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The COVID-19 Vaccines from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna: What's in Them and How Do They Work?

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  • The COVID-19 Vaccines from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna: Whats in Them and How Do They Work?

    12:48

    Learn about the composition and delivery mechanism of the two newly available COVID-19 vaccinations from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna with Dr. Jonathan Genzen, COO of ARUP Laboratories and an Associate Professor at the Universtity of Utah School of Medicine.

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  • How Moderna And Pfizer-BioNTech Developed Vaccines In Record Time

    59:52

    The decision to pivot an entire business to focus on the coronavirus is an obvious one in hindsight, at least for Moderna, BioNTech and Pfizer, which succeeded beyond anyone’s expectations — and will reap billions of dollars in sales of their vaccines this year alone.

    It wasn’t such a clear decision in the early months of 2020, though that’s when Moderna’s chief executive, Stephane Bancel, and BioNTech’s chief, Ugur Sahin, starting turning their ships, they told CNBC in interviews for this documentary about the vaccine race, produced by CNBC senior health and science reporter Meg Tirrell and senior digital producer Sam Rega.

    “The night that China locked down Wuhan, I’m like: ‘When was the last time I know a city has been locked down because of an infectious disease?’” Bancel recalled. “And what goes through my mind is: what do the Chinese know that we don’t know?“

    Bancel said he awoke sweating at 4 a.m., realizing, “Jeez, there’s going to be a pandemic like 1918.”

    For Sahin, it was reading a paper in the Lancet in late January describing the outbreak in China.

    “I did a number of calculations, fast calculations, and realized it had already spread,” Sahin said. “And it was clear that it was already too late to stop the disease.”

    But he was convinced BioNTech, then focused mainly on personalized cancer therapies, may be able to do something. His company reached out to Pfizer, he said, proposing to work on a vaccine for the novel coronavirus using the same technology, messenger RNA, on which they’d already partnered to try to tackle the flu.

    “We had the first contact a few days after starting the project,” Sahin said. “At that time, Pfizer was not yet interested.”

    Albert Bourla, Pfizer’s CEO, confirmed Sahin’s account, saying in the earliest months of 2020, he was focused on maintaining the company’s operations in China. But by late February, he said, he’d determined Pfizer needed to work on a treatment and a vaccine.

    “What is the best approach?” Bourla said he asked his team.

    Kathrin Jansen, head of Pfizer’s vaccine research and development, said they assessed all existing technologies, including protein-based vaccines and vaccines using viral vectors.

    “They all have too few pros and too many cons,” she said.

    But messenger RNA was a risk; it had never been used before as an approved vaccine or drug.

    “I wrestled a little bit with the decision,” Bourla said. But after another meeting with the team, “they convinced me.”

    That’s when Sahin called a second time. The outbreak, by that point, was already in New York, he said. Reaching Jansen, he described the work that BioNTech already had underway, and asked if Pfizer would like to work together.

    “And I said: absolutely,” Jansen remembered. “Let’s talk about this.”

    At Moderna, it was never a question that messenger RNA would be the way forward; that was the technology around which the company was founded in 2010. But that didn’t mean questions didn’t exist.

    “Even going into March, there were voices that said vaccines were false hope,” recalled Dr. Stephen Hoge, Moderna’s president. “It did feel for a period of time that we needed to defend even the idea of trying.”

    “When we were thinking about how do we get into Phase 1, what does it look like to prepare for a pandemic, the eyes of the world felt as though they were looking at Moderna as this biotech ... ‘what are they trying to do?’” said Hamilton Bennett, Moderna’s senior director of vaccine access and partnerships.

    “It was only when we transitioned in that March notification from the WHO that this was a global pandemic, it’s an emergency, that I think people started to realize that what we’re doing isn’t playing in a sandbox trying to demonstrate our technology,” Bennett said. “We’re developing a vaccine that’s going to stop the pandemic.”

    The companies succeeded, in what became one of the greatest medical races in history. Here, they recall how it happened.

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    A Race Against Covid: How Moderna And Pfizer-BioNTech Developed Vaccines In Record Time

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  • RNA Vaccines - Basis of Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, Animation

    3:19

    The basis of upcoming Pfizer and Moderna coronavirus vaccines. How it works? Pluses and minuses. For comparison of different vaccines, as well as events of immune response, role of different immune cells (T-cells, B-cells, APC), see this video:
    This video is available for instant download licensing here:
    ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved.
    Support us on Patreon and get early access to videos and free image downloads: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia
    All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
    Vaccines prepare the immune system, getting it ready to fight disease-causing organisms, called pathogens. A vaccine is introduced to the body to mimic infection, triggering the body to produce antibodies against the pathogen, but without causing the illness. Conventional vaccines usually contain a weakened or inactivated pathogen; or a piece of a protein produced by the pathogen, called an antigen.
    RNA vaccines are a new generation of vaccines. Instead of the antigen itself, RNA vaccines contain a messenger RNA – mRNA - that encodes for the antigen. Once inside the body’s cells, the mRNA is translated into protein, the antigen, by the same process the cells use to make their own proteins. The antigen is then displayed on the cell surface where it is recognized by the immune system. From here, the sequence of events is similar to that of a conventional vaccine.
    Some RNA vaccines also contain additional mRNA coding for an enzyme, which, after being translated in host cells, can generate multiple copies of the antigen-encoding mRNA. This essentially amplifies the production of antigen from a small amount of vaccine, making the vaccine more effective. These are called self-amplifying RNA vaccines.
    RNA vaccines are easier and safer to produce than conventional vaccines. This is because mRNA molecules can be synthesized in a cell-free system using a DNA template with a sequence of the pathogen; while conventional vaccines usually require a more complicated and risk-prone process of growing large amounts of infectious pathogens in chicken eggs or other mammalian cells. Without the risks of being contaminated by infectious elements or allergens from egg cultures, RNA vaccines are also safer for patients.
    Because protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm, RNA molecules do not need to enter the nucleus, so the possibility of them integrating into the host cell genome is low. RNA strands are usually degraded by cellular enzymes once the protein is made.
    The relative simplicity of the production process makes it easier to standardize and scale, enabling rapid responses to emerging pandemics. Other advantages include lower production costs, and the ease of tweaking RNA sequences to adapt to rapidly-mutating pathogens.
    On the minus side, it can be challenging to deliver mRNA effectively to the cells, since RNA sequences and secondary structures may be recognized and destroyed by the innate immune system as soon as they are administered intravenously. These limitations can be overcome by optimizing codons, using modified nucleosides to avoid recognition, and packaging RNA into protective nanoparticles.
    Another disadvantage is that most RNA vaccines require uninterrupted refrigeration for transportation and storage, which can be a hurdle for vaccine distribution. Research is ongoing to engineer thermostable vaccines.

  • COVID-19 Vaccines: MODERNA | PFIZER/BIONTECH | ASTRAZENECA

    43:41

    Official Ninja Nerd Website:
    Ninja Nerds!

    During this lecture Professor Zach Murphy will be discussing COVID-19 vaccines including Moderna, Pfizer/BioNTech, and Astrazeneca/Oxford.

    We are NOT sponsored and/or endorsed by Moderna, Pfizer/BioNTech, or Astrazeneca. We are presenting on RESEARCH and in no way is any of the information provided our own view or opinions.

    This will be a lecture packed with the process vaccine developers must go through; which includes a preclinical phase and phases I-III. Including information about OPERATION WARP SPEED and how this has expedited the normally lengthy vaccine process.

    We will then discuss how Moderna, Pfizer/BioNTech, and Astrazeneca vaccines work in the human body, preventing the SARS-CoV-2 virus and hopefully, ending this global pandemic.

    Finally-- Zach presents on all of the most current data that each of the vaccine companies have released outlining the vaccine procedure and how it will be administered, the vaccine efficacy (as a percentage), optimal storage temperature of the vaccine in order to remain viable, and the number of vaccine units these companies are capable of producing. We hope you enjoy this lecture and be sure to support us below!

    IMPORTANT INFO (MUST READ):
    One thing to emphasize that wasn’t harped on enough from this lecture is when these vaccines lead to an immunogenic reaction as we described above, which leads to formation of Memory B cells and Memory T cells. This is important because if we are exposed to the virus those memory cells are now primed and able to recognize and mount a powerful immune response against the virus.

    LASTLY, one additional point and clarification is when those cytotoxic T cells produce destructive molecules that damage host cells it’s important to realize that those are memory cytotoxic T cells primed by the Vaccine that damage host cells that ARE INFECTED with the SARS-COV-2 virus, NOT CELLS processing the vaccine.

    Big Takeaway:
    1. Vaccine stimulates antibody production to protect against virus IF INFECTED.
    2. Vaccine stimulates development of memory T and B cells to protect against virus IF INFECTED.

    References |
    Regulatory Affairs Professionals Society (RAPS) COVID-19 Tracker


    Outline:
    00:00 - Intro and Overview
    01:00 - Vaccine Development Phases Overview
    05:08 - Pre-Clinical Phase
    06:32 - Phase I
    08:29 - Phase II
    12:36 - How the Vaccines Work (Moderna and Pfizer/BionTech)
    21:16 - How the Vaccines Work (AstraZeneca/Oxford)
    25:33 - Vaccine Data (Moderna)
    30:30 - Vaccine Data (Pfizer/BionTech)
    35:21 - Vaccine Data (AstraZeneca)
    43:02 - Wrap-Up

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    #COVID19 #coronavirus #vaccines

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  • How do mRNA COVID-19 vaccines work?

    2:28

    The first COVID-19 vaccines represent an incredible record-breaking achievement in vaccine development. Not only were the Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech vaccines created in record time, they also harness a never-before-used technology: immunization through mRNA. But how do these vaccines protect us and how do they differ from other vaccines? These first mRNA vaccines may pave the way for faster, more efficient vaccine development in the future.

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  • Coronavirus Update 118: AstraZeneca DNA COVID 19 Vaccine Explained

    14:12

    Professor Roger Seheult, MD discusses the AstraZeneca and Oxford DNA COVID-19 Vaccine: How it works, and what we know about the safety, efficacy, and side effects at this time.

    Dr. Seheult illustrates the differences and similarities between the AstraZeneca / Oxford vaccine candidate and those from Moderna and Pfizer / BioNTech.

    The complete data from each of these SARS CoV 2 vaccine trials have not been released nor peer-reviewed at this time, and none of the COVID 19 vaccines have received FDA authorization to date.

    Dr. Sheult explains some of the potential advantages of the AstraZeneca Oxford vaccine candidate including a lower cost and that it only requires regular refrigeration. (This video was recorded on November 24, 2020).

    Roger Seheult, MD is the co-founder and lead professor at
    He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine and an Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    Johns Hopkins Tracker |

    Worldometer |

    AstraZeneca press release |

    AstraZeneca-Oxford Covid-19 Vaccine Up to 90% Effective in Late-Stage Trials (Wall Street Journal) |

    Why the AstraZeneca-Oxford Covid-19 vaccine is different (Vox) |

    Why the Pfizer and BioNTech vaccine is a cause for optimism — and skepticism (Vox) |

    AstraZeneca Registered Trial in US |

    Pfizer claims its Covid-19 vaccine is 90 percent effective so far. Here’s what we actually know. (Vox) |

    These Covid-19 vaccine candidates could change the way we make vaccines — if they work (Vox) |

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    RECENT PREVIOUS COVID-19 UPDATES:

    Please visit MedCram.com for the full series:
    - Coronavirus Update 117: Moderna vs. Pfizer COVID 19 Vaccine (mRNA vaccines)
    - Coronavirus Update 116: Pfizer COVID 19 Vaccine Explained (Biontech)
    - Coronavirus Update 115: Convalescent Plasma vs Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID 19 Treatment
    - Coronavirus Update 114: COVID 19 Death Rate Drops; NAC (N acetylcysteine) Data
    - Coronavirus Update 113: Remdesivir May Not Work for COVID 19
    - Coronavirus Update 112: Linoleic Acid; Vaccines; UK COVID 19 Data
    - Coronavirus Update 111: Masks; New Vitamin D Data and COVID 19; NAC
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 110: Trump's Risk Factors and COVID-19 Prognosis; Interferon
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 109: New Data From Europe As COVID 19 Infections Rise
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 108: High Risk COVID 19 Behaviors; Cases Rise in Europe
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 107: Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID 19 Treatment and Prevention?

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com (including monoclonal antibody treatment vs convalescent plasma treatment, COVID vaccine, mRNA vaccine, COVID 19 prevention, Pfizer vaccine and Moderna vaccines, Biontech, AstraZeneca Oxford coronavirus vaccine, COVID 19 treatments, COVID-19 vaccine updates, and more).
    We offer over 60 medical topics (ECG Interpretation, DKA, influenza, measles, mechanical ventilation, etc.) on our website.


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    MEDIA CONTACT:

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    Video Produced by Kyle Allred

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    DISCLAIMER:

    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.
    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2

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  • Coronavirus Update 117: Moderna vs. Pfizer COVID 19 Vaccine

    14:41

    Professor Roger Seheult, MD discusses the Moderna COVID-19 mRNA vaccine: How it works and what we know about the safety, efficacy, and side effects at this time.

    No mRNA vaccine has ever been approved by the FDA, but Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech hope to receive emergency approval based on preliminary data from their ongoing vaccine trials.

    Moderna's two-dose vaccine regimen does not require special refrigeration (the Pfizer vaccine is supposed to be stored at -70 Celcius) but a variety of questions remain:
    Will the vaccine prevent transmission and asymptomatic spread?
    How long will immunity last?
    Will “94.5% effective” hold up to peer-review and additional data when it is gathered?

    (This video was recorded on November 17, 2020).

    Dr. Seheult is the co-founder and lead instructor at


    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    Johns Hopkins Tracker |

    Worldometer |

    Outcomes for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in the United States During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic (JAMA Cardiology) |

    Moderna’s Covid-19 vaccine is strongly effective, early look at data show (STAT) |

    mRNA Platform: Enabling Drug Discovery & Development (Moderna) |

    What is mRNA? (Moderna) |

    Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Meets its Primary Efficacy Endpoint in the First Interim Analysis of the Phase 3 COVE Study (Moderna) |


    THE MEDCRAM WEBSITE:

    Visit us for videos on over 60 medical topics and CME / CEs for medical professionals:


    SUBSCRIBE TO THE MEDCRAM YOUTUBE CHANNEL:


    Get notified of new videos by hitting the bell icon:


    RECENT PREVIOUS COVID-19 UPDATES:

    Please visit MedCram.com for the full series:
    - Coronavirus Update 116: Pfizer COVID 19 Vaccine Explained (Biontech)
    - Coronavirus Update 115: Convalescent Plasma vs Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID 19 Treatment
    - Coronavirus Update 114: COVID 19 Death Rate Drops; NAC (N acetylcysteine) Data
    - Coronavirus Update 113: Remdesivir May Not Work for COVID 19
    - Coronavirus Update 112: Linoleic Acid; Vaccines; UK COVID 19 Data
    - Coronavirus Update 111: Masks; New Vitamin D Data and COVID 19; NAC
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 110: Trump's Risk Factors and COVID-19 Prognosis; Interferon
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 109: New Data From Europe As COVID 19 Infections Rise
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 108: High Risk COVID 19 Behaviors; Cases Rise in Europe
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 107: Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID 19 Treatment and Prevention?
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 105: FDA Authorized Treatments; COVID 19 Vaccine Update
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 103: Convalescent Plasma Treatment & the FDA; College Campuses Close

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com (including monoclonal antibody treatment vs convalescent plasma treatment, COVID vaccine, mRNA vaccine, COVID 19 prevention, Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, Biontech, coronavirus vaccine, COVID 19 treatments, COVID-19 vaccine updates, and more).
    We offer over 60 medical topics (ECG Interpretation, DKA, influenza, measles, mechanical ventilation, etc.) on our website.


    MEDCRAM WORKS WITH MEDICAL PROGRAMS AND HOSPITALS:

    MedCram offers group discounts for students and a variety of medical programs, hospitals, and other institutions. Contact us at customers@medcram.com if you are interested.


    MEDIA CONTACT:

    Roger Seheult, MD
    Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine.
    Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine

    Media Contact: customers@medcram.com
    Media contact info:

    Video Produced by Kyle Allred

    FOLLOW US ON SOCIAL MEDIA:






    DISCLAIMER:

    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.
    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2

  • What’s In the Pfizer & Moderna COVID Vaccines?

    6:45

    Curious what's inside the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines? Let's go down the ingredient list one by one and find out why they’re all in there.
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    The key, active ingredient in both Moderna’s and Pfizer’s vaccine is messenger RNA, what we call mRNA. mRNA is a molecule containing the genetic code that tells your cells how to make ONE kind of protein. That’s the spike protein on the surface of the virus.

    Your cells read those instructions and then make that spike protein—which can’t infect you on its own— and your immune system learns how to recognize it. You start to build an army of antibodies, those are immune proteins that bind to the REAL virus and clear it away if you get infected. Then, after a while, your cells get rid of that mRNA, that genetic material, but your body remembers how to defend itself.

    Now, we can’t just inject straight mRNA into someone’s body, because your body is actually really good at chewing up and getting rid of foreign genetic material that’s not supposed to be there. That’s where the other vaccine ingredients come in. Both Pfizer and Moderna contain a variety of lipids. The word ‘lipid’ is basically just the scientific name for a fat or fat-like molecule. You can even see the word cholesterol in the lipid list for both vaccines, same as the kind that’s in your body naturally. All of these lipids together form tiny little protective bubbles around the mRNA. One of the lipids sticks to the mRNA, others form the structure of the bubble and help it cross your cell membrane into your cells where it can be used, and other lipids keep the bubbles from clumping together. In both of these vaccines, this whole complex is called a lipid nanoparticle, or LNP.


    #vaccine #vaccines #covid-19 #coronavirus #covid #moderna # pfizer #seeker #science #elements

    Read More:

    Pfizer's COVID-19 Vaccine Ingredient List: What to Know, According to Experts

    'Lipids are unique to this type of vaccine,' Jamie Alan, PhD, an assistant professor of pharmacology and toxicology at Michigan State University, tells Health. But, she says, 'the rest of the ingredients are very common in vaccines.'

    Why are mRNA vaccines so exciting?

    Within minutes, scientists 10,000 miles away began working on the design of an mRNA vaccine. Within weeks, they had made enough vaccine to test it in animals, and then in people. Just 11 months after the discovery of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, regulators in the United Kingdom and the US confirmed that an mRNA vaccine for COVID-19 is effective and safely tolerated, paving the path to widespread immunization.

    Why Does Pfizer's COVID-19 Vaccine Need To Be Kept Colder Than Antarctica?

    One of the front-runners in the vaccine race — the one made by Pfizer — needs to be kept extremely cold: minus 70 degrees Celsius, which is colder than winter in Antarctica.

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  • Coronavirus Update 116: Pfizer COVID 19 Vaccine Explained

    22:32

    Professor Roger Seheult, MD discusses the Pfizer / Biontech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine: How it works and what we know about the safety and efficacy at this time.

    No mRNA vaccine has ever been approved by the FDA, but Pfizer and BioNTech hope to receive emergency approval based on preliminary data from their ongoing vaccine trial.

    This two-dose vaccine regimen has limitations including the need for -70 C refrigeration and many questions remain:
    Will the vaccine prevent transmission and asymptomatic spread?
    How long will immunity last?
    Will “90% effective” hold up to peer-review and additional data when it is gathered?

    (This video was recorded on November 12, 2020).

    Dr. Seheult is the co-founder and lead instructor at


    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    Johns Hopkins Tracker |

    Worldometer |

    COVID-19 vaccine tracker (RAPS) |

    Safety and Immunogenicity of Two RNA-Based Covid-19 Vaccine Candidates (NEJM) |

    A prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike RNA vaccine is highly immunogenic and prevents lung infection in non-human primates (bioRxiv) |

    Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Vaccine Candidate Against COVID-19 Achieved Success in First Interim Analysis from Phase 3 Study (BioNTech) |

    Why mRNA represents a disruptive new drug class {BioNTech) |


    THE MEDCRAM WEBSITE:

    Visit us for videos on over 60 medical topics and CME / CEs for medical professionals:


    SUBSCRIBE TO THE MEDCRAM YOUTUBE CHANNEL:


    Get notified of new videos by hitting the bell icon:


    RECENT PREVIOUS COVID-19 UPDATES:

    Please visit MedCram.com for the full series:
    - Coronavirus Update 115: Convalescent Plasma vs Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID 19 Treatment
    - Coronavirus Update 114: COVID 19 Death Rate Drops; NAC (N acetylcysteine) Data
    - Coronavirus Update 113: Remdesivir May Not Work for COVID 19
    - Coronavirus Update 112: Linoleic Acid; Vaccines; UK COVID 19 Data
    - Coronavirus Update 111: Masks; New Vitamin D Data and COVID 19; NAC
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 110: Trump's Risk Factors and COVID-19 Prognosis; Interferon
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 109: New Data From Europe As COVID 19 Infections Rise
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 108: High Risk COVID 19 Behaviors; Cases Rise in Europe
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 107: Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID 19 Treatment and Prevention?
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 105: FDA Authorized Treatments; COVID 19 Vaccine Update
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 103: Convalescent Plasma Treatment & the FDA; College Campuses Close

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com (including monoclonal antibody treatment vs convalescent plasma treatment, COVID vaccine, COVID 19 prevention, Pfizer vaccine, Biontech, coronavirus vaccine, COVID 19 treatments, COVID-19 vaccine updates, and more).
    We offer over 60 medical topics (ECG Interpretation, DKA, influenza, measles, mechanical ventilation, etc.) on our website.


    MEDCRAM WORKS WITH MEDICAL PROGRAMS AND HOSPITALS:

    MedCram offers group discounts for students and a variety of medical programs, hospitals, and other institutions. Contact us at customers@medcram.com if you are interested.


    MEDIA CONTACT:

    Roger Seheult, MD
    Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine.
    Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine

    Media Contact: customers@medcram.com
    Media contact info:

    Video Produced by Kyle Allred

    FOLLOW US ON SOCIAL MEDIA:






    DISCLAIMER:

    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.
    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2

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  • COVID 19 Vaccine Deep Dive: Safety, Immunity, RNA Production,

    34:29

    Professor Shane Crotty, PhD joins MedCram to answer a series of COVID vaccine questions including what are the chances of long-term side effects? How safe is RNA vaccine (i.e. Pfizer / BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines) technology? How long does mRNA from a vaccine stay in our cells? What else goes in vaccines? How long does immunity last? Why are T-Cells so important? Why does Pfizer's vaccine need to stay SO cold?

    Shane Crotty, PhD is a Professor at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology, Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, Crotty Lab. Professor Crotty also has an academic appointment with the University of California San Diego. See his full bio here:
    Professor Crotty on Twitter:

    Interviewer: Kyle Allred, Physician Assistant, Producer and Co-Founder of MedCram.com

    See our new interview with Prof. Crotty on how virus mutations (UK variant and S. African variant) may be impacting COVID-19 transmission and vaccine efficacy.

    Research referenced in this video from Prof. Crotty and his team was published Jan. 6, 2021, in the prestigious Journal Science:

    New York Times article highlighting Prof. Shane Crotty's research:

    00:00 Introducing Prof. Shane Crotty's Research
    0:35 How long does COVID-19 immune memory last?
    0:57 The three primary aspects of immune memory: antibodies, killer T cells, and helper T cells
    2:25 The anatomy (protein makeup) of SARS-CoV-2
    3:02 Why is spike protein the primary target?
    5:17 Could a mutation allow SARS-CoV-2 to infect without spike protein?
    7:02 Utilizing lipid nanoparticles to deliver mRNA and the role of RNA normally
    9:52 What human cells does an RNA vaccine go into?
    10:36 How long does mRNA from a vaccine stay in human cells?
    11:44 What else goes in vaccines besides mRNA and lipid nanoparticles? Any preservatives or adjuvants?
    12:30 Why are adjuvants used in many vaccines?
    14:08 Protein production from mRNA
    15:00 Why utilize the extra step of mRNA to code for protein antigens?
    17:28 Are mRNA vaccines the future of vaccine development?
    19:18 Any chance for mRNA to enter our cells' nucleus?
    20:55 The immune response to a coronavirus vaccine
    23:17 Expected symptoms from immune response to a vaccine vs. vaccine side effects
    25:50 Should people who've had COVID-19 get vaccinated?
    27:27 Immunity from COVID vaccine vs. a natural infection
    28:30 Why does the Pfizer vaccine need to be stored so cold?
    29:04 What would you say to a family member who is nervous about a rushed vaccine and RNA technology?
    32:37 What about the possibility of long term side effects from RNA vaccines?
    33:30 What's next for Shane Crotty's research team?

    (This video was recorded on December 16, 2020).

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    Visit us for videos on over 60 medical topics and CME / CEs for medical professionals:


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    PREVIOUS / RECENT MEDCRAM COVID-19 INTERVIEWS:

    Vitamin D and COVID 19: The Evidence for Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus (SARS CoV 2) with Professor Roger Seheult, MD

    At Home COVID 19 Antigen Testing and Vaccine Update with Professor Michael Mina, MD

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com ad-free (including more videos on the Pfizer vaccine, Moderna vaccines, BioNTech vaccine, vaccine side effects, COVID 19 vaccine mechanism, AstraZeneca Oxford coronavirus vaccine, side effects of COVID 19 vaccine, COVID 19 treatments, and more):

    We offer over 60 medical topics (ECG Interpretation, DKA, influenza, measles, mechanical ventilation, etc.) on our website and CME for clinicians.


    MEDCRAM WORKS WITH MEDICAL PROGRAMS AND HOSPITALS:

    MedCram offers group discounts for students and a variety of medical programs, hospitals, and other institutions. Contact us at customers@medcram.com if you are interested.


    MEDIA CONTACT:

    Media Contact: customers@medcram.com
    Media contact info:

    Video Produced by Kyle Allred

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    DISCLAIMER:

    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.
    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2 #Coronavaccine

  • What’s The Difference Between Pfizer And Moderna COVID-19 Vaccines? | TODAY

    3:41

    NBC’s Tom Costello joins TODAY to talk about the differences between the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, explaining that the Moderna vaccine does not need to be kept as cold and there is some early evidence that it will protect against transmission.
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    #Pfizer #Moderna #TodayShow

    What’s The Difference Between Pfizer And Moderna COVID-19 Vaccines? | TODAY

  • How the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine was developed

    13:31

    Bill Whitaker reports on the scientists and advances in biotechnology behind a COVID-19 vaccine that could help end the pandemic.

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    The program still averages more than 10 million viewers, more than double the audience of its nearest network news magazine competitor. The average audience for a 60 Minutes broadcast is 150% higher than those of the network morning news programs; the audience dwarfs the number of viewers drawn by the most popular cable news programs.


    About a million more people listen to the 60 Minutes radio simulcast in several major cities and on its companion podcast. Tens of thousands each week experience 60 Minutes online. The broadcast’s segments can be watched at 60Minutes.com and on the CBS All Access app. Its webcast, 60MinutesOvertime.com, offers content originally produced for the web, including behind-the-scenes video about the production of 60 Minutes stories and timely archival segments.


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    60 Minutes premiered on CBS September 24, 1968. Bill Owens is the program’s executive producer. The correspondents and contributors of 60 Minutes are Sharyn Alfonsi, Anderson Cooper, John Dickerson, Norah O’Donnell, Scott Pelley, Lesley Stahl, Bill Whitaker and L. Jon Wertheim.

  • What Is An mRNA Coronavirus Vaccine?

    17:03

    More than 30 biotech and pharmaceutical companies around the world are racing to develop a safe Covid-19 vaccine. The process is moving quickly with several vaccine candidates entering late-stage trials in a matter of months. Two of the companies developing a vaccine — Pfizer and Moderna — are utilizing a promising new technology called messenger RNA. Watch the video to learn why experts believe this vaccination method could be a game-changer for getting back to normal.

    CORRECTION At 0:30, this video misstated the number of companies chosen by the White House to receive ‘fast track’ designation from Operation Warp Speed. Vaccine projects from Sanofi, in partnership with GSK, and Novavax also received fast-track status.

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    What Is An mRNA Coronavirus Vaccine?

  • How are the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines different?

    2:08

    Moderna says as soon as it gets approval, 6 million doses will be distributed to more than 3,000 locations.

  • Covid-19 vaccines: Moderna vs. Pfizer vs. Johnson & Johnson comparison

    8:24

    We asked Dr. Stephen Thomas, chief of Infectious Diseases at SUNY Upstate Medical University, what we need to know about the vaccines right now and what we could learn in the coming months.

    Watch the video for a deeper explanation about the three vaccines currently available in the U.S. — Moderna, Pfizer/BioNTech and Johnson & Johnson. Moderna and Pfizer are messenger RNA, or mRNA vaccines and Johnson & Johnson is a viral vector vaccine. All three are designed to protect against Covid-19.

    According to the CDC, rather than inject the body with a weakened version of the coronavirus, these vaccines teach the body to make a protein which triggers an immune response. It’s those antibodies that our bodies produce that help keep us safe when confronted with the actual virus.

    Side Effects
    The mRNA vaccines have been administered to over 80 million people in the United States and they are safe and effective, Thomas said. Thomas was the lead principal investigator for the worldwide Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine trial.

    In data from the trials, Thomas noted, “The safety profile of these vaccines are all pretty similar, most people will experience some kind of pain at the site the vaccine was injected and most people say the pain is mild to moderate.

    Dr. Thomas also mentioned these other common side effects:
    • Mild to moderate headache
    • Mild to moderate fatigue
    • 30 to 40 percent of people might have muscle aches or joint pain
    • About ten to fifteen percent of people might develop a fever

    “The good news is if it’s going to happen to you, because it doesn’t happen to everyone, it happens pretty soon after you get vaccinated and once it starts it goes away within a couple of days,” Thomas said.

    “With Pfizer and Moderna rolling out over 80 million doses of vaccine the side effects continue to be the same as the data from the trials and we aren’t seeing any new side effects or more severe side effects,” he added.

    What about the variants?
    Work is being done in laboratories with the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines, testing people’s antibodies to see if the antibodies will neutralize the variants.

    Thomas said, “They are not as good at neutralizing those variants as they are against the predominant strain in the United States which is from China. But experiments are continuing and there is some concerning data there, which is why it’s important that we vaccinate as many people as possible, because it’s a race against the variants.”

    Thomas noted that the vaccines are still working at fifty to sixty-percent efficacy against the new variants.

    “Just to put it in context, the annual flu vaccine is about forty-five percent efficacious,” he said.

    How important is the two-dose vaccine time schedule?
    Thomas said it’s important to get these vaccines as close to the schedule as possible as they were tested in the trials. If a change is unavoidable, Thomas recommends delaying the second dose rather than getting it ahead of schedule.

    What is herd immunity and when will we have it?
    Herd immunity is achieved when enough of the population has become immune to a disease (generally through vaccinations) that it makes it difficult for that disease to spread.

    That would mean even those who are not immune would be protected.

    “Right now, about fifteen percent of the country has received at least one dose of vaccine, but that’s a far cry from the 70 to 80-percent that we are going to need to achieve herd immunity,” Thomas said.

    Thomas doesn’t think it’s going to be a vaccine supply issue, but more of a willingness for people to be vaccinated. “We’re vaccinating 2 million people a day, if that were to go to 3 million, and we have 320 million people in the country, we could achieve herd immunity by late summer.”

  • Which COVID Vaccine Booster is Best? Pfizer vs. Moderna vs. J. Johnson

    16:01

    Roger Seheult, MD of MedCram explains COVID 19 booster data on Moderna, Pfizer-BioNTech, and Johnson & Johnson and the efficacy of each coronavirus booster vs. full vaccination.

    (This video was recorded on October 27, 2021)


    TOPICS IN THIS VIDEO INCLUDE:

    00:00 Which COVID-19 booster should I take?
    00:15 Pre-print study looking at outcomes for original vaccines and randomized booster combinations in the United States
    01:53 Side effects for various boosters given to patients with either J&J, Moderna, Pfizer original vaccines
    05:46 Preliminary booster efficacy data: how well do IgG bind to SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins?
    10:29 Preliminary data from Pfizer-BioNTech: Efficacy of a booster on top of fully vaccinated people in randomized, placebo-controlled trial


    Roger Seheult, MD is the co-founder and lead professor at
    He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine and an Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    Pfizer And BioNTech Announce Phase 3 Trial Data Showing High Efficacy Of A Booster Dose Of Their COVID-19 Vaccine (Pfizer) |

    Heterologous SARS-CoV-2 Booster Vaccinations - Preliminary Report (medRxiv) |

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com (including more discussion on the COVID delta variant, vaccine passport, and more).


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    DISCLAIMER:

    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.

    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2 #Coronavirus

  • mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines

    17:43

    Learn more about the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines as Sandra Fryhofer, MD, MACP, provides details on each vaccine along with who should get them and when. For more information and the complete ACP 2021 Adult Immunization Video Series:

    #AdultImmunization #COVID19 #COVID19Vaccines #IRaiseTheRates

  • Pfizer, Moderna And J&J COVID-19 Vaccines: What Are The Differences? | TODAY

    4:15

    A third coronavirus vaccine from Johnson & Johnson could soon be on the way. What is the difference between the three coronavirus shots from Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer and Moderna? NBC senior medical correspondent Dr. John Torres joins Weekend TODAY to weigh in, and reminds reviewers that “any shot you can get at this point is the best shot for you to get.”
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    #Coronavirus #Vaccine #TODAY

    Pfizer, Moderna And J&J COVID-19 Vaccines: What Are The Differences? | TODAY

  • Revolution in medicine - BioNTech, mRNA and the Covid-19 vaccine | DW Documentary

    42:27

    With the help of mRNA technology, BioNTech has developed a vaccine for COVID-19. These assist the body to produce its own antigens to fight the virus - a medical milestone.

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, scientists Uğur Şahin und Özlem Türeci have pursued the goal of creating cancer treatments that are specific to individuals. The firm they established, BioNTech, focuses heavily on revolutionary mRNA technology.

    The M” in mRNA means ‘messenger and RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. MRNA delivers information for antigen production directly to the cell which produces proteins. Afterwards, these cells present self-produced antigens on their outer shells and trigger a specifically desired immune response.

    Şahin and Türeci came up with the idea of using mRNA technology for vaccines in January 2020 after reading about a virus recently identified in Wuhan, China. Within hours, BioNTech decided to launch its search for a viable vaccine. The initial steps required lots of money and nerves of steel. The founders of pharmaceutical giant Hexal, brothers Andreas and Thomas Strünmann, were among the first financial backers.

    BioNTech received hundreds of millions in funding and the search for a vaccine began. But many questions remained unresolved. In the end, persistence paid off. A Partnership with Pharma Giant Pfizer sped up the testing phase and the Comirnaty Con-centrate was approved. Its efficacy proven, millions around the world have been vaccinated with it.

    But what does the future look like for cancer research? And can mRNA technology aid in the fight against Malaria? The documentary shows what a wide-ranging affect this startup company in Mainz, Germany is having on global health. Film maker Michael Schindhelm has gained the opportunity to take a closer look at this revolutionary company.

    #documentary #vaccine #freedocumentary #BioNTech #dwdocumentary
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  • COVID-19: What is the difference between the Pfizer vaccine and Moderna vaccine?

    1:20

    Both the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine and Moderna vaccine are mRNA vaccines.
    For more detailed information about each vaccine, visit cdc.gov/coronavirus

  • x
  • Coronavirus Update 121: Johnson and Johnson Vaccine - Efficacy and Safety vs. Pfizer & Moderna

    11:49

    Professor Roger Seheult, MD explains the Johnson and Johnson / Janssen Pharmaceuticals vaccine candidate for COVID 19. Dr. Seheult illustrates how the Johnson & Johnson adenovirus vaccine works, the efficacy/safety (based on preliminary data), and how the vaccine compares to the Moderna vaccine and the Pfizer BioNTech vaccine. (This video was recorded on February 4, 2021).

    Roger Seheult, MD is the co-founder and lead professor at
    He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine and an Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.

    Interviewer: Kyle Allred, Physician Assistant, Producer / Co-Founder of MedCram.com

    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    A Study of Ad26.COV2.S for the Prevention of SARS-CoV-2-Mediated COVID-19 in Adult Participants (NIH) |

    Johnson & Johnson Announces Single-Shot Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Met Primary Endpoints in Interim Analysis of its Phase 3 ENSEMBLE Trial (Johnson & Johnson) |

    J&J one-dose Covid vaccine is 66% effective, a weapon but not a knockout punch (STAT) |

    One-shot COVID-19 vaccine is effective against severe disease (ScienceNews) |

    UK COVID Symptom Study |

    Doctor Explains The PREVENTION & TREATMENT For The Coronavirus | Roger Seheult & Lewis Howes (Lewis Howes YouTube Channel) |


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    Please visit MedCram.com for the full series:
    - Coronavirus Update 120: Anticoagulants (Blood Thinners) Improve Hospital Outcomes (Full Dose)
    - Coronavirus Update 119: Pfizer BioNTech COVID Vaccine (Clinical Considerations)
    - Vitamin D and COVID 19: The Evidence for Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus (SARS CoV 2)
    - Coronavirus Update 118: AstraZeneca DNA COVID 19 Vaccine Explained (vs. Pfizer / BioNTech, Moderna)
    - Coronavirus Update 117: Moderna vs. Pfizer COVID 19 Vaccine (mRNA vaccines)
    - Coronavirus Update 116: Pfizer COVID 19 Vaccine Explained (Biontech)
    - Coronavirus Update 115: Convalescent Plasma vs Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID 19 Treatment
    - Coronavirus Update 114: COVID 19 Death Rate Drops; NAC (N acetylcysteine) Data
    - Coronavirus Update 113: Remdesivir May Not Work for COVID 19
    - Coronavirus Update 112: Linoleic Acid; Vaccines; UK COVID 19 Data
    - Coronavirus Update 111: Masks; New Vitamin D Data and COVID 19; NAC
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 110: Trump's Risk Factors and COVID-19 Prognosis; Interferon
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 109: New Data From Europe As COVID 19 Infections Rise
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 108: High Risk COVID 19 Behaviors; Cases Rise in Europe
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 107: Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID 19 Treatment and Prevention?

    All coronavirus updates are at ad-free MedCram.com (including this video on the Johnson and Johnson Vaccine).
    We offer over 60 medical topics (ECG Interpretation, DKA, influenza, measles, mechanical ventilation, etc.) on our website.


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    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2 #Coronavirus

  • mRNA vaccines, explained

    6:48

    Why some Covid-19 vaccines were developed faster than any vaccine ever.

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    Researchers working on Covid-19 vaccines have smashed speed records, bringing new vaccines from development to distribution in less than a year. They did this with the help of billions of dollars of unprecedented global investment -- but also, in some cases, with a new type of vaccine technology.

    There are four traditional types of vaccines, and they all require the growing and handling of live pathogens in a lab, a time-consuming process than can add months or years to development. But two new types of vaccines skip that step altogether by moving that work from the lab to our bodies. mRNA vaccines, like the ones from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna; and Adenovirus vaccines, like those from Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca; do this by sending genetic instructions directly into our cells, which then produce the harmless protein the body needs to learn to fight Covid-19. Because these proteins are produced from within cells rather than injected from the outside, they may be less likely to provoke adverse reactions in the recipient.

    The result has been a host of vaccines developed faster than ever. But it's also ushered us into a new age of vaccine technology, one in which we can send our own bodies the instructions on how to protect themselves. That technology is already being used to drive research on vaccines for HIV and cancer. These new types of vaccines are weapons we developed to fight the coronavirus - but their real impact is just beginning.

    Note: The headline on this video has been changed.
    Previous title: How the newest vaccines fight Covid-19

    Further reading:
    Our original article on Vox.com by Umair Irfan:

    A breakdown of the types of vaccines:

    Infographic on the differences between mRNA vaccines and traditional vaccines:

    The New York Times has a really wonderful in-depth breakdown of how each of the vaccines work:

    Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out

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  • Heres the key differences between Moderna and Pfizer vaccines: Leading vaccine researcher

    3:35

    Padmini Pillai, an immunoengineer at MIT, discusses the main issues with both the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID vaccines, including why one must be stored at much colder temperatures than the other. For access to live and exclusive video from CNBC subscribe to CNBC PRO:

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  • Why you cant compare Covid-19 vaccines

    7:02

    What a vaccine's efficacy rate actually means.

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    In the US, the first two available Covid-19 vaccines were the ones from Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna. Both vaccines have very high efficacy rates, of around 95%. But the third vaccine introduced in the US, from Johnson & Johnson, has a considerably lower efficacy rate: just 66%.

    Look at those numbers next to each other, and it's natural to conclude that one of them is considerably worse. Why settle for 66% when you can have 95%? But that isn't the right way to understand a vaccine's efficacy rate, or even to understand what a vaccine does. And public health experts say that if you really want to know which vaccine is the best one, efficacy isn't actually the most important number at all.

    Further reading from Vox:

    Why comparing Covid-19 vaccine efficacy numbers can be misleading:

    The vaccine metric that matters more than efficacy:

    The limits of what vaccine efficacy numbers can tell us:

    Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out

    Watch our full video catalog:
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  • Coronavirus Update 127: Delta Variant and Vaccines

    18:09

    Professor Roger Seheult, MD of MedCram with an update on the effectiveness of four major vaccines against the delta variant of COVID-19: Pfizer / BioNTech, Moderna, AstraZeneca, and Johnson and Johnson Vaccine (This video was recorded on July 19, 2021).

    See the video Dr. Seheult references: 10 Tips if you Get COVID-19 here:

    Please see our most recent video on Previous Infection vs. The Delta Variant:


    TOPICS IN THIS VIDEO INCLUDE:

    00:00 General overview of SARS-CoV-2 variants
    02:44 Characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant (B.1.617.2)
    03:21 Preliminary data on delta variant infection rates by age & risk of severe infection
    05:14 How delta variant is affecting COVID-19 case numbers in the UK, Israel, and United States
    06:55 How do the COVID-19 vaccines stack up against delta variant? Effectiveness of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine
    12:20 Data on the effectiveness of Moderna vaccine against the delta variant
    12:42 Data on effectiveness of Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine against the delta variant
    13:41 Information on Johnson & Johnson vaccine effectiveness against related SARS-CoV-2 variants (no current data on delta variant)
    15:29 Vaccination rates across the United States
    17:04 What to do if you’re infected with COVID-19?


    Roger Seheult, MD is the co-founder and lead professor at
    He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine and an Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    5 Things To Know About the Delta Variant (Yale Medicine) |

    REACT-1 round 12 report: resurgence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in England associated with increased frequency of the Delta variant (Imperial College) |

    SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC in Scotland: demographics, risk of hospital admission, and vaccine effectiveness (The Lancet) |

    Vaccines highly effective against B.1.617.2 variant after 2 doses (GOV.UK) |

    Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against hospital admission with the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant (Public Health England) |

    Moderna Provides a Clinical Update on the Neutralizing Activity of its COVID-19 Vaccine on Emerging Variants Including the Delta Variant First Identified in India (Moderna) |

    How much protection COVID-19 vaccines give you against the Delta variant, according to the best available data (Business Insider) |

    The total number and mass of SARS-CoV-2 virions (NIH) |

    Covid vaccine: How many people in the UK have been vaccinated so far? (BBC News) |

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com (including more discussion on delta variant covid, delta plus variant COVID, COVID delta variant, and more).


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    DISCLAIMER:

    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.

    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2 #Coronavirus

  • Coronavirus Update 119: Pfizer BioNTech COVID Vaccine

    14:13

    Professor Roger Seheult, MD discusses details from the CDC that answer many COVID 19 vaccine related questions: Who will be the first to receive the COVID-19 vaccine in the United States? What if you've already had a COVID-19 infection? What type of side effects (or reactogenicity) are being reported? Can pregnant women or immunocompromised people get the vaccine? Is it ok to stop wearing a mask after I receive the vaccine? (This video was recorded on December 14, 2020).

    Roger Seheult, MD is the co-founder and lead professor at
    He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine and an Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    Johns Hopkins Tracker |

    Worldometer |

    Use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine: Clinical Considerations (CDC) |

    Find Your Place in the Vaccine Line (New York Times) |

    ACIP Evidence to Recommendations for Use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine under an Emergency Use Authorization (CDC) |

    COVID-19 ACIP Vaccine Recommendations (CDC) |

    CDC greenlights advisory group’s decision to recommend Pfizer vaccine for use (Washington Post) |

    THE MEDCRAM WEBSITE:

    Visit us for videos on over 60 medical topics and CME / CEs for medical professionals:


    SUBSCRIBE TO THE MEDCRAM YOUTUBE CHANNEL:


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    RECENT PREVIOUS COVID-19 UPDATES:

    Please visit MedCram.com for the full series:
    - Vitamin D and COVID 19: The Evidence for Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus (SARS CoV 2)
    - Coronavirus Update 118: AstraZeneca DNA COVID 19 Vaccine Explained (vs. Pfizer / BioNTech, Moderna)
    - Coronavirus Update 117: Moderna vs. Pfizer COVID 19 Vaccine (mRNA vaccines)
    - Coronavirus Update 116: Pfizer COVID 19 Vaccine Explained (Biontech)
    - Coronavirus Update 115: Convalescent Plasma vs Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID 19 Treatment
    - Coronavirus Update 114: COVID 19 Death Rate Drops; NAC (N acetylcysteine) Data
    - Coronavirus Update 113: Remdesivir May Not Work for COVID 19
    - Coronavirus Update 112: Linoleic Acid; Vaccines; UK COVID 19 Data
    - Coronavirus Update 111: Masks; New Vitamin D Data and COVID 19; NAC
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 110: Trump's Risk Factors and COVID-19 Prognosis; Interferon
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 109: New Data From Europe As COVID 19 Infections Rise
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 108: High Risk COVID 19 Behaviors; Cases Rise in Europe
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 107: Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID 19 Treatment and Prevention?

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com (including monoclonal antibody treatment vs convalescent plasma treatment, COVID vaccine, mRNA vaccine, COVID 19 prevention, Pfizer vaccine and Moderna vaccines, Biontech, AstraZeneca Oxford coronavirus vaccine, COVID 19 treatments, COVID-19 vaccine updates, and more).
    We offer over 60 medical topics (ECG Interpretation, DKA, influenza, measles, mechanical ventilation, etc.) on our website.


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    MedCram offers group discounts for students and a variety of medical programs, hospitals, and other institutions. Contact us at customers@medcram.com if you are interested.


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    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2

  • COVID-19: Is it OK to mix Pfizer and Moderna vaccines?

    1:50

    Dr. Peter Jüni, a member of Ontario’s COVID-19 Scientific Advisory Table, answers questions about COVID-19 vaccines including whether people should be concerned about mixing Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines.

    Watch The National live on YouTube Sunday-Friday at 9 p.m. ET

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  • Pfizer BioNTech vs Moderna Vaccine

    4:49

    Top 8 Vaccines for Covid-19


    In this video we have compared the two mRNA Vaccines for COVID-19.
    The Pfizer BioNTech Vaccine and Moderna Vaccine.
    The BioNTech technology for the BNT162b2 vaccine is based on use of nucleoside-modified mRNA (modRNA) which encodes a mutated form of the full-length spike protein found on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, triggering an immune response against infection by the virus protein.
    Moderna's technology uses a nucleoside-modified messenger RNA (modRNA) compound named mRNA-1273. Once the compound is inside a human cell, the mRNA links up with the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. The mRNA-1273 is encoded to trigger the cell into making a specific protein using the cell's normal manufacturing process. The vaccine encodes a version of the spike protein with a modification called 2P, in which the protein includes two stabilizing mutations in which the original amino acids are replaced with prolines,

  • Covid-19 vaccine side effects, explained

    1:51

    Vaccinations for Covid-19 are now underway in the U.S. Two vaccines – one from Pfizer and BioNTech, one from Moderna — have received emergency use authorizations by the Food and Drug Administration. Both vaccines have been deemed safe, but they can cause some short-term side effects. Vaccines are designed to invoke an immune response that builds protection without causing a serious infection. Traditionally, vaccines are made with viral material which prompts the immune system to mount a defense. This process releases chemicals that cause physical symptoms — such as pyrogens, which are inflammatory chemicals that can cause fever.

  • mRNA Vaccines - Layman’s version , plus some FAQs, Animation.

    4:48

    The basis of upcoming Pfizer and Moderna coronavirus RNA vaccines. How it works? Plus some FAQs: Does mRNA vaccine change my DNA? Why do people want me to take the vaccine?
    For comparison of different vaccines, as well as events of immune response, role of different immune cells (T-cells, B-cells, APC), see this video:
    This video is available for instant download licensing here:
    ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved.
    Support us on Patreon and get early access to videos and free image downloads: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia
    All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
    The purpose of a vaccine is to mimic an infection, activating the body’s immune response, but without causing the illness. Conventional vaccines usually contain a weakened or inactivated virus; or a piece of a viral protein, called an antigen. These viral elements do not cause disease, but they trick the immune system into thinking that an infection has occurred so that it responds by producing antibodies against the virus. RNA vaccines are a new generation of vaccines. Instead of a protein antigen, they contain mRNA, meaning messenger RNA. As its name suggests, mRNA is basically a messenger, carrying genetic message from DNA to protein. In order to function, a human cell needs to constantly produce proteins based on genetic information in its DNA. Because DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell, and protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm, an intermediate molecule is required to transmit the information. mRNA copies the information from DNA and brings it to the cytoplasm, where it is translated into protein. mRNA consists of 4 basic building blocks called A, U, C and G. The information it carries is the sequence of these letters. RNA vaccines contain mRNA strands that have the information for making the viral antigen, usually a viral spike protein. Once inside the body’s cells, the mRNA is translated into protein, the antigen, by the same process the cells use to make their own proteins. The antigen is then displayed on the cell surface where it is recognized by the immune system. From here, the sequence of events is similar to that of a conventional vaccine. RNA vaccines are easier and safer to produce than conventional vaccines. Conventional vaccines typically require growing large amounts of infectious viruses, usually in chicken eggs, and then inactivating them. Vaccines produced this way are at risks of being contaminated with LIVE viruses and allergens from egg culture. Such risks do NOT exist with RNA vaccines because mRNA molecules can be synthesized in a CELL-FREE system using a DNA template that contains information for making the viral protein. The mRNA is made from the same building blocks as natural mRNA, so it has the same chemical composition as natural mRNA. The relative simplicity of the production process makes it easier to standardize and scale, enabling rapid responses to emerging pandemics. In case the virus MUTATES, it’s also simple to change the mRNA sequence to match the mutation. Will RNA vaccines change my DNA? RNA vaccines do NOT change your DNA. This is because in order to do so, the mRNA must convert into DNA, enter the nucleus, and integrate into the cell’s DNA. This is a complex multiple-step process requiring action of several enzymes that the cell does NOT have. Instead, the cell has plenty of enzymes that can readily destroy the mRNA, so the mRNA is usually degraded after the protein is made. Why do people try so hard to convince others to take vaccine? The answer is herd immunity. When enough people in a community are vaccinated, the whole community, including the individuals that were not vaccinated, is protected against the disease. This phenomenon is known as herd immunity. Herd immunity is possible because a pathogen cannot spread without a sufficient number of vulnerable hosts. An analogy is the spread of wildfires. A wildfire only spreads where there is vegetation, or fuel, for it to burn; it would stop at a river, or a large open space. These are called firebreaks. Vaccinated individuals essentially serve as firebreaks, preventing spread of infections caused by pathogens. Herd immunity is important because not everyone can be vaccinated. Often, the very young, very old, and immunocompromised people must rely on vaccinated individuals to stop disease outbreaks. To note, however, that the number of vaccinated individuals must be great enough for community protection to occur, just like a firebreak must be large enough to stop a fire.

  • What to know about COVID-19 boosters Pfizer, Moderna, J&J | USA TODAY

    2:05

    FDA approved COVID-19 boosters for adults who had Pfizer and Moderna vaccines at least six months ago and J&J at least 2 months ago.

    RELATED:

    Mixing and matching vaccine brands is allowed.

    The J&J and Pfizer-BioNTech booster shots are identical to initial vaccines, while Moderna decided that a half-dose booster would be equally protective and lead to fewer side effects.

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    #COVID #Vaccine #Health

  • COVID-19 Vaccine: How Does It Affect Your Body?

    5:42

    For Employees of Hospitals, Schools, Universities and Libraries: Download 8 FREE medical animations from Nucleus by signing up for a free trial:

    Biology students: Subscribe to the Nucleus Biology channel to see new animations on biology and other science topics, plus short quizzes to ace your next exam:

    This video is a collaboration between Nucleus Medical Media and our friends at the What If Channel. To watch interesting hypothetical scenarios on the human body, humanity, the planet and the cosmos, please visit the What If Channel at


    This video explains what happens in your body when you get the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, including how the vaccine helps your immune system recognize and fight the COVID-19 virus, possible side effects from the vaccine, and how long before you are fully-vaccinated against the virus after receiving the vaccine.

    Hash tags: #CoronavirusVaccine #COVID19Vaccine #CoronavirusImmunization

  • COVID Vaccines VS Delta Variant: State of Texas Study

    20:11

    Roger Seheult, MD of MedCram on the large real world Texas COVID 19 study on coronavirus infections and deaths by vaccination status (Pfizer vs. Moderna. vs. Johnson and Johnson vs. no vaccine). View all Dr. Seheult's videos at:

    (This video is MedCram COVID 19 update 137 and was recorded on November 15, 2021)

    Roger Seheult, MD is the co-founder and lead professor at
    He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine and an Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    COVID-19 Cases And Deaths by Vaccination Status (Texas DSHS) |

    Coronavirus Cases (Worldometer) |

    Coronavirus Pandemic (Our World in Data) |


    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com (including more discussion on johnson and johnson vaccine, delta plus variant, COVID vaccine, texas department of state health services, astrazeneca vaccine second dose, the COVID delta variant, moderna, pfizer booster, vaccine rollout, blood clots, AstraZeneca second doses, moderna vaccine, and more).


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    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2 #Coronavirus

  • Pfizer vaccine covid | How it works, efficacy and side effects

    11:08

    Pfizer vaccine covid | How it works, efficacy and side effects - This lecture explains about the pfizer vaccine for covid 19 disease. This Pfizer covid vaccine is mRNA vaccine that helps to boost immunity. This lecture will explain how pfizer covid vaccine works. It also explains pfizer vaccine efficacy and pfizer vaccine side effects. Stay tuned to know answers to the following questions -
    What is Pfizer vaccine?
    How Pfizer vaccine works?
    Pfizer vaccine mode of action?
    What is the Pfizer vaccine mechanism?
    What is the Pfizer vaccine efficacy?
    What are the Pfizer vaccine side effects?
    Pfizer vaccine function?
    Get all the details about the Pfizer vaccine efficacy and side effects with this video lecture.
    For more information, log on to-

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  • AstraZeneca Second Doses vs Moderna and Pfizer COVID Vaccines

    8:04

    Roger Seheult, MD of MedCram discusses new AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccine data and compares second doses of the Oxford AZ vaccine with Pfizer and Modera vaccines. View all Dr. Seheult's videos at:

    (This video is MedCram COVID-19 update 136 and was recorded on November 9, 2021)

    Roger Seheult, MD is the co-founder and lead professor at
    He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine and an Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine: benefits and risks in context (European Medicines Agency) |

    Effectiveness of heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and mRNA prime-boost vaccination against symptomatic Covid-19 infection in Sweden: A nationwide cohort study (ScienceDirect) |

    Coronavirus Update 118: AstraZeneca DNA COVID 19 Vaccine Explained (vs. Pfizer / BioNTech, Moderna) (MedCram) |

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com (including more discussion on astrazeneca vaccine second dose, the COVID delta variant, moderna, pfizer booster, vaccine rollout, blood clots, AstraZeneca second doses, moderna vaccine, and more).


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    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2 #Coronavirus

  • How mRNA Vaccines Work - Simply Explained

    4:26

    mRNA vaccines have to potential to end the COVID19 pandemic. How do they work? Are they safe? And how could they've been developed so quickly?

    The main idea of mRNA vaccines is to trick our bodies to produce part of a virus. This kickstarts our immune response, without getting us sick. All that's needed is a part of the virus's DNA or RNA, packaged into mRNA. Cool!

    (mRNA is the technology behind the vaccines from Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna & CureVac)

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  • Moderna vs Pfizer: Which COVID-19 vaccine is better? | ABC News

    4:48

    Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccine is the third to be approved by Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia.

    As an mRNA vaccine, it’s remarkably similar to Pfizer’s version.

    But they have some key differences.

    Jeremy Fernandez explains how each vaccine works.

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  • Top 8 Vaccines for Covid-19 | Comparison

    3:29

    In this video we have discussed about the Vaccines globally present for the Covid-19.
    These 8 vaccines shows the efficacy of 60-90 % depending upon the variant we are targeting. The top 8 vaccines that we have currently present includes the :
    Pfizer BioNtech
    Moderna
    Johnson and Johnson
    Astrazeneca /Covisheild
    Sputnik V
    Novavax
    Covaxin
    Sinovac/Coronavac

  • mRNA Vaccines and how they work - Pfizer/Biontech, Moderna and co.

    2:43

    Hey Friends,

    You should have heard about Biontech/Pfizer or Moderna? Maybe you are already vaccinated. SARS-Cov-2 / Covid-19 brought a new technology into the spotlight.
    Now everyone talks about the new era of mRNA vaccines. But how do they work in our body? What is so special about the RNA molecule? This animation shows how mRNA vaccines work.

    References:


    If you want to have a detailed lecture about the new COVID-19 vaccines:

    Antigen Rapid Tests:

    Cheers
    Henrik

  • Singapore’s 3 COVID-19 Vaccines – And Is One Better Than The Others?

    3:40

    Singapore has ordered the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Sinovac vaccines as the first three of its portfolio in the fight against the coronavirus pandemic.

    ALSO WATCH: Is the vaccine safe? Your questions answered

    Both the Pfizer-BioNTech (also in use in Britain and the US) and Moderna (used in the US) vaccines use messenger RNA (mRNA) technology that involves injecting snippets of the COVID-19 genetic code, triggering an immune response without actually exposing the patient to the virus. Both vaccines are said to have an efficacy rate of about 95%.

    The China-made Sinovac vaccine uses an inactivated COVID-19 virus to trigger an immune response. There is a lack of specific results on its efficacy at the moment. As of January 7, 2020, the Sinovac vaccine has not been used in any country.

    Co-chair of the COVID-19 multi-ministry task force Lawrence Wong tells #TalkingPoint why the Singapore Government convened an expert panel as early as April 2020 to look into early purchases of COVID-19 vaccines based on early-stage clinical information.

    Director of communicable diseases at the Ministry of Health (MOH) Vernon Lee said “all the vaccines approved in Singapore are safe and efficacious”, but that some may be more suited to certain subpopulations. The Pfizer vaccine for instance - the only one in use in Singapore as of Jan 8 - is not for use in those with severe allergic reactions.

    ALSO WATCH:
    The Search For A COVID-19 Vaccine:
    Inside Coronavirus Human Vaccine Trials In Singapore:
    Is A Safe COVID-19 Vaccine By 2021 Really Possible?:


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  • How the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines compare

    2:30

    The two COVID-19 vaccines approved in Canada, Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna, both use new mRNA technology, but they differ on timing for the second shot, as well as storage and transportation requirements.

    Watch The National live on YouTube Sunday-Friday at 9 p.m. ET

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    The National is CBC's flagship nightly news program, featuring the day's top stories with in-depth and original journalism, with hosts Adrienne Arsenault and Andrew Chang in Toronto, Ian Hanomansing in Vancouver and the CBC's chief political correspondent, Rosemary Barton in Ottawa.

  • Pfizer or Moderna - which is more effective as a COVID-19 booster shot? Findings from an MOH study

    4:21

    A study by Singapore's Ministry of Health (MOH) found that taking a Moderna booster shot after two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine reduces the risk of COVID-19 infection slightly more than taking a third Pfizer shot.

    Health Minister Ong Ye Kung outlined some of the findings from the study in a news conference with journalists on Monday (Nov 15), adding that both mRNA vaccines work very well as boosters and can be used interchangeably. Read more:

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  • Comparing Johnson & Johnson Janssen Covid-19 Vaccine to Pfizer and Moderna

    2:19

    MCW associate professor Dr. Ben Weston shares his knowledge on the benefits, development technology, and the safety and efficacy of the Johnson & Johnson/Janssen COVID-19 vaccine.

    Find more information and resources regarding COVID-19 vaccines here:

    To read up-to-date and trustworthy news on the COVID-19 pandemic, visit:

    0:00 – Johnson & Johnson/Janssen Vaccine Overview and Benefits

    0:37 – Johnson & Johnson/Janssen Vaccine Development Technology

    1:23 – Johnson & Johnson/Janssen Vaccine Safety

  • Whats the difference between the major Covid-19 vaccines?

    9:50

    Subscribe to our YouTube channel for free here:


    Covid-19 plagued the world for most of 2020, but at the end of the year, vaccines developed and approved at record speed started to become available for use. With the largest vaccination drive in history under way, what are the differences between the Covid-19 vaccines? How effective are they? What are the potential side effects of some of the vaccines, what are the dosage requirements and how will they get to you? Here’s what you need to know about the Covid-19 vaccine front-runners.


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  • Whats the difference between Covid vaccines? - BBC News

    2:57

    The three Covid-19 vaccines, that have been approved in the UK, are from Pfizer-BioNTech, the University of Oxford and Astra-Zeneca and Moderna.

    The Pfizer, Oxford and Moderna vaccines each require two doses and you are not fully vaccinated until a week after your second shot.

    But there are many differences between them.

    BBC health correspondent Laura Foster looks at how much immunity they give, how they prevent infection and if any are better than the other.

    Video by Mel Lou, Laura Foster, Terry Saunders and Mattea Bubalo

    Please subscribe HERE

  • What Clinicians Need to Know About Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines

    59:23

    This COCA Call will give clinicians an overview of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines. Clinicians will learn about vaccine characteristics and administration, vaccinating special populations, and contraindications. They will also get answers to a number of clinical questions CDC has received about these new vaccines.

    This video can also be viewed at

  • Covid Breakthrough Cases - Is COVID Vaccine Effective Against DELTA VARIANT?

    5:16

    Covid Breakthrough Cases - Is COVID Vaccine Effective Against DELTA VARIANT?

    COVID Vaccine breakthrough cases are popping up in the news.
    Is the Delta Variant responsible for breakthrough infections?
    Do the Vaccines still work?

    COVID cases, hospitalizations, and deaths are on the rise again. Right now, there are 162 million Americans who are fully vaccinated. According to the CDC, less than two percent of people hospitalized with COVID are vaccinated. And get this - 99.5% of people who die of COVID did not get the vaccine.

    A COVID breakthrough infection is defined as someone who tests positive for COVID, with a PCR test, at least 14 days after being fully vaccinated. Several breakthrough infections have been reported at the White House, Congress, Olympics, Major League Baseball, and more. I’ve seen people with breakthrough infections in the ICU, but not nearly as much as COVID patients in the ICU who did not get the vaccine.

    Stanford is among nearly 600 universities and colleges nationwide that have required students and faculty to be vaccinated against COVID before coming back to campus this fall. Stanford 7 Vaccinated Students Get Symptomatic COVID in a week span.

    Even before the delta variant showed up, we knew that the vaccines aren’t 100% effective. Based on the original studies, we knew that the mRNA vaccines with Pfizer and Moderna were about 95% effective at preventing severe COVID illness. This means that percentage is even smaller when you’re talking about preventing mild or asymptomatic infections. But the important thing you want to know is how effective the vaccine is at preventing severe COVID illness.

    But that 95% effectiveness was based on the original strain of COVID. Now, the scarier and more contagious Delta variant makes just about all the COVID cases in the US.

    According to this recent study, when people are infected with the Covid Delta variant, they have about 1000 times more viruses than previous versions of the covid virus. So all that viral load has the potential to overwhelm the immune system of vaccinated people.

    Another study that was just published in the NEJM also showed that the delta variant is slightly more likely to cause breakthrough infections:
    Researchers found that after two doses of the Pfizer vaccine, it gave 88% protection against symptomatic disease caused by the covid delta variant, compared to 93% against the alpha variant that was first discovered in the UK.

    Both doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine offered 67% protection against symptomatic disease. According to the company, we’re still waiting on published numbers for the Moderna vaccine, but its vaccine remained effective against the different variants.

    The Johnson & Johnson vaccine might be less effective against the Delta Covid and Lambda covid variants, but that study is yet to be published. It might be that those who received the J&J vaccine may need to get Pfizer or Moderna to protect against the new variants. So stay tuned on that.

    We know that those vaccinated have milder Covid illness compared to unvaccinated if they become infected. This is based on another study published in the NEJM that looked at more than 3,900 essential workers. It shows that fully vaccinated people are more than 90% protected against infection. Even partially vaccinated people are 81% less likely to become infected than people who haven't had been inoculated.

    Vaccinated people appear to be less likely to spread the virus to others. After one or two doses of covid vaccine, those who got breakthrough infections had 40% less virus in their bodies and were 58% less likely to have a fever. They spent two fewer days in bed compared to unvaccinated Covid patients.

    Then there is the question if you’re asymptomatic and have been vaccinated, can you still spread the virus to others?
    We know the vaccine reduces the likelihood of carrying the virus. And if you are carrying the covid virus, we know that there would otherwise be a reduced viral load. So overall, it's less likely that you are transmitting the virus if you’re asymptomatic and you’ve been vaccinated. This is why the CDC says that fully vaccinated people still need to be tested if they have symptoms and shouldn't be out in public for at least 10 days after a positive test. This is actually being studied right now in 12,000 college students who received the Moderna vaccine.

    And what about those of you who are vaccinated and are concerned about getting a breakthrough infection?
    If you were to get COVID, it's way more likely to be a milder course of the disease if you are exposed to many people, especially if they’re not vaccinated; you can wear a mask. The kind of mask to wear is another topic, but even a regular face covering would still be better at decreasing transmission compared to no mask at all.

    Doctor Mike Hansen, MD
    Internal Medicine | Pulmonary Disease | Critical Care Medicine

    #vaccine #deltavariant #covidvaccine

  • Is The Sinovac Vaccine Effective Or Safer?

    3:12

    Is the Sinovac coronavirus vaccine safer than Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna? Does it protect against the COVID-19 Delta variant – and if you got this vaccine, would you need a booster shot of a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine?

    Public health and infectious disease experts, Dr Loh Jiashen from Farrer Park Hospital and Dr Danny Soon, Expert Committee on COVID-19 Vaccinations, Singapore answer questions on the safety and efficacy rates of Sinovac and distil the difference between the inactivated virus vaccine and the mRNA vaccine.

    Dr Dicky Budiman, policy adviser for COVID-19, Indonesia, also explains why healthcare workers in Indonesia are given booster shots of the Moderna vaccine after being vaccinated with Sinovac.

    00:00 Is Sinovac safe for me?
    00:14 Sinovac vs mRNA vaccine: Which is better? Is an inactivated virus vaccine safer?
    00:54 Does Sinovac protect against COVID-19 delta variants?
    01:29 Can I mix Sinovac with mRNA vaccines like Pfizer-BioNTech/Corminarty and Moderna? Should I get an mRNA booster vaccine?
    02:22 Is Sinovac in the National Vaccination programme?

    As of August 25, 2021, Sinovac is not part of the National Vaccination Programme and is not covered by the Vaccine Injury Financial Assistance Programme (VIFAP). Sinovac is only available under the Special Access Route, available at approved private clinics. (

    WATCH the full episode of #TalkingPoint How Effective Is Sinovac? Inactivated Virus VS mRNA Vaccine:

    ALSO WATCH:
    Why Do Vaccinated Folks Still Get COVID-19? 10+1 Common Vaccination Questions:
    Singapore’s 3 COVID-19 Vaccines – And Is One Better Than The Others?:
    Is The COVID-19 Vaccine Safe For Me? Your Questions Answered:

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  • What to know about Pfizer, Moderna and J&J COVID-19 vaccines

    2:55

    There are three COVID-19 vaccines authorized for emergency use in the U.S.: Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson. All three prevent severe disease and death but there are some differences on how each vaccine works. Here's what to know.

    Video by Daniel A. Varela / Miami Herald

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  • Pfizer, Moderna expect to know more on vaccines vs. omicron over the next few weeks

    3:23

    Meg Tirrell joins 'The Exchange' to discuss what she learned from her interviews with the Moderna and Pfizer CEOs this morning. For access to live and exclusive video from CNBC subscribe to CNBC PRO:

    The world’s major manufacturers of Covid-19 vaccines said Friday that they are working to quickly investigate and adapt their shots to a new and highly mutated strain of the virus.

    The World Health Organization on Friday said the new strain, named omicron, is a “variant of concern” that may pose a higher risk of reinfection than past mutations of the virus.

    Pfizer and BioNTech said they are investigating omicron, first labeled B.1.1.529, and can adapt their vaccine quickly if needed.

    “We understand the concern of experts and have immediately initiated investigations on variant B.1.1.529,” the companies said.

    Pfizer and BioNTech said they expect more data from lab tests in two weeks at the latest.

    “These data will provide more information about whether B.1.1.529 could be an escape variant that may require an adjustment of our vaccine if the variant spreads globally,” the companies said.

    Pfizer and BioNTech said they can adapt their mRNA vaccine within six weeks and start shipping batches within 100 days if an escape variant is identified.

    Johnson & Johnson on Friday said they were already testing their vaccine against omicron.

    “We are closely monitoring newly emerging COVID-19 virus strains with variations in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and are already testing the effectiveness of our vaccine against the new and rapidly spreading variant first detected in southern Africa,” J&J said.

    AstraZeneca said it is also investigating the variant. Its vaccine platform developed with Oxford University enables a quick response to new mutations as they emerge, the company said.

    “AstraZeneca is also already conducting research in locations where the variant has been identified, namely in Botswana and Eswatini,” the company said.

    Moderna, in a statement Friday, said the combination of mutations in the variant “represents a significant potential risk to accelerate the waning of natural and vaccine-induced immunity.”

    “A booster dose of an authorized vaccine represents the only currently available strategy for boosting waning immunity,” the company said.

    Moderna said it will test three booster candidates against omicron, including at a higher dosage level. The company will also develop a booster dose specific to the variant.

    “From the beginning, we have said that as we seek to defeat the pandemic, it is imperative that we are proactive as the virus evolves,” said Moderna CEO Stephane Bancel in a statement. “The mutations in the Omicron variant are concerning and for several days, we have been moving as fast as possible to execute our strategy to address this variant.”

    The variant, which emerged in South Africa, has about 50 mutations, more than 30 of which are on the spike protein that allows the virus to bind to human cells. The spread of the new variant is still in its early stages, and it’s not yet clear how severe an infection would be to a vaccinated person.

    Several European and Asian nations have suspended flights from southern Africa in response to the variant. The United Kingdom suspended flights on Thursday from six countries in the region, and the European Commission – the European Union’s executive body – told all 27 member states to halt travel from southern Africa.

    White House chief medical advisor Dr. Anthony Fauci on Friday said the U.S. is working with South African scientists to obtain the molecular makeup of the variant so lab tests can be conducted. Those tests would help determine whether or not the variant can evade antibody protection provided by the vaccines.

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