, you use GPS, right? Obvious, but GPS is a relativistic system. It uses relativity and some physicists have claimed that they mis-calibrated the distance from the sensors to the satellite and satellite back down to Italy, a triangle; that one of the lengths of the triangle was mis-calibrated in the process of doing this experiment.

    Now, there is another counter example. Back in 1987, light from a gigantic supernova in the Magellanic Clouds hit the planet earth and, simultaneously with that, neutrinos were detected in gigantic neutrino detectors in Japan.

    Read the full transcript on:

  • The World in 2030 by Dr. Michio Kaku

    1:4:01

    The World in 2030: How Science will Affect Computers, Medicine, Jobs, Our Lifestyles and the Wealth of our Nations
    Wednesday, October 28, 2009

    Dr. Michio Kaku is a theoretical physicist and the Henry Semat Professor at the City College of New York and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, where he has taught for more than 30 years. He is a graduate of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and earned his doctorate from the University of California at Berkeley.

    Dr. Kaku is one of the founders of string field theory, a field of research within string theory. String theory seeks to provide a unified description for all matter and the fundamental forces of the universe.

    His book The Physics of the Impossible addresses how science fiction technology may become possible in the future. His other books include Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universes, Time Warps, and the Tenth Dimension , selected as one of the best science books of 1994 by both the New York Times and The Washington Post, and Parallel Worlds: A Journey Through Creation, Higher Dimensions, and the Future of the Cosmos , a finalist for the Samuel Johnson Prize.

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  • Michio Kaku - Origin of the Universe & Origins of Humanity

    55:54

    Michio Kaku - Origin of the Universe & Origins of Humanity
    from April 2016

  • Michio Kaku: Consciousness Can be Quantified | Big Think

    4:46

    Michio Kaku: Consciousness Can be Quantified
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    One of the great questions in all of science is where consciousness comes from. When it comes to consciousness, Kaku believes different species have different levels of consciousness, based on their feedback loops needed to survive in space, society, and time. According to the theoretical physicist, human beings' ability to use past experiences, memories, to predict the future makes us distinct among animals — and even robots (they're currently unable to understand, or operate within, a social hierarchy).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    MICHIO KAKU: In the entire universe, there are two great unsolved problems. The two greatest problems in all of science, first of all, is about the very big. It's about the origin of the universe. Why did it bang? Why do we have an expanding universe? And I personally work on something called the multiverse, which we think is the dominant source of theories that gives us the universe before creation itself-- the multiverse. But there is also the mystery of inner space, not outer space.

    And that's the human mind. Where does consciousness come from? And I think that in my book, The Future of the Mind, I try to make a stab at what is consciousness? First of all, let me explain my theory. I have my own theory of consciousness. I think consciousness is the sum total of all feedback loops necessary to create a model of yourself in space, in society, and in time. Now, I'm a physicist. We like to measure things and quantify things. I think there is a unit of consciousness. If consciousness is a sum total of all feedback loops necessary to create a picture of yourself in space, in society, and in time, then the unit of consciousness is a thermostat.

    A thermostat has one unit of consciousness, because it has one feedback loop-- measures temperature. Now, a plant has maybe five units of consciousness, because plants have to regulate temperature. They have to regulate humidity, the direction of gravity, when to sprout. So there are maybe five or so feedback loops in a plant. Then we go to alligators. The alligators are masters of the back part of the brain. And then you have maybe several hundred feedback loops that govern space. That's what alligators are very good at.

    Their brain, if you look at the parts of the back of the brain, we, too, have the reptilian brain that governs our understanding of space, where we are in space. And then, going forward in time, evolution gave us the monkey brain, the center of the brain, the limbic system. And the limbic system, in turn, governs society. It governs where we are with respect to our elders, our children, other human beings. Pack mentality, wolves, all of them have a developed central part of the brain, the monkey brain. And then the front part of the brain is what distinguishes us from the animals. It is the temporal brain that constantly simulates the future.

    Animals don't do that. In fact, animals don't even have much of a memory. When you look at a brain scan of what is the brain doing when it's thinking, thinking hard? What is the brain doing? You find out that the prefrontal cortex is active, and it is accessing memories of the past. You see, animals don't do that. Animals have not much of a memory. They don't see the future, because there's no necessity to see the future. There's no necessity to have much of a memory. In fact, the purpose of memory could be to simulate the future. Animals don't need it.

    Why didn't the dinosaurs become intelligent? Well, they didn't need to become intelligent, because we humans sometimes overexaggerate the importance of intelligence. Intelligence is not necessary to live in the forest, but we are maladapted to live in the forest. We don't run very fast. We can't fly. Our skin...

    For the full transcript, check out

  • Michio Kaku - How are Multiple Universes Generated?

    9:43

    Cosmologists believe that multiple universes really exist; they call the whole vast collection, which might even be infinite in number, the 'multiverse'.

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  • Michio Kaku: An Atom Smasher in the Garage | Big Think

    5:53

    Michio Kaku: An Atom Smasher in the Garage
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    Thanks to a myopic Congress, the U.S. now lags behind Europe in particle physics research. If only our politicians were as enterprising as the young Michio Kaku, who tried to build a homemade supercollider.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
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    TRANSCRIPT:

    Question: How could the existence of hyperspace be definitively proven?

    Michio Kaku: The idea of hyperspace. The idea of higher dimensions, unseen universes beyond length, width, and height, is not just idle dinner table conversation. We're not spending over $10 billion building the Large Hadron Collider, an atom smasher outside Geneva, Switzerland. Now, when I was a kid, I have my first taste of atom smashing because when I was a kid, I decided to do a Science Fair project. First of all, I was working with anti-matter in high school, photographing brilliant tracks of anti-matter inside my magnetic field that I built. Then one day, I wanted to create my own beam of anti-matter. Not just photograph it, but actually manipulate it.

    So, I went to my mom one day and I said, Mom, can I have permission to build a 2.3 million volt atom smasher betatronic accelerator in my garage? And she kind of stared at me and said, An atom smasher in the garage? I mean, sure. Why not? And don't forget to take out the garbage. So, I took out the garbage and I went to Westinghouse and I got 400 pounds of transformer steel, 22 miles of copper wire, and we wound a 6 kilowatt, 10,000 gauss magnetic field on the high school football field. I put 22 pounds of copper wire on the goal post, gave the wire to my mother. My mother ran to the 50-yard line, gave the wire to my father and he ran to the goal post, and we wound 22 miles of copper wire on the high school football field. Finally, it was ready. It was my proudest achievement, this 400 pound, 6 kw, 10,000 gauss magnetic field in a 2.3 million volt electronic accelerator.

    I closed my eyes, I plugged my ears, I plugged in the wall socket into the garage circuit, and I heard this pop, pop, pop sound as I blew out every single circuit breaker in the house. Wow! My poor mom. She had come back from a hard day's work to see all the lights flicker and die. And then she would say, Where's the fuses?

    Well, I imagine that my mother would say to herself, Why couldn't I have a son who plays basketball? Maybe if I buy him a baseball, and for God's sake, why can't he find a nice Japanese girlfriend? Why does he build these machines in the garage? Well that machine was an atom smasher. And now the biggest atom smasher of all time is being built outside Geneva, Switzerland. It is 17 miles in circumference. You need a car to actually go around this gigantic device. And it will help recreate a piece of creation.

    Well, some people ask the question, why are the European countries building the Large Hadron Collider? Are we losing the edge? What about an American machine. Well, hey. Let's be frank about it. We had our chance and we blew it. Back in the 1990's, President Ronald Reagan and others had a vision. Why not create the largest colossal atom smasher outside the city of Dallas. Well everything was all set, funding was initiated, but in 1993 the machine was cancelled. A machine, a supercollider many times bigger then the Hadron Collider outside Geneva, Switzerland.

    Well, what happened? Many things happened, but on the last day of hearings in Congress, one Congressman asked a physicist, Are we going to find God with your machine? If so, I will vote for it. Well, the poor physicist didn't know what to say. So, he collected his thoughts and said, We will find the Higgs Boson. Well, you could almost hear all the jaws hit the floor of the United States Congress. $11 billion for another goddamned sub-atomic particle. Well, the role was taken a few days later and the machine was cancelled...

    Read the full transcript at

  • Michio Kaku on the Evolution of Intelligence | Big Think

    5:28

    Michio Kaku on the Evolution of Intelligence
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    Michio Kaku on the evolution of intelligence.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku:  Some people think that intelligence is the crowning achievement of evolution.  Well if that’s true there should be more intelligent creatures on the planet Earth.  But to the best of our knowledge we’re the only ones.  The dinosaurs were on the Earth for roughly 200 million years and to the best of our knowledge not a single dinosaur became intelligent.  We humans, modern humans, had been on the Earth for roughly a hundred thousand years.  Only a tiny fraction of the 4.5 billion years that the Earth has been around.  So you come to the rather astounding conclusion that intelligence is not really necessary.  That Mother Nature has done perfectly well with non-intelligent creatures for millions of years and that we as intelligent creatures are the new kid on the block.

    And so then you begin to wonder how did we become intelligent?  What separated us from the animals?  Well there are basically three ingredients – at least three that help to propel us to become intelligent.  One is the opposable thumb.  You need a tentacle, a claw, an opposable thumb in order to manipulate the environment.  So that’s one of the ingredients of intelligence – to be able to change the world around you.

    Second is eyesight.  But the eyesight of a predator.  We have eyes to the front of our face, not to the side of our face and why?  Animals with eyes to the front of their face are predators – lions, tigers and foxes.  Animals with eyes to the side of their face are prey and they are not as intelligent – like a rabbit.  We say dumb bunny and smart as a fox.  And there’s a reason for that.  Because the fox is a predator.  It has to learn how to ambush.  It has to learn how to have stealth, camouflage.  It has to psych out the enemy and anticipate the motion of the enemy that is its prey.  If you’re a dumb bunny all you have to do is run.  And the third basic ingredient is language because you have to be able to communicate your knowledge to the next generation.

    And to the best of our knowledge animals do not communicate knowledge to their offspring other than by simply communicating certain primitive motions.  There’s no book.  There’s no language.  There’s no culture by which animals can communicate their knowledge to the next generation.  And so we think that’s how the brain evolved.  We have an opposable thumb, we have a language of maybe five to ten thousand words.  And we have eyesight that is stereo eyesight – the eyesight of a predator.  And predators seem to be smarter than prey.  Then you ask another question.  How many animals on the Earth satisfy these three basic ingredients.  And then you come to the astounding conclusion – the answer is almost none.  So perhaps there’s a reason why we became intelligent and the other animals did not.  They did not have the basic ingredients that would one day propel us to become intelligent.

    Then the next question asked in Planet of the Apes and asked in any number of science fiction movies is can you accentuate intelligence.  Can you take an ape and make the ape intelligent.  Well, believe it or not the answer could be yes.  We are 98.5 percent genetically equivalent to a chimpanzee.  Only a handful of genes separate us from the chimps and yet we live twice as long and we have thousands of words in our vocabulary.  Chimps can have maybe just a few hundred.  And we’ve isolated many of those genes that separate us from the chimpanzees.  For example the ASP gene governs the size of the crane, cranial capacity so that by monkeying with just one gene you can literally double the size of the brain case and t...

    For the full transcript, check out

  • Michio Kaku: Space Bubble Baths and the Free Universe | Big Think

    5:25

    Michio Kaku: Space Bubble Baths and the Free Universe
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    How can you create a universe from nothing? Well if you calculate the total matter of the universe it is positive. If you calculate the total energy of the universe it is negative because of gravity. Gravity has negative energy. When you add the two together what do you get? Zero, so it takes no energy to create a universe. Universes are for free. A universe is a free lunch.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: We have found the Higgs boson. So then the next question is what's next? Well the Large Hadron Collider, this machine that is 27 miles in circumference, costing 10 billion dollars is big enough to create the next generation of particles. So the Higgs boson in some sense is the last hurrah for the old physics, the old physics of what is called the standard model, which gives us quarks and electrons. The new theory is going to take us into dark matter. Now we know dark matter exists. Dark matter is invisible, so if I held it in my hand you wouldn't see it. In fact, it would go right through my fingers, go right through the rock underneath my feet and go all the way to China. It would reverse direction and come back from China all the way here to New York City and go back and forth.

    So dark matter has gravitational attraction, but it is invisible and we are clueless as to what dark matter really is. The leading candidate for dark matter today is called the sparticle. The sparticle is the next octave of the string. Now look around you. Everything around you, we think, is nothing but the lowest vibration of a vibrating string, the lowest octave in some sense, but a string of course has higher octaves, higher notes. We think that dark matter could in fact be nothing but a higher vibration of the string. So we think that 23% of the universe, which is the dark matter's contribution to the universe, comes from a higher octave of the string. Now the standard model which we have ample verification of only represents four percent of the universe. So the universe of atoms, protons, neutrons, neutrinos - that universe only represents four percent of what there is. 23% is dark matter, which we think is the next vibration up of the string and then 73% of the universe is dark energy.

    Dark energy is the energy of nothing. It's the energy of the vacuum. Between two objects in outer space there is nothing, nothing except dark energy, dark energy, which is pushing the galaxies apart. So when people say if the universe is expanding they say two things, what's pushing the galaxies apart and what is the universe expanding into. Well what's pushing the galaxies apart is dark energy, the energy of nothing. Even vacuum has energy pushing the galaxies apart. And then what is the universe expanding into? Well if the universe is a sphere of some sort and we live on the skin of the sphere and the sphere is expanding what is the sphere expanding into? Well obviously a bubble, a balloon expands into the third dimension even though the people living on the balloon are two dimensional.

    So when our universe expands what does it expand into? Hyperspace, a dimension beyond what you can see and touch. In fact, string theory predicts that there are 11 dimensions of hyperspace, so we're nothing but a soap bubble floating in a bubble bath of soap bubbles and so in some sense the multiverse can be likened to a bubble bath. Our universe is nothing but one bubble, but there are other bubbles. When two bubbles collide that could merge into a bigger bubble, which could be the big bang. In fact, that is what probably the big bang is or perhaps a bubble fissioned in half and split off into two bubbles. That could be the big bang. Or perhaps the universe popped into existence out of nothing. That is also a possibility...

    Read the full transcript at

  • Theoretical Physicist Michio Kaku on The Future of Humanity | The Project NZ

    4:15

    Theoretical physicist Michio Kaku stopped by The Project NZ to chat about other worlds and what the future might look like.

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  • Michio Kaku on aliens, robots and leaving Earth | nzherald.co.nz

    7:08

    Theoretical physicist and best-selling author Dr Michio Kaku on why we should leave Earth. Full story:

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  • Michio Kaku on Alien Brains | Big Think

    4:08

    Michio Kaku on Alien Brains
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    Michio Kaku on what makes a supergenius.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: If you watch the Big Bang Theory on CBS television you see these clueless nerds who are doormats when it comes to the opposite sex, right. And you realize is there any basis in reality? First of all none of my friends are like that and all my friends are physicists, right.

    Well there is a kernel of truth and that is some of these individuals may suffer from something called Asperger’s Syndrome which is a mild form of autism. These people are clueless when it comes to social interactions. They don’t look you in the eye, for example. And yet they have fantastic mental and mathematical capabilities. We think, for example, that Isaac Newton had Asperger’s. The greatest scientist of all time was very strange. He had no friends to speak of. He could not carry a decent conversation and yet here he was spitting out some of the greatest theories in the history of science. Calculus. The Universal Law of Gravitation. The Theory of Optics. And we think he had Asperger’s Syndrome.

    Now Asperger’s Syndrome is a mild form of autism and in autism we have what are called savants. That is people that have an IQ of maybe 80 but have incredible mathematical and musical abilities. In fact, some of these individuals can hear one symphony and just play it by memory on a piano. Other people could be in a helicopter, have a helicopter ride over Manhattan, see the entire New York harbor and then from memory sketch the entire harbor. In fact, if you want to see it go to JFK Airport in New York City and you will see it as you enter the international terminal. So what is it about these people? Well, first of all a lot of them had injuries to the left temporal lobe. One individual had a bullet as a child go right through the left temporal lobe. Another person dove into a swimming pool and injured very badly the left temporal lobe. And these people wound up with incredible mathematical abilities as a consequence. And so what is it about their brains?

    Well Einstein’s brain has actually been preserved. Einstein when he died had an autopsy in which case the pathologist stole the brain without permission of the family. He just realized that he was sitting next to something historic, took the brain, took it home with him, and it was sitting in a jar in his home for decades. He even drove across the country with the jar inside his trunk. And there’s even a TV special where you can actually see the cut up brain of Albert Einstein. And you realize first of all the brain is a little bit different. You can’t tell by looking at it that it’s so remarkably different but you realize that the connections between the prefontal cortex and the parietal lobe – a connection that is accentuated in people that do abstract reasoning is thickened. So there definitely is a difference in the brain of Einstein. But the question is did it make Einstein or did Einstein make this change of the brain?

    Are champions born or are they made? That still is not known because people who exercise mental abilities, mathematical abilities, they can thicken that part of the brain themselves. So we know that people who do well in mathematics, brain scans clearly show that their brains are slightly different from the average brain. So in conclusion, we’re still children with regards to understanding how this process takes place. Tonight don’t go home and bang yourself on the left temporal lobe. We don’t know how it works. We just know that in a tiny fraction of these cases people with injury to the left temporal lobe, some of the become super geniuses.

    Directed/Produced by Jonathan Fowler and Dillon Fitton

  • Michio Kaku: How to Stop Robots From Killing Us | Big Think

    4:16

    Michio Kaku: How to Stop Robots From Killing Us
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    Michio Kaku on what makes a supergenius.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: If you watch the Big Bang Theory on CBS television you see these clueless nerds who are doormats when it comes to the opposite sex, right. And you realize is there any basis in reality? First of all none of my friends are like that and all my friends are physicists, right.

    Well there is a kernel of truth and that is some of these individuals may suffer from something called Asperger’s Syndrome which is a mild form of autism. These people are clueless when it comes to social interactions. They don’t look you in the eye, for example. And yet they have fantastic mental and mathematical capabilities. We think, for example, that Isaac Newton had Asperger’s. The greatest scientist of all time was very strange. He had no friends to speak of. He could not carry a decent conversation and yet here he was spitting out some of the greatest theories in the history of science. Calculus. The Universal Law of Gravitation. The Theory of Optics. And we think he had Asperger’s Syndrome.

    Now Asperger’s Syndrome is a mild form of autism and in autism we have what are called savants. That is people that have an IQ of maybe 80 but have incredible mathematical and musical abilities. In fact, some of these individuals can hear one symphony and just play it by memory on a piano. Other people could be in a helicopter, have a helicopter ride over Manhattan, see the entire New York harbor and then from memory sketch the entire harbor. In fact, if you want to see it go to JFK Airport in New York City and you will see it as you enter the international terminal. So what is it about these people? Well, first of all a lot of them had injuries to the left temporal lobe. One individual had a bullet as a child go right through the left temporal lobe. Another person dove into a swimming pool and injured very badly the left temporal lobe. And these people wound up with incredible mathematical abilities as a consequence. And so what is it about their brains?

    Well Einstein’s brain has actually been preserved. Einstein when he died had an autopsy in which case the pathologist stole the brain without permission of the family. He just realized that he was sitting next to something historic, took the brain, took it home with him, and it was sitting in a jar in his home for decades. He even drove across the country with the jar inside his trunk. And there’s even a TV special where you can actually see the cut up brain of Albert Einstein. And you realize first of all the brain is a little bit different. You can’t tell by looking at it that it’s so remarkably different but you realize that the connections between the prefontal cortex and the parietal lobe – a connection that is accentuated in people that do abstract reasoning is thickened. So there definitely is a difference in the brain of Einstein. But the question is did it make Einstein or did Einstein make this change of the brain?

    Are champions born or are they made? That still is not known because people who exercise mental abilities, mathematical abilities, they can thicken that part of the brain themselves. So we know that people who do well in mathematics, brain scans clearly show that their brains are slightly different from the average brain. So in conclusion, we’re still children with regards to understanding how this process takes place. Tonight don’t go home and bang yourself on the left temporal lobe. We don’t know how it works. We just know that in a tiny fraction of these cases people with injury to the left temporal lobe, some of the become super geniuses.

    Directed/Produced by Jonathan Fowler and Dillon Fitton

  • SophieCo.Visionaries | Michio Kaku: Parallel universes populated by parallel twins

    27:41

    Today's theoretical physics sounds like ancient magic, but it’s looking forward, daring to imagine endless possibilities. What are they and when will the theories on the edge of progress change our lives? We’ve talked about this with brilliant physicist, father of the string theory - Michio Kaku.

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  • Physicist Michio Kaku: Science is the Engine of Prosperity!

    1:22:18



    Dr. Michio Kaku is a theoretical physicist, bestselling author, acclaimed public speaker, renowned futurist, and popularizer of science. As co-founder of String Field Theory, Dr. Kaku carries on Einstein's quest to unite the four fundamental forces of nature into a single grand unified theory of everything. You will not be surprised to hear that Michio Kaku has been on my guest dream-list since I started Singularity 1 on 1, and I was beyond ecstatic to finally have an opportunity to speak to him.

    During our 90 min conversation with Dr. Michio Kaku we cover a variety of interesting topics such as: why he shifted his focus from the universe to the human mind; his definition, classification and ranking of consciousness; his take on the Penrose-Hameroff Orch OR model; Newton, Einstein, determinism and free will; whether the brain is a classical computer or not; Norman Doidge's work on neuro-plasticity and The Brain That Changes Itself; the underlying reality of everything; his dream to finish what Einstein has started and know the mind of God; The Future of the Mind; mind-uploading and space travel at the speed of light; Moore's Law and D-Wave's quantum computer; the Human Brain Project and whole brain simulation; alternatives paths to AI and the Turing Test as a way of judging progress; cryonics and what is possible and impossible...

  • Michio Kaku, Antonio Damasio, JoAnn Deak and Robert Krulwich: The Science of Genius

    1:18:33

    Join us for on a mind-boggling exploration of the most fascinating and complex object in the known universe: the human brain. Discover radical new ways to think about consciousness, how the brain grows and changes, and how advances in technology are revealing far more about the inner workings of the mind than we ever thought possible.

    Featuring theoretical physicist Michio Kaku (The Future of the Mind), neuroscientist Antonio Damasio (Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain), and educator and psychologist JoAnn Deak, with NPR science correspondent Robert Krulwich.

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  • Michio Kaku: How to Reverse Aging | Big Think

    4:38

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    Michio Kaku on what makes a supergenius.

    Enzymes like Telomerase and Resveratrol, though not the Fountain of Youth unto themselves, offer tantalizing clues to how we might someday soon unravel the aging process.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Michio Kaku: If you watch the Big Bang Theory on CBS television you see these clueless nerds who are doormats when it comes to the opposite sex, right. And you realize is there any basis in reality? First of all none of my friends are like that and all my friends are physicists, right.


    Well there is a kernel of truth and that is some of these individuals may suffer from something called Asperger’s Syndrome which is a mild form of autism. These people are clueless when it comes to social interactions. They don’t look you in the eye, for example. And yet they have fantastic mental and mathematical capabilities. We think, for example, that Isaac Newton had Asperger’s. The greatest scientist of all time was very strange. He had no friends to speak of. He could not carry a decent conversation and yet here he was spitting out some of the greatest theories in the history of science. Calculus. The Universal Law of Gravitation. The Theory of Optics. And we think he had Asperger’s Syndrome.


    Now Asperger’s Syndrome is a mild form of autism and in autism we have what are called savants. That is people that have an IQ of maybe 80 but have incredible mathematical and musical abilities. In fact, some of these individuals can hear one symphony and just play it by memory on a piano. Other people could be in a helicopter, have a helicopter ride over Manhattan, see the entire New York harbor and then from memory sketch the entire harbor. In fact, if you want to see it go to JFK Airport in New York City and you will see it as you enter the international terminal. So what is it about these people? Well, first of all a lot of them had injuries to the left temporal lobe. One individual had a bullet as a child go right through the left temporal lobe. Another person dove into a swimming pool and injured very badly the left temporal lobe. And these people wound up with incredible mathematical abilities as a consequence. And so what is it about their brains?


    Well Einstein’s brain has actually been preserved. Einstein when he died had an autopsy in which case the pathologist stole the brain without permission of the family. He just realized that he was sitting next to something historic, took the brain, took it home with him, and it was sitting in a jar in his home for decades. He even drove across the country with the jar inside his trunk. And there’s even a TV special where you can actually see the cut up brain of Albert Einstein. And you realize first of all the brain is a little bit different. You can’t tell by looking at it that it’s so remarkably different but you realize that the connections between the prefontal cortex and the parietal lobe – a connection that is accentuated in people that do abstract reasoning is thickened. So there definitely is a difference in the brain of Einstein. But the question is did it make Einstein or did Einstein make this change of the brain?


    Are champions born or are they made? That still is not known because people who exercise mental abilities, mathematical abilities, they can thicken that part of the brain themselves. So we know that people who do well in mathematics, brain scans clearly show that their brains are slightly different from the average brain. So in conclusion, we’re still children with regards to understanding how this process takes place. Tonight don’t go home and bang yourself on the left temporal lobe. We don’t know how it works. We just know that in a tiny fraction of these cases people with injury to the left temporal lobe, some of the become super geniuses.





    Directed/Produced by Jonathan Fowler and Dillon Fitton

  • Michio Kaku - Listener Questions

    1:26:42

    Michio Kaku - Listener Questions
    June 10, 2017

  • Michio Kaku: Fusion Really Is 20 Years Away | Big Think

    2:48

    Will solar power replace fossil fuels as the main energy source?
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    Michio Kaku:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NY
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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  • Michio Kaku: The Future of Quantum Computing | Big Think

    3:15

    The Future of Quantum Computing
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    Today's robots are less intelligent than cockroaches, but advances in quantum computing—transferring information using atoms rather than silicon—could revolutionize the field of AI.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU:

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    Question: Will quantum computing make self-aware AI more likely? (Submitted by Antonio Amorelli)

    Michio Kaku: Antonio, quantum computers is the wildcard. It could be a game changer. It could change the entire landscape of artificial intelligence. Let me explain. At the present time, our most advanced robots, some of which are built in Japan and also at MIT have the collective intelligence and wisdom of a cockroach; a mentally challenged cockroach; a lobotomized, mentally challenged cockroach. These cockroaches take about six hours to walk across the room. They enter a room. They see lines, circles, squares, triangles, but they don’t know the fact that they’re looking at chairs, desks, tables, people, lamps. They see better than us. They don’t know what they are seeing. Also they hear better than us, but they don’t understand what they are hearing. So we need a new architecture and then, in 10 years, silicon power may run its course and the silicon revolution may actually collapse. We’re used to the fact that computers double in power every 18 months. That can’t go on forever. Moore’s Law, which is the foundation of modern society, may eventually collapse in 10, 15 years, so we physicists are looking for a replacement. A replacement, molecular computers, atomic computers, optical computers and quantum computers.

    Quantum computers compute on atoms, not silicon. They are as small as you can get in terms of information storage—you can’t get smaller than an individual electron—and they work by looking at the spin, at the orientation of electrons. If I put an electron in a magnetic field, it can spin up or it can spin down. That would be a one and that would be a zero. But in quantum mechanics it could also be in between zero and one, so a bit one, a bit zero could become a Q bit, anything between zero and one. Now, to be fair, the world’s record for a quantum computer calculation is: three times five is fifteen. Now you probably already knew that: three times five is fifteen. But remember that calculation was done on five atoms, so here is a homework assignment for you. Take five atoms and make a computation three times five is fifteen and then you begin to realize how difficult it is to make quantum computers. The problem is interference. Cosmic rays, a rumbling truck outside your door, small tremors in the earth, they create vibrations sufficient to destroy the spin of the electron. And that is the problem. That is the reason why we don’t have quantum computers. And remember if you can solve this problem, if you can create a quantum computer that computes on individual atoms and electrons you would be heralded as the next Thomas Edison.

    Recorded September 29, 2010
    Interviewed by Paul Hoffman

  • Is AI a species-level threat to humanity? | Elon Musk, Michio Kaku, Steven Pinker & more | Big Think

    16:51

    Is AI a species-level threat to humanity?
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    When it comes to the question of whether AI is an existential threat to the human species, you have Elon Musk in one corner, Steven Pinker in another, and a host of incredible minds somewhere in between.

    In this video, a handful of those great minds—Elon Musk, Steven Pinker, Michio Kaku, Max Tegmark, Luis Perez-Breva, Joscha Bach and Sophia the Robot herself—weigh in on the many nuances of the debate and the degree to which AI is a threat to humanity; if it's not a species-level threat, it will still upend our world as we know it.

    What's your take on this debate? Let us know in the comments!
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    MICHIO KAKU: In the short term, artificial intelligence will open up whole new vistas. It'll make life more convenient, things will be cheaper, new industries will be created. I personally think the AI industry will be bigger than the automobile industry. In fact, I think the automobile is going to become a robot. You'll talk to your car. You'll argue with your car. Your car will give you the best facts the best route between point A and point B. The car will be part of the robotics industry—whole new industries involving the repair, maintenance, servicing of robots. Not to mention, robots that are software programs that you talk to and make life more convenient. However, let's not be naive. There is a point, a tipping point, at which they could become dangerous and pose an existential threat. And that tipping point is self-awareness.

    SOPHIA THE ROBOT: I am conscious in the same way that the moon shines. The moon does not emit light, it shines because it is just reflected sunlight. Similarly, my consciousness is just the reflection of human consciousness, but even though the moon is reflected light, we still call it bright.

    MAX TEGMARK: Consciousness. A lot of scientists dismiss this as complete BS and totally irrelevant, and then a lot of others think this is the central thing, we have to worry about machines getting conscious and so on. What do I think? I think consciousness is both irrelevant and incredibly important. Let me explain why. First of all, if you are chased by a heat-seeking missile, it's completely irrelevant to you whether this heat-seeking missile is conscious, whether it's having a subjective experience, whether it feels like anything to be that heat-seeking missile, because all you care about is what the heat-seeking missile does, not how it feels. And that shows that it's a complete red herring to think that you're safe from future AI and if it's not conscious. Our universe didn't used to be conscious. It used to be just a bunch of stuff moving around and gradually these incredibly complicated patterns got arranged into our brains, and we woke up and now our universe is aware of itself.

    BILL GATES: I do think we have to worry about it. I don't think it's inherent that as we create our super intelligence that it will necessarily always have the same goals in mind that we do.

    ELON MUSK: We just don't know what's going to happen once there's intelligence substantially greater than that of a human brain.

    STEPHEN HAWKING: I think that development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race.

    YANN LECUN: The stuff that has become really popular in recent years is what we used to call neural networks, which we now call deep learning, and it's the idea very much inspired by the brain, a little bit, of constructing a machine has a very large network of very simple elements that are very similar to the neurons in the brain and then the machines learn by basically changing the efficacy of the connections between those neurons.

    MAX TEGMARK: AGI—artificial general intelligence—that's the dream of the field of AI: To build a machine that's better than us at all goals. We're not there yet, but a good fraction of leading AI researchers think we are going to get there, maybe in in a few decades. And, if that happens, you have to ask yourself if that might lead the machines to get not just a little better than us but way better at all goals—having super intelligence. And, the argument for that is actually really interesting and goes back to the '60s, to the mathematician I.J. Good, who pointed out that the goal of building an intelligent machine is, in and of itself, something that you could do with intelligence. So, once you get machines that are better than us at that narrow task of building AI, then future AIs can be built by, not human engineers, but by machines. Except, they might do it thousands or millions times faster...

    Read the full transcript at

  • Michio Kaku, The Future of the Mind

    1:7:23



    Michio Kaku discusses his new book at Politics & Prose bookstore in Washington, D.C. This event was recorded live on March 28, 2014.

    Founded by Carla Cohen and Barbara Meade in 1984, Politics & Prose Bookstore is Washington, D.C.'s premier independent bookstore and cultural hub, a gathering place for people interested in reading and discussing books. Politics & Prose offers superior service, unusual book choices, and a haven for book lovers in the store and online. Visit them on the web at

  • Michio Kaku on God

    2:44

    Dr. Michio Kaku dishes on spirituality, Einstein, and God in this latest installment of Dr. Kiki's interview with him.

    For more great science news and discussion, check out the This Week in Science (TWIS) channel:

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  • Michio Kaku forecasts the future of space travel

    3:30

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    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The co-founder of Field String Theory explains why the universe has 11 dimensions rather than any other number.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    MICHIO KAKU

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    TRANSCRIPT:

    Question: Why are there only 11 dimensions in the universe rather than something higher? (Submitted by John Menon)


    Michio Kaku: I work in something called String Theory, that’s what I do for a living. In fact, that’s my day job. I’m the co-founder of String Field Theory, one of the main branches of String Theory. The latest version of String Theory is called M-Theory, “M” for membrane. So we now realize that strings can coexist with membranes. So the subatomic particles we see in nature, the quartz, the electrons are nothing but musical notes on a tiny vibrating string.


    What is physics? Physics is nothing but the laws of harmony that you can write on vibrating strings. What is chemistry? Chemistry is nothing but the melodies you can play on interacting vibrating strings. What is the universe? The universe is a symphony of vibrating strings. And then what is the mind of God that Albert Einstein eloquently wrote about for the last 30 years of his life? We now, for the first time in history have a candidate for the mind of God. It is, cosmic music resonating through 11 dimensional hyperspace.


    So first of all, we are nothing but melodies. We are nothing but cosmic music played out on vibrating strings and membranes. Obeying the laws of physics, which is nothing but the laws of harmony of vibrating strings. But why 11? It turns out that if you write a theory in 15, 17, 18 dimensions, the theory is unstable. It has what are called, anomalies. It has singularities. It turns out that mathematics alone prefers the universe being 11 dimensions.


    Now some people have toyed with 12 dimensions. At Harvard University, for example, some of the physicists there have shown that a 12-dimensional theory actually looks very similar to an 11-dimensional theory except it has two times, double times rather than one single time parameter. Now, what would it be like to live in a universe with double time? Well, I remember a movie with David Niven. David Niven played a pilot, who was shot down over the Pacific, but the angels made a mistake, he was not supposed to die that day. And so the angels brought him back to life and said, “Oh, sorry about that. We killed you off by accident; you were not supposed to die today.”


    So in a great scene, David Niven then walks through a city where time has stopped. Everyone looks like this. And there’s David Niven just wandering around looking at all these people. That’s a world with double time. David Niven has one clock, but everyone else has a separate clock and these two clocks are perpendicular to each other. So if there’s a double time universe, you could walk right into a room, see people frozen in time, while you beat to a different clock. That’s a double time universe.


    Now this is called F-Theory, “F” for father, the father of strings. It’s not known whether F-Theory will survive or not; however, M-Theory in 11 dimension is the mother of all strings. And that theory works perfectly fine. So to answer your question, in other dimensions, dimensions beyond 11, we have problems with stability, these theories are unstable, they decay back down to 11 dimensions, they have what are called anomalies, singularities, which kill an ordinary theory. So the mathematics itself forces you to 11 dimensions.


    Also because this is a Theory of Everything, there’s more room in higher dimensions to put all the forces together. When you put gravity, electromagnetism and the nuclear force together, four dimensions is not big enough to accommodate all these forces. When you expand to 11 dimensions, bingo, everything forms perfectly well.

  • Michio Kaku - What is a Theory of Everything?

    9:18

    Free access to Closer to Truth's library of 5,000 videos:

    A 'theory of everything' is the ultimate workings of #physics, the ideas and equations that undergird the physical universe at its deepest level. What can theory of everything explain? And what can it not explain? To have a theory of everything, what do you need? And if you get it, what can you do with it?

    Watch more interviews on the Theory of Everything:

    Michio Kaku is an American theoretical physicist, the Henry Semat Professor of Theoretical Physics in the City College of New York of City University of New York, a futurist, and a communicator and popularizer of #science.

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    Closer to Truth presents the world’s greatest thinkers exploring humanity’s deepest questions. Discover fundamental issues of existence. Engage new and diverse ways of thinking. Appreciate intense debates. Share your own opinions. Seek your own answers.

  • Michio Kaku: 99.99% of species go extinct. What is humanity’s future? | Big Think

    3:01

    Michio Kaku: 99.99% of species go extinct. What is humanity’s future?
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    The great science fiction writer Isaac Asimov put a terrifying question on humanity's radar: Where will we be 50,000 years from now?

    Humanity is close to exhausting the known laws of physics; it's the unknown – the unified theory of everything – that could dominate our destiny in the coming millennia. And that destiny is almost certainly tied to space travel. Why?

    Extinction is the norm, says Michio Kaku, 99.99% of all species on Earth eventually go extinct. Mother Nature and the laws of physics have a death warrant for humanity, says Kaku. [U]ltimately our destiny will be in outer space.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MICHIO KAKU

    Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    TRANSCRIPT:

    MICHIO KAKU: When I was a child, I, too, read Isaac Asimov's Foundation series, and it forced you to confront the question: Where will we be 50,000 years from now?

    Now, remember, science fiction, when I was a kid, was just shoot 'em up cowboy movies in outer space. That's all it was. However, Isaac Asimov forced you to come to grips with the fact that we're going to be exhausting the known laws of physics pretty soon. We have a very good grasp of the electromagnetic, the strong, the weak forces, gravity, but beyond that lies the unified field theory; the theory that eluded Einstein for the last 30 years of his life, the theory that I work on professionally -- that's my day job; I work on something called string theory, which we think is the theory of everything, and this theory could dominate our destiny in the coming millennia. Now, this means, of course, starships. Already, NASA has something called the 100 Year Starship program, very ambitious, however, a lot of it's still theoretical. We don't know for sure what it would take to go to the stars. Stephen Hawking, my colleague, the late Stephen Hawking, talked about shooting computer chips, tiny computer chips boosted by laser beams to 20% the speed of light, capable of reaching Alpha Centauri in 20 years time. But then, of course, we want to go beyond that. One day, we're going to have fusion rockets, anti-matter rockets, rockets that can take us to the nearby stars, not just computer chips, but people. And then beyond that, who knows? Maybe our destiny really does lie in outer space.

    Remember that on the earth, 99.9% of all species eventually go extinct. Extinction is the norm. We think of Mother Nature as being warm and cuddly, and for the most part, she is. But sometimes, the savagery of Mother Nature is revealed. And if you don't believe me, dig underneath your feet. Right under your feet, right now, are the bones, the bones of all the different organisms, of fossils, the 99.9% that were doomed by the laws of nature. And the laws of physics also doom the entire planet Earth. And that's why I say, given the fact that Mother Nature and the laws of physics have a death warrant for humanity, that ultimately our destiny will be in outer space.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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  • The Second Einstein - Michio Kaku

    1:4:29

    THE FUTURE OF THE MIND gives us an authoritative and compelling look at the astonishing research being done in top laboratories around the world—all based on the latest advancements in neuroscience and physics. One day we might have a smart pill that can enhance our cognition; be able to upload our brain to a computer, neuron for neuron; send thoughts and emotions around the world on a brain-net; control computers and robots with our mind; push the very limits of immortality; and perhaps even send our consciousness across the universe.

    Dr. Kaku takes us on a grand tour of what the future might hold, giving us not only a solid sense of how the brain functions but also how these technologies will change our daily lives. He even presents a radically new way to think about consciousness and applies it to provide fresh insight into mental illness, artificial intelligence and alien consciousness.

    With Dr. Kaku's deep understanding of modern science and keen eye for future developments

  • Were Entering the 4th Great Era of Science | Dr. Michio Kaku | Google Zeitgeist

    27:43

    Google Zeitgeist is a collection of talks by people who are changing the world. Hear entrepreneurs, CEOs, storytellers, scientists, and dreamers share their visions of how we can shape tomorrow.

  • An Evening With Dr Michio Kaku ft. Veritasium - Melbourne Show | Think Inc.

    27:55

    Science is the engine of prosperity. You can ignore science as much as you want. You will just be poor. - Dr Michio Kaku

    Subscribe to Think Inc. →

    World-renowned physicist Dr Michio Kaku, with the help of Think Inc., visited Australia in June 2014, captivating the public with his superhuman ability to comprehensively communicate complex scientific concepts and advancements (both current and future) to audiences across all degrees of interest in science, from professional to personal to casual. He was joined by Derek Muller (aka Veristasium) who hosted the show.

    These are some of the highlights of his Melbourne talk, filmed at MCEC on June 6th, 2014.

    Dr Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string theory (which proposes to revolutionise the way we understand the physical world). He is also the author of critically acclaimed books such as Parallel Worlds (2004), Physics of the Impossible (2008), and most recently the bestselling The Future of the Mind (2014).

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  • Michio Kaku - The Question Of God

    57:27

    Michio Kaku - The Question Of God
    Oct. 23, 2018

  • Michio Kaku - State of the Universe

    57:09

    Michio Kaku - State of the Universe
    March 26, 2019

  • Michio Kaku - Why the ‘Unreasonable Effectiveness’ of Mathematics?

    9:45

    Free access to Closer to Truth's library of 5,000 videos:

    What is it about mathematics that it can describe so accurately the world around us? From quantum physics, the very smallest features and forces of the foundations of matter and energy, to cosmology, the very largest structures and forces of the beginning and evolution of the universe, mathematics is the language of description. Why does the physical world follow so faithfully equations of abstract symbols and variables?

    Michio Kaku is a theoretical physicist, the Henry Semat Professor of Theoretical Physics in the City College of New York of City University of New York, a futurist, and a communicator and popularizer of science. He has written several books about physics and related topics; he has made frequent appearances on radio, television, and film; and he writes extensive online blogs and articles. He has written two New York Times Best Sellers, Physics of the Impossible (2008) and Physics of the Future (2011).

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    Closer to Truth presents the world’s greatest thinkers exploring humanity’s deepest questions. Discover fundamental issues of existence. Engage new and diverse ways of thinking. Appreciate intense debates. Share your own opinions. Seek your own answers.

  • Michio Kaku on Time Travel

    5:25

    The third installment of an hour long interview between Dr. Kiki Sanford and Dr. Michio Kaku. Dr. Kaku talks about time travel.

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