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Shane Crotty: Adaptive Immunity and Immune Memory to SARS-CoV-2 after COVID-19

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  • Alessandro Sette: Adaptive Immune Responses to SARS-CoV-2

    1:3:30

    This week's speaker is Alessandro Sette, a professor at the Center for Autoimmunity and Inflammation, Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology.

    Sette has devoted more than 35 years of study towards understanding the immune response, measuring immune activity, and developing disease intervention strategies against cancer, autoimmunity, allergy, and infectious diseases. His lab is defining in chemical terms the specific structures (epitopes) that the immune system recognizes, and uses this knowledge to measure and understand immune responses. The lab’s approach uses epitopes as specific probes to define the immune signatures associated with productive/protective immunity versus deficient immunity/immunopathology.

    Organized by Janelia's Sarada Viswanathan and Loren Looger, the Science of COVID-19 seminar series brings in outside experts, covers papers and preprints, and highlights local efforts in testing, production, and analysis.

    LEARN MORE: janelia.org/scienceofcovid19

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  • The Immune System, T-Cells, and Covid-19

    3:50

    So far we’ve been pretty focused on the antibody side of things during the pandemic, but recent work suggests that T Cells aren’t sitting this one out, and that could mean something significant in terms of immunity, even for people who haven’t been infected with the new coronavirus.

    Sources:







    Related HCT episodes:
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    #healthcaretriage #covid-19 #covid

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  • T Cells: A New Hope for Lasting Protection Against SARS-CoV-2

    1:27:11

    Many immunologists are looking at T cells to understand the potential for lasting immunity to SARS-CoV-2. In this webinar from The Scientist, Alessandro Sette and Shane Crotty will present the latest findings in T cell function following SARS-CoV-2 infection and the implications for vaccine development and lasting immune memory.

    Topics to be covered

    - CD4+ and CD8+ T cell recognition of SARS-CoV-2 sequences in unexposed individuals and potential cross-reactivity with common cold coronaviruses
    - Implications of the T cell response against SARS-CoV-2 for vaccine design and viral escape
    - How the nature of the acute immune response correlates with COVID-19 severity
    - Factors affecting COVID-19 immune response duration and memory

  • Prof. Shane Crotty: T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2

    1:2:25

    In this Global COVID Lab Meeting, Prof. Shane Crotty of the La Jolla Institute for Immunology discusses T cell-responses to SARS-CoV-2 and the implications for vaccine development. His team was involved in a recent study that shows SARS-CoV-2-infected people harbor T cells that target the virus—and may help them recover.

    Learn more about the Human Vaccines Project Global COVID Lab Meeting and see upcoming events here:

    #Covid19 #CovidVaccineIniative #Vaccines #HumanVaccinesProject #Webinar

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  • COVID-19 Symposium: Cellular Responses to SARS-CoV-2 | Dr. Michael Betts

    31:21

    Dr. Michael Betts describes how cells have responded in severe COVID-19 cases

  • Science of COVID-19: “Immune response to SARS-CoV-2”

    1:5:29

    Akiko Iwasaki, PhD

    Dr. Iwasaki is an HHMI Investigator and Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Department of Immunobiology, and of Department of Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology. Akiko Iwasaki’s research focuses on the mechanisms of immune defense against viruses at the mucosal surfaces.

    Organized by Janelia's Sarada Viswanathan and Loren Looger, the Science of COVID-19 seminar series brings in outside experts, covers papers and preprints, and highlights local efforts in testing, production, and analysis.

  • x
  • How COVID-19 Turns Your Immune System Against You

    3:49

    Learn more about the Yale School of Medicine's response to COVID-19, visit:

    Dr. Akiko Iwasaki is an Investigator of the HHMI and Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Department of Immunobiology, and of Department of Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology. Her laboratory is actively engaged in both surveillance and research efforts to understand viral prevalence and in studying the immune response that leads to protective versus pathologic consequences of COVID-19.

    Faculty across Yale, including at the School of Medicine, School of Nursing, School of Public Health, School of Engineering & Applied Science and Faculty of Arts and Sciences are actively engaged in research, innovation, and clinical efforts to combat COVID-19.

    Attribution:


    flickr.com/photos/navymedicine

  • Coronavirus Mutations and COVID 19 Vaccine Implications with Shane Crotty, PhD

    39:47

    Professor Shane Crotty, Ph.D. explains recent coronavirus mutations and how they might impact COVID 19 vaccines and transmission. COVID-19 research of Prof. Crotty and his team was published Jan. 6, 2021, in the prestigious Journal Science:

    Prof. Shane Crotty is a Professor at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology, Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, Crotty Lab. Prof. Crotty also has an academic appointment with the University of California San Diago. See his full bio here:
    Prof. Crotty on Twitter:

    Interviewer: Kyle Allred, Physician Assistant, Producer and Co-Founder of MedCram.com


    TOPICS DISCUSSED IN THIS VIDEO INCLUDE:

    0:00 Intro
    0:08 SARS-CoV-2 / COVID 19 mutations (UK variant etc.) and implications for COVID-19 vaccines
    10:58 How to test if coronavirus variants can escape immunity
    12:28 How have mutations made this virus more transmissible?
    17:44 Could mutations make vaccines less than 50% effective?
    24:15 Possible changes to vaccine schedules (one dose, half dose)?
    35:34 Could alternate COVID-19 vaccine schedule make mutations more likely?
    38:29 What is next for Prof. Crotty and his team?

    (This video was recorded on January 5, 2021)

    PREVIOUS DISCUSSION WITH PROF. CROTTY (Dec 16, 2020):


    REFERENCES:

    Viral mutations may cause another ‘very, very bad’ COVID-19 wave, scientists warn (Science) |

    Vaccine Tracker (Bloomberg) |

    FDA Statement on Following the Auth. Dosing Schedules for COVID-19 Vaccines |

    S-variant SARS-CoV-2 is assoc. with sig. higher viral loads in samples tested by ThermoFisher TaqPath RT-QPCR (MedRxiv) |

    Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) System |

    UK reports new variant, termed VUI 202012/01 (GISAID)

    Covid-19 in South Africa: Scientists seek to understand new variant (BBC) |

    Mutation Allows Coronavirus to Infect More Cells. Scientists Urge Caution (NY Times) |

    The UK is delaying second vaccine shots and it’s proving controversial (CNBC)

    The receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 (News Medical Life Sciences) |

    NY Times article highlighting Prof. Shane Crotty's research:


    THE MEDCRAM WEBSITE:

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    PREVIOUS / RECENT MEDCRAM COVID-19 INTERVIEWS:

    Vitamin D and COVID 19: The Evidence for Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus (SARS CoV 2) with Professor Roger Seheult, MD

    At Home COVID 19 Antigen Testing and Vaccine Update with Professor Michael Mina, MD

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com ad-free (including more on RNA vaccines, BioNTech vaccine, vaccine side effects, AstraZeneca Oxford coronavirus vaccine, side effects of COVID 19 vaccine, new strain of coronavirus, and more):

    We offer over 60 medical topics (ECG Interpretation, DKA, influenza, measles, mechanical ventilation, etc.) on our website and CME for clinicians.


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    DISCLAIMER:

    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.
    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2 #Coronavaccine

  • COVID Variants vs. Coronavirus Vaccines + Immunity

    54:25

    Renowned virologist Shane Crotty, PhD joins us again to address the most important COVID-19 questions: Should people who’ve been vaccinated or had COVID-19 continue to wear masks and physically distance? How will each vaccine hold up to the SARS-CoV-2 variants? What does the research say about people who’ve already had COVID-19 who get a vaccine? How long will immunity last for the vaccines or COVID-19 infection?

    Shane Crotty is a Professor at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology, Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, Crotty Lab. Prof. Crotty also has an academic appointment with the University of California San Diago. See his full bio here:
    Prof. Crotty on Twitter:

    Interviewer: Kyle Allred, Physician Assistant, Producer and Co-Founder of MedCram.com

    (This video was recorded on March 23, 2021)

    Just to clarify at 8:40 in the video: Prof. Crotty is describing a theoretical person when he says I myself am comfortable getting infected... He hasn't had COVID, and doesn't have that opinion. He was explaining one end of the spectrum of level of concern for individuals.

    TOPICS DISCUSSED IN THIS VIDEO INCLUDE:

    0:00 Intro
    0:46 Heated exchange between Dr. Fauci and Senator Rand Paul
    1:00 How long does immunity last for those who’ve had COVID-19?
    3:31 How antibody levels and T cells drop over time
    4:03 Dr. Fauci: Difference between in vitro and real-world studies
    4:36 Population-based studies about COVID 19 immunity against reinfection
    6:22 Huge variability from person to person for post coronavirus immunity
    8:20 Policy decision: individual vs. community goals during a pandemic
    9:03 Very rare for hospitalization from COVID-19 reinfection
    9:34 Avoiding COVID-19 infection and transmission potential
    10:12 Should mask-wearing continue for those who’ve had COVID-19?
    12:23 If I’ve had COVID-19, shouldn’t my vaccine dose go to someone else?
    13:39 Vaccines are eliciting more immunity than natural infection
    14:02 Is natural immunity always better than a vaccine?
    20:05 If you’ve had COVID-19, when should you get vaccinated? Both doses?
    22:07 How are variants “game changers” for vaccines and natural infections?
    24:53 Can’t I stop wearing masks and distancing after a vaccine or having COVID?
    26:14 Variants of concern: B.1.1.7 (UK) and B.1.351 (S. Africa) details and implications
    30:57 South Africa Variant escaping immunity: AstraZeneca Vaccine data
    32:28 Isn't preventing COVID 19 hospitalizations and deaths the primary goal?
    35:25 Will we need updated coronavirus vaccines?
    36:38 Johnson and Johnson vaccine versus the variants
    37:57 Preventing transmission to prevent SARS CoV 2 mutation opportunities
    38:40 Coronavirus antibodies vs T Cells and other parts of the immune system
    39:54 Replication and asymptomatic spread of COVID-19 vs. Pneumonia
    42:53 Vaccine incentives and Senator Rand Paul's perspective
    45:35 Looking ahead, SARS-CoV-2 vs Influenza, Will we need annual vaccinations?
    52:20 Current research and goals for Prof. Shane Crotty

    PREVIOUS MEDCRAM DISCUSSIONS WITH PROF. CROTTY :
    (Dec 16, 2020)
    (January 5, 2021)

    REFERENCES:

    Crotty's Research Published in Science |

    Variant Tracker |

    Denmark Research in the Lancet |

    UK SIREN study:

    Research from Qatar |

    UK Research in NEJM |

    Qatar:

    Congressional Hearing 3/8/21: exchange with Dr. Fauci and Rand Paul: (PBS News Hour) and (CNBC)


    THE MEDCRAM WEBSITE:

    Visit us for videos on over 60 medical topics and CME / CEs for medical professionals:

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com ad-free (including more on RNA vaccines, COVID variants, South African Variant, Johnson and Johnson vaccine for COVID 19, and more):


    MEDCRAM WORKS WITH MEDICAL PROGRAMS AND HOSPITALS:

    MedCram offers group discounts for students and a variety of medical programs, hospitals, and other institutions. Contact us at customers@medcram.com if you are interested.


    MEDIA CONTACT:

    Media Contact: customers@medcram.com
    Media contact info:

    Video Produced by Kyle Allred


    DISCLAIMER:

    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.
    #COVID19 #Coronavirus #COVID19UK

  • x
  • First Responders: SARS-CoV-2 & the Immune System

    1:25:54

    Angela Rasmussen and Ya-Chi Ho explore the positive and negative aspects of the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and discuss how this knowledge influences therapeutic benefits.

    The immune system fights SARS-CoV-2 infection, but it also causes serious clinical symptoms when it rages out of control. In this webinar, Angela Rasmussen and Ya-Chi Ho will discuss how the immune system reacts to SARS-CoV-2, whether these responses are beneficial or deleterious, and the mechanisms by which immune responses determine COVID-19 severity and patient outcomes.

    Topics to be covered

    - The nature of the host response to SARS-CoV-2
    - Understanding adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 using high-dimensional single-cell profiling

  • COVID 19 Vaccine Deep Dive: Safety, Immunity, RNA Production,

    34:29

    Professor Shane Crotty, PhD joins MedCram to answer a series of COVID vaccine questions including what are the chances of long-term side effects? How safe is RNA vaccine (i.e. Pfizer / BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines) technology? How long does mRNA from a vaccine stay in our cells? What else goes in vaccines? How long does immunity last? Why are T-Cells so important? Why does Pfizer's vaccine need to stay SO cold?

    Shane Crotty, PhD is a Professor at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology, Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, Crotty Lab. Professor Crotty also has an academic appointment with the University of California San Diego. See his full bio here:
    Professor Crotty on Twitter:

    Interviewer: Kyle Allred, Physician Assistant, Producer and Co-Founder of MedCram.com

    See our new interview with Prof. Crotty on how virus mutations (UK variant and S. African variant) may be impacting COVID-19 transmission and vaccine efficacy.

    Research referenced in this video from Prof. Crotty and his team was published Jan. 6, 2021, in the prestigious Journal Science:

    New York Times article highlighting Prof. Shane Crotty's research:

    00:00 Introducing Prof. Shane Crotty's Research
    0:35 How long does COVID-19 immune memory last?
    0:57 The three primary aspects of immune memory: antibodies, killer T cells, and helper T cells
    2:25 The anatomy (protein makeup) of SARS-CoV-2
    3:02 Why is spike protein the primary target?
    5:17 Could a mutation allow SARS-CoV-2 to infect without spike protein?
    7:02 Utilizing lipid nanoparticles to deliver mRNA and the role of RNA normally
    9:52 What human cells does an RNA vaccine go into?
    10:36 How long does mRNA from a vaccine stay in human cells?
    11:44 What else goes in vaccines besides mRNA and lipid nanoparticles? Any preservatives or adjuvants?
    12:30 Why are adjuvants used in many vaccines?
    14:08 Protein production from mRNA
    15:00 Why utilize the extra step of mRNA to code for protein antigens?
    17:28 Are mRNA vaccines the future of vaccine development?
    19:18 Any chance for mRNA to enter our cells' nucleus?
    20:55 The immune response to a coronavirus vaccine
    23:17 Expected symptoms from immune response to a vaccine vs. vaccine side effects
    25:50 Should people who've had COVID-19 get vaccinated?
    27:27 Immunity from COVID vaccine vs. a natural infection
    28:30 Why does the Pfizer vaccine need to be stored so cold?
    29:04 What would you say to a family member who is nervous about a rushed vaccine and RNA technology?
    32:37 What about the possibility of long term side effects from RNA vaccines?
    33:30 What's next for Shane Crotty's research team?

    (This video was recorded on December 16, 2020).

    THE MEDCRAM WEBSITE:

    Visit us for videos on over 60 medical topics and CME / CEs for medical professionals:


    SUBSCRIBE TO THE MEDCRAM YOUTUBE CHANNEL:


    Get notified of new videos by hitting the bell icon!


    PREVIOUS / RECENT MEDCRAM COVID-19 INTERVIEWS:

    Vitamin D and COVID 19: The Evidence for Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus (SARS CoV 2) with Professor Roger Seheult, MD

    At Home COVID 19 Antigen Testing and Vaccine Update with Professor Michael Mina, MD

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com ad-free (including more videos on the Pfizer vaccine, Moderna vaccines, BioNTech vaccine, vaccine side effects, COVID 19 vaccine mechanism, AstraZeneca Oxford coronavirus vaccine, side effects of COVID 19 vaccine, COVID 19 treatments, and more):

    We offer over 60 medical topics (ECG Interpretation, DKA, influenza, measles, mechanical ventilation, etc.) on our website and CME for clinicians.


    MEDCRAM WORKS WITH MEDICAL PROGRAMS AND HOSPITALS:

    MedCram offers group discounts for students and a variety of medical programs, hospitals, and other institutions. Contact us at customers@medcram.com if you are interested.


    MEDIA CONTACT:

    Media Contact: customers@medcram.com
    Media contact info:

    Video Produced by Kyle Allred

    FOLLOW US ON SOCIAL MEDIA:






    DISCLAIMER:

    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.
    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2 #Coronavaccine

  • T Cell Memory Immune Response May Be Preserved Against COVID-19 Viral Variants

    15:15

    COVID-19 and its SARS-CoV-2 Viral Variants have received heavy discussion lately with a big concern being that they may escape our immune response and lead to reinfection. We have discussed the decreased efficacy of monoclonal antibody therapies, the decreased effectiveness of convalescent plasma from those recovered after a COVID-19 infection, and the decreased efficacy of the AstraZeneca Vaccine. In this video, we are going to hone in on some potentially good news. Although the antibody (humoral) immune response may be less effective, this study focused on the CD8 T Cell Memory immune response. They found that the memory CD8 T cells and the viral proteins they attacked were not effected by any of the three main viral variants (UK, South African, Brazilian). Check out the video for all these details and more!

    COVID-19 Immunology:


    Epidemiology/Transmission/Reinfection of COVID-19 Playlist:


    SARS-CoV-2 Viral Variants Playlist:


    Link to study 1:

    Link to study 2:

    Resource on CD8 Functions:


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    There will be a running series of videos using the most up to date information on COVID-19, but this is an evolving field and new videos may come out that contradict that previous information. That is okay and is the nature of a fast paced and evolving clinical scenario. Stick with us as we work to unveil the intricacies of COVID-19, it's clinical significance, and the societal implications. ***This is strictly educational and not to be mistaken as clinical recommendations, please verify all information with accepted guidelines and practice patterns.***

    DISCLAIMER
    THIS VIDEO DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. The information, including but not limited to, text, graphics, images and other material contained on this website are for informational purposes only. No material on this site is intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or treatment and before undertaking a new health care regimen, and never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read, watched, or listened to on this video, or any other videos, reports, texts tweets or other sources.

  • Nina Le Bert: SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell Immunity in COVID 19, SARS and Uninfected Controls

    9:59

    Dr. Nina Le Bert from Duke NUS, discusses her recent involvement in the study of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity, specifically looking at the induction and persistence of T cells using an overlapping peptide library of specific proteins in SARS-CoV-2 to test convalescent patients' IFN-gamma responses to these peptides. Using a cohort of individuals who were infected and recovered in 2003 with SARS, and a similar approach of overlapping peptides from SARS-CoV, she is able to show there are still persistent ex vivo T cell responses. Importantly, she also highlights the cross reactivity of NP peptides from SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.

  • SARS-CoV-2 Immunity and Vaccines

    1:2:47

    A Department of Medicine Grand Rounds presented by Florian Krammer, PhD, Professor of Microbiology

  • Dr. Angela Rasmussen: Demystifying COVID-19. The Science of SARS-CoV-2 Virology and Immunology

    1:25:07

    Virologist Angela Rasmussen delivers a three-part series of virtual talks, “Demystifying COVID-19: The Science of SARS-CoV-2”. The Dialogues series is cohosted by Janelia and Loudoun County Public Library.

  • Covid-19: Vaccine Roll-out, the State of the Pandemic, and Variants – in the U.S. and U.K.

    1:19:48

    In this UCSF Department of Medicine Covid Grand Rounds, Susan Philip, the acting Health Officer for the SF Department of Public Health, will give us an update on vaccine distribution in San Francisco. George Rutherford then reviews the current state of the pandemic, including the improving situation in California, which led to a relaxation of stay-at-home orders this week.
    Finally, we explore the new viral variants from two perspectives. Shane Crotty, Professor of Immunology at the La Jolla Institute, will describe our evolving understanding of all of the variants, what they mean for California and the U.S., and how we should respond. Sir Patrick Vallance, Chief Scientific Adviser for the United Kingdom, will discuss the UK’s experience with the B117 variant, including emerging information that the variant may not only be more infectious but potentially more likely to be fatal too. The session is moderated by UCSF Department of Medicine chair Bob Wachter.

    Program
    Bob Wachter: Introduction
    00:03:18-00:11:26 – San Francisco Vaccine Rollout: Susan Philip (Acting Health Officer, San Francisco, Dept. of Public Health)
    00:11:26-00:18:00 – Q&A
    00:18:00-00:31:38 – The State of the Pandemic: George Rutherford (UCSF Professor, Dept. of Epidemiology & Biostatistics)
    00:31:38- 00:32:42 - Q&A
    00:32:43-00:41:21 – The Immunology of SARS-CoV-2 Variants: Natural Infection and Vaccines: Shane Crotty (Professor, Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Research, La Jolla Institute for Immunology)
    00:41:42- 00:44:35 - Q&A
    00:44:35-01:13:00 – Covid-19 Variants: What They Mean, What Should We Do, and The View from the United Kingdom: Sir Patrick Vallance (Chief Scientific Adviser, Government of the United Kingdom), Shane Crotty, and George Rutherford
    Bob Wachter: Closing

    See previous Covid-19 Medical Grand Rounds:
    • January 14: Covid-19: Update on Vaccines and Implications of the New Variants

    • December 17: Covid-19: The CDC, Vaccine Roll-Out, and Ethics and Policy Issues Surrounding Immunity Passports

    • December 3: Covid-19: How Should We Handle the Schools, and the Challenges of Vaccine Distribution


    • November 19: Covid-19: Update on Vaccines and Therapeutics

    See all UCSF Covid-19 grand rounds, which have been viewed over 1.55M times, here:

  • You had COVID. Are You immune? Vaccine Yes or No?

    8:16

    Have you already had COVID? If so, do you need to be vaccinated? I'm going to address this question in today’s video. Patients who develop the original SARS coronavirus back in 2003 have good immunity 17 years later based on detailed immune system assessment. If you had COVID will you have the same long-lasting immunity? I report on a well done immunological study by Dr. Jennifer Dan and Dr. Shane Crotty on patients who had COVID to address this question. We know reinfection is rare with SARS-CoV-2 so do you need the vaccine? In this study, many different aspects of the immune system in 188 patients were assessed looking at the 5 major components over time. I will show you what their results are and how it might bear on vaccination.

    Study from Journal Science:

    DISCLAIMER : Thank you for watching my YouTube video. The content of my video is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. No doctor-patient relationship is formed by viewing this video. For further details, please click the following link below for my full disclaimer.


    Dr. Keith Moran MD, RCPSC, DABIM, RCS, NBE Biography:
    I am a consultant in Internal Medicine with special medical interests in gastroenterology, cardiology, and echocardiography. I am a a full-time practising physician in these areas. I was an undergraduate at the University of Toronto, Trinity College where I received a number of scholarships including one for top student at Trinity College. I attended medical school at the University of Toronto graduating with a gold medal. My internship was completed at McMaster University in Hamilton followed by a residency in Internal Medicine at the University of Western Ontario in London. I then completed a fellowship in General Internal Medicine at the University of Western Ontario. I have active staff privileges and work as a consultant at my hospital managing the intensive care unit and providing consultative care in all hospital departments. I am a past clinical preceptor at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine. I am an active echocardiographer who has been certified and recertified by the National Board of Echocardiography. I am certified in cardiac sonography and have trained and completely educated a number of cardiac sonographers. I am the medical director of my cardiology laboratory which was established in 2001. My laboratory performs echocardiography and stress echocardiography amongst other tests. I maintain my certification in the American Board of Internal Medicine.

    #MedicinewithDrMoran

  • T Cell Memory Against SARS-CoV-2 Identified In 90-100% Of Those Healed From COVID-19!

    25:20

    WhiteBoard style discussion on a new paper published in the Journal Cell looking at blood donations from healthy donors in 2019 (pre-pandemic), healthy donors in 2020 (during pandemic), family members exposed to COVID-19, those healed after mild COVID-19, and those healed after severe COVID-19. They looked at the memory T cell responses in these individuals including CD4 (Helper T Cells) and CD8 (Cytotoxic T Cells) responses. What they found was quite interesting! Among them, 28% of 2019 healthy donors had T cell memory to SARS-CoV-2 (most likely cross reactive!), 46% of healthy donors from 2020, 67% of exposed family, 90% of those healed from mild disease, and 100% healed from severe disease. Check out the video for all the details and more!

    PLAYLIST ON COVID-19 IMMUNOLOGY:


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    Link to study:


    Other WBDR Videos Relating To Immunity!
    Cross Immunity To COVID-19:

    Waning immunity against SARS-CoV-2:

    Understanding the Immune System Through COVID-19 and BCG:


    There will be a running series of videos using the most up to date information on COVID-19, but this is an evolving field and new videos may come out that contradict that previous information. That is okay and is the nature of a fast paced and evolving clinical scenario. Stick with us as we work to unveil the intricacies of COVID-19, it's clinical significance, and the societal implications. ***This is strictly educational and not to be mistaken as clinical recommendations, please verify all information with accepted guidelines and practice patterns.***

    DISCLAIMER
    THIS VIDEO DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. The information, including but not limited to, text, graphics, images and other material contained on this website are for informational purposes only. No material on this site is intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or treatment and before undertaking a new health care regimen, and never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read, watched, or listened to on this video, or any other videos, reports, texts tweets or other sources.

  • Tao Dong: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 Specific T cell Response During COVID-19 Convalescence

    26:50

    Professor Tao Dong from the University of Oxford discusses her latest work in memory T cell responses in convalescent SARS-CoV-2 patients in the UK, highlighting the information from her publication in Nature Immunology and the use of ProImmune Pro5® Pentamers in her work.

  • Dr. Angela Rasmussen: Demystifying COVID-19. SARS-CoV2 Therapeutics and Vaccines

    1:6:33

    Virologist Angela Rasmussen delivers a three-part series of virtual talks, “Demystifying COVID-19: The Science of SARS-CoV-2”. The Dialogues series is cohosted by Janelia and Loudoun County Public Library.

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  • Identifying mechanisms of immunopathology in severe COVID-19 in a realistic virtual patient cohort

    58:52

    Speaker: Morgan Craig, Université de Montréal

    Seminar:

    Abstract: the primary distinction between severe and mild COVID-19 infections is the immune response. Disease severity and fatality has been observed to correlate with lymphopenia, cytokine storm, dysregulated macrophage responses, and T cell exhaustion. However, the mechanisms driving immunopathology in COVID-19 remain unclear. To pinpoint possible causes of dysregulated immune dynamics in severe cases, we have developed a within-host model of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our model links viral kinetics to the innate and adaptive immune response by accounting for the interactions between viral load, viral strain, infected and damaged lung epithelial cells, immune cell subsets (primarily tissue-resident and inflammatory macrophages, CD8+ T cells, monocytes, and neutrophils), and inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IFN-1, GM-CSF, G-CSF, IL-6). Our model successfully recapitulates mild and severe COVID-19 presentations. Through the expansion of a realistic virtual patient cohort, we analyzed the mechanisms regulating the diversity of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 to identify those that predispose individuals to particularly severe disease. Our results suggest that virtual patients with impaired IFN-1 and monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation are more likely to develop severe COVID-19, and that it is largely the immune response, not viral loads or variants, driving COVID-19 severity. Our model represents a comprehensive framework that helps to improve our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics and the ensuing immune response.

    Dr. Morgan Craig is a Researcher at the Research Centre of the Sainte-Justine University Hospital Centre and an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Montréal. She received her Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Sciences from the University of Montréal and was recruited from the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University where she did her postdoctoral training. The Quantitative and Translational Medicine Laboratory that she runs focuses on the application and implementation of quantitative approaches, particularly computational biology, to study biologically-relevant questions of large medical importance. Her work focuses on understanding how heterogeneity in patient-specific characteristics impacts on disease and treatment outcomes, with a particular emphasis on leveraging variability for treatment optimization and precision medicine. Dr. Craig’s current projects include understanding pre-leukemic hematopoietic stem cell dynamics and clonal reduction strategies, HIV treatment design and HIV cure strategies, understanding immunological networks during rare diseases and the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, and quantifying the impact of heterogeneity in a variety of solid tumours on resistance pathways and ultimate therapy success. Dr. Craig’s research is highly multidisciplinary and is conducted in close collaboration with experimentalists and clinicians.

    Related publications: COVID-19 virtual patient cohort reveals immune mechanisms driving disease outcomes Rapid community-driven development of a SARS-CoV-2 tissue simulator

    For more information please got to morgancraiglab.com and follow on Twitter @lab_craig

  • Shane Crotty: Adaptive Immunity and Immune Memory to SARS-CoV-2 after COVID-19

    1:25:48

    This week's speaker is Shane Crotty, a professor at the Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research at La Jolla Institute for Immunology.

    Crotty's team studies immunity against infectious diseases and investigates how the immune system remembers infections and vaccines. He is the author of Ahead of the Curve, a biography of scientist and Nobel laureate David Baltimore, published in 2001. He earned his BS in biology and writing from MIT and his PhD in molecular biology/virology from UCSF.

    Organized by Janelia's Sarada Viswanathan and Loren Looger, the Science of COVID-19 seminar series brings in outside experts, covers papers and preprints, and highlights local efforts in testing, production, and analysis.

    LEARN MORE: janelia.org/scienceofcovid19

  • Webinar: T Cells: A New Hope for Lasting Protection against SARS-CoV-2

    1:28:41

    Many immunologists are looking at T cells to understand the potential for lasting immunity to SARS-CoV-2. In this webinar, Drs. Alessandro Sette and Shane Crotty of La Jolla Institute for Immunology present their latest findings in T cell function following SARS-CoV-2 infection and the implications for vaccine development and lasting immune memory.

    Topics covered:
    1. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell recognition of SARS-CoV-2 sequences in unexposed individuals and potential cross-reactivity with common cold coronaviruses
    2. Implications of the T cell response against SARS-CoV-2 for vaccine design and viral escape
    3. How the nature of the acute immune response correlates with COVID-19 severity
    4. Factors affecting COVID-19 immune response duration and memory

  • Shane Crotty, COVID-19 Virtual Symposium: May 27, 2020

    32:44

    Shane Crotty, PhD, the La Jolla Institute for Immunology, Targets of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in humans with COVID-19 disease and unexposed individuals

    Dr. Crotty presented on his recent work that aimed to address major knowledge gaps in our understanding of immunity to SARS-CoV-2: (1) How much of an adaptive immune response is there to COVID-19? The answer to this question is important for vaccine design as well as predicting of herd immunity and future social distancing policies; (2) How long does the immunological memory to COVID-19 last?; and (3) What kind of immunity is important against COVID-19? His group looked at aspects of the immune system—antibodies (important in almost all currently licensed human vaccines), CD4 T cells (critical for antibody responses), and CD8 T cells (important in many viral infections)—to determine what type of immunity is important against the average symptomatic COVID-19 case. Using cytokine-agnostic T cell assays, they found that circulating SARS-CoV-2−specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were identified in ~70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent patients, respectively. They also found that CD4+ T cells respond to not just the spike protein but multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens that can be mapped to the viral M, N, and ORFs. Importantly, they detected SARS-CoV-2−reactive CD4+ T cells in ~40-60% of unexposed individuals, suggesting cross-reactive T cell recognition between circulating ‘common cold’ coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2. This work was recently published in Cell (Grifoni et al. 2020).

  • T cell Responses in COVID-19

    6:35

    Watch our quick presentation to learn more about the importance of the cell response during coronavirus infection. We also discuss a variety of BioLegend tools that help accelerate COVID-19 research, including multiplexing assay and antibodies for flow cytometry, proteogenomics, and western blotting.

  • COVID-19 Symposium: Immune Responses After mRNA Vaccination | Dr. Michela Locci

    29:19

    Dr. Michela Locci explains how the immune system has responded to mRNA vaccinations designed to pinpoint COVID-19

  • Andreas Radbruch: Adaptive Immunity in COVID-19

    48:12

    Adaptive Immunity: Memory, Protection and Immunopathology in COVID-19


    What do we know about the adaptive immune reaction to Sars-CoV-2? Why do humans react so heterogeneously to Sars-CoV-2? Does the adaptive immune system provide protection and for how long? How can we challenge the system with a vaccine to establish longlasting, efficient immunity?


    Andreas Radbruch shares his insights - Rita Carsetti moderates the Q&A.

  • T Cells: A New Hope for Lasting Protection against SARS-CoV-2

    1:28:41

    Many immunologists are looking at T cells to understand the potential for lasting immunity to SARS-CoV-2. In this webinar from The Scientist, Alessandro Sette and Shane Crotty will present the latest findings in T cell function following SARS-CoV-2 infection and the implications for vaccine development and lasting immune memory.

  • TWiV 657: Shane Crotty on SARS-CoV-2 immunity

    2:14:55

    Immunologist Shane Crotty joins TWiV to discuss the antibody and T cell responses to infection with SARS-CoV-2, followed by answers to listener questions.

    Show notes at

    Become a patron of TWiV at

  • La Jolla Institute Leading Global Hunt For Antibodies To Develop Coronavirus Treatment

    3:39

    There’s a new international effort to find a coronavirus treatment and it’s headquartered in San Diego. Researchers at La Jolla Institute for Immunology are leading a global hunt for antibodies.

  • Coronavirus Updates: Live from the Laboratory with Shane Crotty, Ph.D.

    1:11:14

    On April 20, 2020, vaccine design and infectious disease expert Shane Crotty, Ph.D. shared his research efforts and observations from the field regarding the coronavirus and COVID-19. Institute leadership and experts President & CSO Mitchell Kronenberg, Ph.D., Executive Vice President & COO Stephen S. Wilson, Ph.D., and Chairman of the Board Eric V. Zwisler also provided their insights during the virtual discussion. The presentation concluded with a Q&A, with questions from webinar participants.

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  • Protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 could last eight months or more

    1:00

    New research demonstrates that declining antibodies don't spell disaster for long-lasting immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Read more here:
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  • Shane Crotty

    10

    Shane Crotty, a scientist at the La Jolla Institute of Allergy & Immunology.

  • The-Scientist Webinar: T Cells A New Hope for Lasting Protection against SARS CoV 2

    1:28:41

    Many immunologists are looking at T cells to understand the potential for lasting immunity to SARS-CoV-2. In this webinar from The Scientist, Alessandro Sette and Shane Crotty will present the latest findings in T cell function following SARS-CoV-2 infection and the implications for vaccine development and lasting immune memory.

    Topics to be covered

    · CD4+ and CD8+ T cell recognition of SARS-CoV-2 sequences in unexposed individuals and potential cross-reactivity with common cold coronaviruses

    · Implications of the T cell response against SARS-CoV-2 for vaccine design and viral escape

    · How the nature of the acute immune response correlates with COVID-19 severity

    · Factors affecting COVID-19 immune response duration and memory

  • Immunological Memory to SARS-CoV-2 - Microbial Minutes

    10:27

    What type of immunological memory is created by exposure to SARS-CoV-2? How long do those “memories” last and what are the implications on the development and longevity of vaccine-induced protection? Here we take a look at the kinetics of immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 and the behavior of key immunological players involved in those processes.

    Sources:
    1.
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    4.
    5.

    Visit for more.

  • Daniela Weiskopf: SARS-CoV-2 specific adaptive immune responses after infection and vaccination

    59:34

    This week's speaker is Daniela Weiskopf, a research assistant professor at La Jolla Institute for Immunology.

    Organized by Janelia's Sarada Viswanathan and Loren Looger, the Science of COVID-19 seminar series brings in outside experts, covers papers and preprints, and highlights local efforts in testing, production, and analysis.

    LEARN MORE:

  • Comparing Natural COVID 19 Immunity Vs. Vaccine Immunity

    7:43

    Virologist Shane Crotty, PhD discusses differences COVID 19 immunity from natural infection versus vaccinations. See the full interview with Professor Crotty here:

    Shane Crotty is a Professor at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology, Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, Crotty Lab. Prof. Crotty also has an academic appointment with the University of California San Diego. See his full bio here:
    Prof. Crotty on Twitter:

    Interviewer: Kyle Allred, Physician Assistant, Producer and Co-Founder of MedCram.com

    (This video was recorded on March 23, 2021)

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    Visit us for videos on over 60 medical topics and CME / CEs for medical professionals:

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    DISCLAIMER:

    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.
    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2

  • Simplifying COVID Immunology, One Metaphor at a Time | Medicine and the Machine

    38:12

    With tales of Post-it Notes and fire trucks, Shane Crotty explains COVID immunology and vaccine responses for scientists and nonscientists alike.

  • What we know so far about COVID-19 vaccines, antibodies, and immunity to SARS-CoV-2

    4:19

    Learn about what we know so far about COVID-19 vaccines and the role of antibodies in developing immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Experts also discuss factors that influence immune protection to SARS-CoV-2 other than antibodies.

    Speaker: Dr. Anne Pham-Huy (MD, FRCPC) Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Physician Lead, Primary Immunodeficiency Clinic and Pediatric Infectious Diseases Consultant, Program Director of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Training Program, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO), Chair of Immunize Canada

    For more information on COVID-19 vaccines and IBD, please visit

  • Crotty COVID-19 correlates of immunity and T cells

    12:53

    A summary of working models of mechanisms and correlates of immunity against COVID-19, highlight potential roles of T cells.
    A recording of a presentation also given at a WHO COVID-19 vaccines Correlates of Protection meeting, May 26, 2021

  • Does a Positive Antibody Test = COVID 19 Immunity?

    7:03

    Virologist Shane Crotty, PhD explains what a positive coronavirus (SARS CoV 2) antibody test means for your immunity and addresses the important question:

    If you've had COVID-19 and have a positive antibody (serology) test, does that mean you're immune from COVID 19 reinfection?

    See the full interview with Professor Crotty here:

    Shane Crotty is a Professor at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology, Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, Crotty Lab. Prof. Crotty also has an academic appointment with the University of California San Diago. See his full bio here:
    Prof. Crotty on Twitter:

    Interviewer: Kyle Allred, Physician Assistant, Producer and Co-Founder of MedCram.com

    (This video was recorded on March 23, 2021)

    THE MEDCRAM WEBSITE:

    Visit us for videos on over 60 medical topics and CME / CEs for medical professionals:

    SUBSCRIBE TO THE MEDCRAM YOUTUBE CHANNEL:


    Get notified of new videos by hitting the bell icon:


    MEDCRAM WORKS WITH MEDICAL PROGRAMS AND HOSPITALS:

    MedCram offers group discounts for students and a variety of medical programs, hospitals, and other institutions. Contact us at customers@medcram.com if you are interested.


    MEDIA CONTACT:

    Media Contact: customers@medcram.com
    Media contact info:

    Video Produced by Kyle Allred
    Thank you to Andrew Elstein for reviewing and fact-checking

    FOLLOW US ON SOCIAL MEDIA:






    DISCLAIMER:

    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.
    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2

  • Chapter 35 Adaptive Immunity

    1:15:42

    In this lecture we will be discussing the Adaptive or Acquired Immune system that vertebrate animals have. In this discussion we will talk on how B and T cells recognize and destroy specific pathogens. We will discuss how B and T cells activate and make memory to remember what they see the next time they see the same pathogen. We will also discuss how vaccines works and what happens when the immune system does play well.

  • Dr. Daniela Weiskopf and Dr. Alessandro Sette Lab Meeting of La Jolla Institute of Immunology

    1:3:50

    Watch our Global COVID Lab Meeting with Dr. Daniela Weiskopf who speaks about Adaptive Immune Responses to SARS-COV-2 and Common Cold Coronaviruses and Dr. Alessandro Sette who talks about T-cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern.

    Dr. Weiskopf is Research Assistant Professor a the La Jolla Institute for Immunology and Dr. Alessandro Sette Division Head of the La Jolla Institute for Immunology .


    Learn more about the Human Vaccines Project Global COVID Lab Meeting and see upcoming events here:

    #COVID19​​​​​​​ #research​​​​​​​ #webinar​​​​​​​ #interferons​​​​​​​ #vaccines​​​​​​​ #globalcovidlabmeeting​​​​​​​ #covidvaccineinitiative​​​​​​​

  • Immune History and SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Responses: Lessons Learned from Influenza Viruses”

    1:12:55

    Scott Hensley, Associate Professor of Microbiology at the UPenn's Perelman School of Medicine

    Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread within the human population. Although SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, most humans have been previously exposed to other antigenically distinct common seasonal human coronaviruses before the COVID-19 pandemic. In this seminar, Hensley will describe how previous coronavirus exposures potentially impact immune responses and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. He will also discuss how immune history impacts susceptibility to pandemic influenza viruses and speculate that similar mechanisms may be applicable to the current COVID-19 pandemic.

    Organized by Janelia's Sarada Viswanathan and Loren Looger, the Science of COVID-19 seminar series brings in outside experts, covers papers and preprints, and highlights local efforts in testing, production, and analysis.

    LEARN MORE: janelia.org/scienceofcovid19

  • Covid-19 Vaccine Immunity and the Impact of Variants

    47:02

    As the delta variant becomes the dominant strain of the Covid-19 pandemic, scientists are working to understand the role variants will play in future surges of Covid-19, the efficacy of current vaccines, and how long immunity will last. Dr. Shane Crotty,, virologist and professor in the Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI), provides insights on the progress of Covid-19 vaccine immunity research for current U.S. Covid-19 vaccines (Pfizer, Moderna, Janssen/Johnson & Johnson), and critical emerging questions, such as the impact of the delta variant on the efficacy of current Covid-19 vaccines.

  • Alessandro Sette: Study of adaptive responses to SARS CoV2

    29:52

    In this presentation, Dr. Sette provides evidence that there are robust CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses detected in uncomplicated SARS-CoV-2 convalescent cases; that reactivity is reproducibly detected in non-exposed subjects; specific CD4 and CD8 T cells targets in COVID-19 patients were identified; in acute and severe infection it appears that the speed of the adaptive response is key to protective immunity; that T cell responses are durable over at least 8 months and that there is negligible impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on T cell responses.

    Alessandro Sette has devoted more than 35 years in biotech and academia to understanding and measuring immune responses, and developing disease intervention strategies against cancer, autoimmunity, allergy, and infectious diseases. Dr. Sette’s laboratory is the world leader in the study of the specific structures, called epitopes, that the immune system recognizes. Dr. Sette has overseen the design and curation efforts of the national Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), a freely available, widely used bioinformatics resource. The IEDB catalogs all epitopes for humans and experimental animals for allergens, infectious diseases, autoantigens and transplants, and includes epitope prediction tools to accelerate immunology research around the world. Dr. Sette’s lab uses knowledge of epitopes to define the hallmarks of a beneficial immune response associated with effective vaccines, as opposed to immune responses that are ineffective or that cause harm. The laboratory’s infectious disease interests include SARS CoV2, dengue, Zika Chikungunya, herpesviruses, poxviruses, lassa fever, HIV and hepatitis viruses, and bacterial pathogens such as tuberculosis and bordetella pertussis. Our investigations outside infectious disease include allergic asthma and Parkinson’s disease.
    Dr. Sette is a Doctor in Biological Sciences from the University of Rome and did postdoctoral work at the National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine in Denver, Colorado. In 1988, Dr. Sette joined the newly founded company Cytel, in La Jolla, and was also appointed adjunct assistant professor at The Scripps Research Institute. He founded Epimmune in 1997, where he served both as Vice President of Research and Chief Scientific Officer until 2002, when he joined LJI as Head of the Division of Vaccine Discovery. He also heads the Center for Infectious Disease at LJI.

  • COVID-19 vaccine safety discussion. Vaccine hesitancy, with Prof. Shane Crotty

    1:3:55

    A talk on COVID-19 vaccines. Do they work? Are they safe? Lots of Q&A. Hosted by FastMed. Originally recorded for FastMed employees. September 29, 2021

    Shane Crotty is a Professor at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) and is internationally recognized as an expert in immunology and vaccines.
    Twitter= @profshanecrotty

  • First Responders: SARS-CoV-2 and the Immune System

    1:29:12

    The immune system fights SARS-CoV-2 infection, but it also causes serious clinical symptoms when it rages out of control. In this webinar from The Scientist, Angela Rasmussen and Ya-Chi Ho will discuss how the immune system reacts to SARS-CoV-2, whether these responses are beneficial or deleterious, and the mechanisms by which immune responses determine COVID-19 severity and patient outcomes.

  • Arlene Sharpe: Immunology: T cells

    57:02

    The ninth lecture in the COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 and the Pandemic Series, presented by the MIT Department of Biology. Arlene Sharpe of Harvard Medical School gave a talk titled Immunology: T cells. For more information on the class, visit

    Date: 11/3/2020

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  • When will you need a COVID-19 booster shot?

    2:13

    There's a growing consensus that Americans will eventually need a covid-19 booster shot but the question everyone wants to know is when? ABC10 News anchor Derek Staahl is going in-depth with some local scientists working to find that answer.

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