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The Geography of the Ice Age

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  • The Geography of the Ice Age

    15:28

    I definitely missed a couple things so find me on twitter @theatlaspro to see the full map for yourself!

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  • The BIOGEOGRAPHY of the Ice Age

    13:59

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    For the real map, check out my twitter @theatlaspro

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  • Americas Ice Age Explained | How the Earth Was Made | Full Episode | History

    44:23

    Why do we have ice ages and when is the next one? Chart the progress of different ice ages through the history of our planet, from Snowball Earth hundreds of millions of years ago to the recent ice ages, in Season 2, Episode 12, America's Ice Age. #HowtheEarthWasMade
    Subscribe for more from How the Earth Was Made and other great HISTORY shows:


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    HISTORY® goes to the ends of the earth to find where our world began. Forged from fire and ice, formed by floods, volcanoes, asteroids and earthquakes, our planet tells a dynamic geological story. What are mega-tsunamis? What happens when you have millions of years of rain? Visual effects, location filming and stunning aerial photography bring viewers back 4.5 billion years to enjoy a unique window on our world. How the Earth Was Made peels back time like layers of rock to reveal the origins of the place we call home.

    HISTORY® is the leading destination for award-winning original series and specials that connect viewers with history in an informative, immersive, and entertaining manner across all platforms. The network’s all-original programming slate features a roster of hit series, premium documentaries, and scripted event programming.

  • Planet Earth during the last Ice Age

    4:20

    Updated animated topographic model of the earth showing global elevations during the peak of the last ice age(without the ice sheets), about 18,000 years ago (when Sea Level was 110 meters below the present level).

    Superimposed with coastline borders and place names.
    Original map is available at the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) NOAA website.
    credit NOAA/NCEI

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  • What Causes an Ice Age?

    13:44

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  • How Ice Ages Happen: The Milankovitch Cycles

    6:35

    I made a follow up to this video explaining more:
    Many people are confused in thinking this has something to do with the global warming debate. This explains how the climate changes naturally over hundreds of thousands of years. This has nothing to do with the rise in temperatures over the past century. This video does not debunk global warming. It has little to do with that debate. Please see my follow up video.

    The Milankovitch Cycles are changes in the Earth's orbit and rotation that cause the Earth's climate to change over hundreds of thousands of years.

    For more information, I recommend Dan Britt's lecture on the history of climate:

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  • The Last Deglaciation in Europe : Every year

    10:19

    During the transition between the last glacial period and the actual warm interglacial (Holocene), the sea level rose by 120 m, flooding large parts of the continent, drastically upset the face of Europe.

    This animation was performed with generated pictures on RStudio (R coding language)

    References :

    Global sea level evolution :

    Caspian sea level evolution :


    Black sea level evolution :


    Post-glacial rebound dataset :


    Elevation and bathymetry rasters :


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  • The ice age | World Ahoy 1x36

    5:00

    Let’s learn about the Ice Age!
    Find out which was the temperature of our planet thousands of years ago and why it has changed over the time.

    Did you know there has been several cold periods on the earth?

    Educational, fun, imaginative animation series for children.
    Learning is fun! Culture is the best! World Ahoy is the Best Fun!
    Narrated and Subtitled in English.
    Learn General Culture in English... and learn English through General Culture.

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  • Could Global Warming Start A New Ice Age?

    12:59

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    Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License

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  • Creation of the Great Lakes | How the Earth Was Made | Full Episode | History

    45:13

    Join us as we highlight the trends that have defined us from the 1920s to now in History by the Decade -

    The Great Lakes of North America are the largest expanse of fresh water on the planet. Searching for clues of their formation, our geologists delve deep into an underground salt mine, in Season 1, Episode 7, Great Lakes. #HowtheEarthWasMade
    Subscribe for more from How the Earth Was Made and other great HISTORY shows:


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    Check out exclusive HISTORY content:
    History Newsletter -
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    HISTORY goes to the ends of the earth to find where our world began. Forged from fire and ice, formed by floods, volcanoes, asteroids and earthquakes, our planet tells a dynamic geological story. What are mega-tsunamis? What happens when you have millions of years of rain? Visual effects, location filming and stunning aerial photography bring viewers back 4.5 billion years to enjoy a unique window on our world. How the Earth Was Made peels back time like layers of rock to reveal the origins of the place we call home.

    HISTORY® is the leading destination for award-winning original series and specials that connect viewers with history in an informative, immersive, and entertaining manner across all platforms. The network's all-original programming slate features a roster of hit series, premium documentaries, and scripted event programming.

  • When will the next ice age happen? - Lorraine Lisiecki

    5:07

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    Throughout Earth’s history, climate has varied greatly. For hundreds of millions of years, the planet had no polar ice caps. Without this ice, the sea level was 70 meters higher. At the other extreme, about 700 million years ago, Earth became almost entirely covered in ice, during an event known as “Snowball Earth.” What causes these swings in the planet’s climate? Lorraine Lisiecki investigates.

    Lesson by Lorraine Lisiecki, animation by CUB Animation.

    Thank you so much to our patrons for your support! Without you this video would not be possible! Rishi Pasham, Jhuval , SookKwan Loong, Daniel Day, Nick Johnson, Bruno Pinho, Javier Aldavaz, Rodrigo Carballo, Marc Veale, Boytsov Ilya, Bozhidar Karaargirov, maxi kobi einy, Misaki Sato, Craig Sheldon, Andrew Bosco, Catherine Sverko, Nik Maier, Mark Morris, Tamás Drávai, Adi V, Peter Liu, Leora Allen, Hiroshi Uchiyama, Michal Salman, Julie Cummings-Debrot, Gilly , Ka-Hei Law, Maya Toll, Aleksandar Srbinovski, Ricardo Rendon Cepeda, Renhe Ji, Andrés Melo Gámez, Tim Leistikow, Moonlight , Shawar Khan, Chris , Megan Douglas, Barbara Smalley, Filip Dabrowski, Joe Giamartino, Clair Chen, Vik Nagjee, Karen Goepen-Wee, Della Palacios, Bryan Blankenburg, Bah Becerra, Stephanie Perozo, Marc Bilodeau, Ruby Solorzano, and Ivan Tsenov.

  • Ice Age: Continental Drift | Ice Age 4: Scrat Continental Crack Up HD | Fox Family Entertainment

    2:41

    Scrat’s nutty pursuit of the cursed acorn, which he’s been after since the dawn of time, has world changing consequences – a continental cataclysm that triggers the greatest adventure of all for Manny, Diego and Sid. In the wake of these upheavals, Sid reunites with his cantankerous Granny, and the herd encounters a ragtag menagerie of seafaring pirates determined to stop them from returning home.

    Featuring: Aziz Ansari, Denis Leary, Jennifer Lopez, John Leguizamo, Josh Peck, Queen Latifah, Ray Romano, Seann Scott

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    Ice Age: Continental Drift | Ice Age 4: Scrat Continental Crack Up HD | Fox Family Entertainment

  • What if the Ice Age Never Ended?

    8:40

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    Now that winter has come down, and Christmas is upon us, it's time to be festive. My version of festive is imagine if the Ice Age simply continued in a short video. In this scenario I wonder if the glaciers never disappeared. Would people still have civilizations? Would mammoths still exist? Would North America be colonized?

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    Music by Holfix:

    Pictures by:
    Ice Earth: Ittiz
    Painting of megafauna: Mauricio Antón
    Ice Climate pic by NOAA
    Cathedral by Benjamin Hollis
    Kazach steppe by Carol A
    Grassland by Ramon FVelasquez
    Camel by Jjron
    Mixed Forest by Dennis84
    Wooly mammoth and mastodon by Dantheman9758
    Short face bear skull by Ryan Somma
    Snow emergency in Minneapolis by Andrew Ciscel

  • Neanderthals 101 | National Geographic

    4:21

    Who were the neanderthals? Do humans really share some of their DNA? Learn facts about Neanderthal man, the traits and tools of Homo neanderthalensis, and how the species fits into our evolution story.
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  • Earths climate is cyclical as new study claims an ice age is coming

    6:21

    Geologist and earth scientist Professor Ian Plimer says the “climate is cyclical” as a new study claims Earth is heading to an ice age.

    “We are getting towards the end of the warm period, the peak of the warmth was about 5,000 years ago and we are heading for the next inevitable ice age,” he told Sky News host Cory Bernardi.

    Professor Plimer says every occurrence of icebergs expanding and shrinking happened with “more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere than now”.

    “To use the word ‘unprecedented’ shows you have expunged history and geology from your knowledge.”

  • Climate 101: Glaciers | National Geographic

    4:06

    Glaciers appear on almost every continent. However, they are rapidly melting due to the warming climate. Find out how glaciers form and other interesting facts about glaciers.
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    National Geographic is the world's premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what's possible.

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    Climate 101: Glaciers | National Geographic


    National Geographic

  • 360° Antarctica - Journey Through The Ice | National Geographic

    2:00

    Crash through a frozen ocean as we take you to Antarctica to come face to face with the curious locals that call this spectacular continent home.
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    National Geographic is the world's premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what's possible.

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    Produced by BLACK DOT FILMS VR for National Geographic Partners.
    © 2016 National Geographic

    360° Antarctica - Journey Through The Ice | National Geographic


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  • What Would An Ice Age Look Like?

    4:29

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  • Scotese Plate Tectonics Paleogeography & Ice ages

    1:40

    This is my latest video that shows plate motions, changing sea level, mountain building, and ice ages. To find out how the maps were made go to:

    Though similar to my previous animations, this one is very different in three ways:
    1) a more realistic rendition of sea level change, 2) a more accurate illustration of ice cap growth and contraction, and 3) the ability to easily add geographic details that travel with the continents (e.g., red dot for Chicago).

    Let me know what kinds of geographic details that you would like to see added to the map to make the animation more interesting and informative. In the next version I will be adding color dots for the following cities: New York, Anchorage, Rio de Janeiro, Cairo, Capetown, London, Paris, Moscow, Mumbai, Sydney, Kuala Lumpur, Beijing, Shanghai, Tehran, and a few others.

    This animation was made using Adobe After Effects and Gplates , see for more info.

    Please cite this animation as: Scotese, C.R., 2019. Plate Tectonics, Paleogeography, and Ice Ages, YouTube video:

    - Chris Scotese

  • Why South Americas Geography is Way Weirder Than You Think

    6:53

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  • When the Sahara Was Green

    8:35

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    The climate of the Sahara was completely different thousands of years ago. And we’re not talking about just a few years of extra rain. We’re talking about a climate that was so wet for so long that animals and humans alike made themselves at home in the middle of the Sahara.

    Big thanks to Fabrizio De Rossi for the reconstructions of the Sahara past and present. Check out more of Fabrizio's work at

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios:

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    Anthony Callaghan, Anton Bryl, Jeff Graham, shelley floryd, Laura Sanborn, Henrik Peteri, Zachary Spencer, Chandler Bass, Richard Ohnemus, Joao Ascensao, Andrey, Ben Thorson, Marcus Lejon, Ilya Murashov, Nathan Paskett, Jerrit Erickson, Merri Snaidman, David Sewall, Gabriel Cortez, Jack Arbuckle, Kevin Griffin, Robert Noah, Philip Slingerland, Todd Dittman, James Bording, Eric Vonk, Robert Arévalo, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Jon Monteiro, Missy Elliott Smith, Jonathan Wright, Gregory Donovan, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, PS, Maria Humphrey, Larry Wilson, Hubert Rady, John Vanek, Tsee Lee, Daisuke Goto, Gregory Kintz, Matt Parker, Tyson Cleary, Case Hill, Stefan Weber, Betsy Radley

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  • How To Survive the Little Ice Age

    11:22

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    Nunalleq, a village in what’s today southwest Alaska, seemed to have thrived during the Little Ice Age. How did this village manage to survive and prosper during this time period? And what caused this period of climate change in the first place?

    Check out the Nunalleq Archaeology Project's incredible educational resource: as well as their blog:

    Special thanks to Qanirtuuq Native Village Corporation, University of Aberdeen and 3DVisLab University of Dundee for providing us with incredible footage and animations for this episode. Illustrations/animations/footage from the Nunalleq Archaeology Project are by Alice Watterson, with characters by Tom Paxton.

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  • How Earth Would Look If All The Ice Melted

    2:45

    We learned last year that many of the effects of climate change are irreversible. Sea levels have been rising at a greater rate year after year, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates they could rise by another meter or more by the end of this century.

    As National Geographic showed us in 2013, sea levels would rise by 216 feet if all the land ice on the planet were to melt. This would dramatically reshape the continents and drown many of the world's major cities.

    MORE EARTH SCIENCE CONTENT:
    What If All The Ice Melted Overnight

    Why Bees Going Extinct Could Mean No More Ice Cream Or Avocados

    What If The Earth Stopped Orbiting The Sun


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    How Earth Would Look If All The Ice Melted

  • Ice Age Islands: Early Humans and Long-Term Climate Change in Northwest Europe w/ Dr Matt Pope

    53:54

    Jersey International Centre of Advanced Studies and University College Jersey present the University Lecture Series. 'Ice Age Islands: Early Humans and Long-Term Climate Change in Northwest Europe' w/ Dr Matt Pope (University College London).

    For information on all JICAS events - past, present and future - visit

  • Where are we in the Milankovitch Cycles?

    4:29

    This is a follow up to my previous video about the Milankovitch cycles: It explains where we are within the cycles now and how this relates to greenhouse gases. For more information, I recommend:

    Ruddiman, Fuller, Kutzbach, Tzedakis, Kaplan, Ellis, Vavrus, Roberts, Fyfe, He, Lemmen, Woodbridge. (2015). Late Holocene Climate: Natural or Anthropogenic?. Reviews of Geophysics. 54.

  • What if the Next Ice Age Started on Time?

    17:03

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    Link to my Patreon, cool maps and the first 11 chapters of my history of the world and the first three of my Cultural History of America. Exclusive videos coming out.

  • Ice Age/ Interglacial Cycle

    32

    Ice Age/Interglacial Cycle
    During the last Ice Age, approximately one-third of all land was covered by glaciers. Glaciers reached as far south as New York City. This huge volume of ice reduced the amount of water in the oceans, which lowered sea level by several hundred feet. As a result, a land bridge joined Siberia to Alaska, making travel between the two continents possible.

    For more information on global climate change, visit the Koshland Science Museum's exhibit Global Warming: Facts and Our Future.

  • Massive Crater Discovered Under Greenland Ice

    4:30

    In a remote area of northwest Greenland, an international team of scientists has made a stunning discovery, buried beneath a kilometer of ice. It’s a meteor impact crater, 300 meters deep and bigger than Paris or the Beltway around Washington, DC. It is one of the 25 largest known impact craters on Earth, and the first found under any of our planet’s ice sheets. The researchers first spotted the crater in July 2015, while they were inspecting a new map of the topography beneath Greenland's ice sheet that used ice-penetrating radar data primarily from Operation IceBridge, an ongoing NASA airborne mission to track changes in polar ice, and earlier NASA airborne missions in Greenland.

    Read more:

    This video is public domain and along with other supporting visualizations can be downloaded from the Scientific Visualization Studio at:

    Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Jefferson Beck

    Footage and co-production courtesy of the National History Museum of Denmark/University of Copenhagen, the Underground Channel, and the Alfred Wegener Institute

    Music credit: Timelapse Variations - Remixed
    Natalie Draper, Composer
    Original recording: Symphony Number One, SNOtone Records
    Dan Rorke, Audio Engineer
    Jordan Smith, Music Director



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  • A Brief History of Geologic Time

    12:08

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    By looking at the layers beneath our feet, geologists have been able to identify and describe crucial episodes in life’s history. These key events frame the chapters in the story of life on earth and the system we use to bind all these chapters together is the Geologic Time Scale.

    Thanks to Studio 252mya for their illustrations. You can find more of their work here:

    Produced for PBS Digital Studios.

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    Steno, N. (1916). 1669: De solido intra solidum naturaliter contento dissertationis prodromus. Florence, 78p.
    Hancock, Paul L; Skinner, Brian J, Oxford Companion to the Earth, Oxford University Press, 2000

    Addition to image credits: some footage from this episode is from VideoBlocks.com

  • The Geography of The Ice Age

    3:55

  • National Geographic - Beginning Of An Ice Age

    3:31

    Ice Age
    Volcano Eruption

  • What is an Ice Age?

    2:09

    Hi, I'm Emerald Robinson. In this What Is video we're going to take a closer look at ice ages.

    In 1840, Swiss scientist Louis Agassiz noticed glaciers--huge rivers of ice created by snowfall--occurred throughout northern Europe. As glaciers move they transport rocks and scour the ground beneath them, leaving evidence of their passing. Agassiz theorized glaciers were the remnants of a huge glacial ice field that once covered much of the continent. Geologic evidence of massive glacial activity also occurs in North America.

    Agassiz had discovered evidence of the last ice age, a period of time when glacial ice fields extended across large sections of the planet. Geologists have evidence of three ice ages--more properly called glacial ages. The oldest occurred 275 million years ago. The second, which affected parts of Africa, India and Australia, occurred 275 million years ago.

    The last glacial age, and the only one to occur since humans appeared, began 1.5 million years ago, and receded 15,000 years ago. During that time the Laurentide ice field covered all of Canada and extended as far south as Indiana.

    Glacial ages have enormous effects on the plant's weather patterns, animals and plant life. Animals that cannot adapt to the colder environments die out. Similarly, animals that adapt to cold environments may not survive the change when glaciers recede.

    The Milankovich theory, by astronomer Milutin Milankovich, suggests variations in the earth's orbit account for glacial ages. Instead of orbiting the sun in a constant pattern, the earth wobbles. Over millions of years this wobbling affects global temperatures. As glacial ice fields spread, snow and ice reflect sunlight that would otherwise warm the earth, causing further drops in cold temperatures. Low levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can also contribute to a glacial age.

  • Answers for questions on Ice Age/Ice age Full Movie/How Ice age happens/The Geography of Ice age

    4:14

    #Nature#Hub#

    All the answers are given for all the questions based on the Ice age Era.
    An ice age is a period of colder global temperatures that features recurring glacial expansion across the Earth's surface. Come and see the Ice age with the help of the Digital Media

    Subscribe my other Channel:
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  • PlateTectonics & Ice Ages - Scotese Animation 022116a

    6:35

    This animation shows the plate tectonic and paleogeographic evolution of the Earth back to 540 million years. It also shows the major ice ages at : 20,000 years, 300 years, and 445 million years.

    This animation should be cited as:
    Scotese, C.R., 2016. Plate Tectonics, Paleogeography, and Ice Ages, (Modern World - 540Ma), YouTube Animation

  • The Ice Age: A Very Short Introduction | Jamie Woodward

    3:49

    Jamie Woodward, author of The Ice Age: A Very Short Introduction, gives his top 10 things you should know about the Ice Age.

    Jamie Woodward is Professor of Physical Geography at The University of Manchester. He has published widely on Quaternary environmental change and human activity in ice age environments and has extensive field experience in the Mediterranean region and in the Nile Valley. He is the Co-Editor of Geoarchaeology: An International Journal and is the Quaternary Science and Geomorphology Editor for the Journal of the Geological Society of London He has recently co-authored four chapters and edited The Physical Geography of the Mediterranean for OUP (2009).

    © Oxford University Press

  • Ice Ages & Climate Cycles

    6:16

    This video describes the characteristics of ice ages during the last billion years. We discuss why ice ages happened and how and why climate varies in short-term climate cycles during ice ages. We introduce the term albedo and use it to consider how the glacial system is affected by feedbacks that can either increase or reduce the volume of glacial ice.

    Visit our blog for free assessment questions about the content in this video:

  • Plate tectonics, Paleogeography, & Ice Ages

    6:30

    Scotese's newest animation. More Info to come soon.


    Music: Canon in D Major by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
    Source: 
    Artist: 

  • An ancient ocean in Ice Age Eurasia: Every 5 years

    7:13

    During the Ice Age, an ocean lasted during 50,000 years in Eurasia. One human could going down the Danube river from Germany, to reach Himalaya, or Arctic Ocean or Baikal lake using the greatest hydrological basin of all time.
    When three inner seas were an unique paleo-ocean.

    Modelling performed on Rstudio

    --------------------------------------------------
    SOURCES:
    Views from space : Outerra Anteworld

    West Siberian ice-dammed lake :



    Aral Sea paleolevel :



    Caspian Sea paleolevel:



    Black Sea paleolevel :



    Global sea-level :


    --------------------------------------------
    Other Paleo Mapping videos


    Soundtrack :
    Elite Dangerous - exploring imperial space
    Vortex Mechanics - Saturn rings travelers

  • Introduction to the Ice Ages

    3:59

    I am pleased to offer a new HD motivational trailer choreographed to powerful music, introducing students to the Ice Ages. It is designed as a dramatic inspirational trailer to be shown by teachers in middle school, high school and college as a visual Introduction to the incredible process by which ice freezes on Earth to form eon-long Ice Ages. Students will love its drama and want to learn more about the cold times of our planet.

    Subscribe to my channel at to see all of my exciting video trailers in Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, Astronomy, Physics and Math. I will be releasing new ones periodically.

    The music is a blend of themes from the movie, What Lies Beneath.

    Please rate this video and leave a written comment. If you like it, please help me spread the word by posting links to it on your school and social media websites. The more students and teachers who can enjoy these dramatic videos, the better!

    I wish to thank all the quality video and music producers whose postings enabled me to produce this video for educational use.

    To best enjoy this video, view on a big screen and turn up your speakers. The music is powerful and dramatic!

    I can customize this video to add your name or school name at the end credits, for a very modest fee. If interested, email me at fsgregs@comcast.net.

    Stream this video into your classroom, or some browsers now offer extensions that will enable you to download this video from YouTube.

  • Ice Age People in Florida? | National Geographic

    5:06

    People may have lived in Florida over 10,000 years ago—earlier than previously thought—according to evidence uncovered by National Geographic researchers.
    ➡ Subscribe:

    About National Geographic:
    National Geographic is the world's premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what's possible.

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    Ice Age People in Florida? | National Geographic


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  • Ice Ages

    42:20

    Jane Francis, Richard Corfield and Carrie Lear join Melvyn Bragg to discuss ice ages, periods when a reduction in the surface temperature of the Earth has resulted in ice sheets at the Poles. Although the term 'ice age' is commonly associated with prehistoric eras when much of northern Europe was covered in ice, we are in fact currently in an ice age which began up to 40 million years ago. Geological evidence indicates that there have been several in the Earth's history, although their precise cause is not known. Ice ages have had profound effects on the geography and biology of our planet. With: Jane Francis Professor of Paleoclimatology at the University of Leeds Richard Corfield Visiting Research Fellow in the Department of Earth Sciences at Oxford University Carrie Lear Senior Lecturer in Palaeoceanography at Cardiff University. Producer: Thomas Morris.

  • Humans and the Ice Age

    4:19

    The entire history of humanity has been shaped by changing patterns of glacial advances and retreats.

    Get a glimpse into past human populations and their relationship to their cold environment. Discover some adaptations of Neanderthals. See artifacts of past Arctic societies.

    This is one of four Science Moment videos relating to content in the exhibition, Planet Ice: Mysteries of the Ice Ages.

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  • The Last Ice Age

    3:19

    Visit Study.com for thousands more videos like this one. You'll get full access to our interactive quizzes and transcripts and can find out how to use our videos to earn real college credit. YouTube hosts only the first few lessons in each course. The rest are at Study.com. Take the next step in your educational future and graduate with less debt and in less time.

  • Earth Millions of Years Ago

    7:40

    What was earth like millions of years ago? Could you live during the dinosaur era? Let's find out in this episode of The Infographics Show - Earth Millions of Years Ago ⭐ SUBSCRIBE: ⭐

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  • Saving the Bay - The Formation of San Francisco Bay

    3:34

    The San Francisco Bay as we know it is a very young landform in geologic time, formed at the end of the last ice age by rising sea levels.

    For more information, go to:
    Presented by KQED Public Media.

  • Introduction - Footprints of the Ice Age: part 1 of 14

    7:56

    This documentary describes effects of the last ice age - the Laurentide - on Upstate New York. This segment is an overview of Upstate's geological and ecological history. It includes a fossil-hunting expedition to Quarry Farm by a paleobiology class at Elmira College. Quarry farm is the famous American humorist Mark Twain's 19th century summer home near Elmira, NY.
    Excerpted from the television documentary Footprints of the Ice Age: The Laurentide Ice Sheet in Upstate New York produced and narrated by Michael S. Ameigh. This program premiered on WCNY-PBS Syracuse, NY April 19, 2009.

  • ‘Nick From Home’ Livestream #37 - Ice Age Erratics

    1:36:42

    CWU's Nick Zentner from his home in Ellensburg, Washington on Wednesday, May 6, 2020 during the global coronavirus pandemic. Missoula Floods erratics, Waterville Plateau, Lake Lewis, surface exposure dating, etc.

  • PREVIEW: Heat island, Britains landscapes from the Ice Age to the Shard - Nicholas Cr

    5:23

    Drawing on a lifetime exploring British landscapes, Nicholas describes how we have modified our habitat since the tundra thawed 12,000 years ago and why we should value our island story.

    This is a five minute preview of Nicholas Crane's lecture at the Society on 10 October 2016. Join us to watch this lecture in full, and many more.

  • BIGGEST Beasts from the Ice Age

    13:17

    These are the most amazing creatures from the ice age! These top largest ice age beasts are amazing

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    #7 Aurochs (3,300 pounds) (ow-rocks)
    This large species of wild cattle is extinct, but they had a long run. Animals in the wild were around from the early Pleistocene until the 17th century. They roamed North Africa, Europe, and Asia and could attain huge sizes. Weighing more than 3,300 pounds (1,500 kg) they would have been about the size of Gaur (gow-ur), which are today’s largest extant bovines. Their horns had a distinctive size and curvature, reaching over 30 inches long (80 cm). Throughout their history, these bovines gained cultural significance and were valued as game animals. Anyone caught poaching an Auroch would be put to death. Researchers say these beasts were domesticated in certain parts of the world around 10,000 years ago. Thanks to that, Aurochs are regarded as the wild ancestor of today’s cattle. In a sense, you could say the prehistoric creatures still live on in a domesticated form.




    #6 Arctotherium (4,000 pounds)
    The ancestors of these Giant Short Faced Bears migrated south from North America during the Great American Interchange more than 2.5 million years ago. Arctotherium inhabited Central and South America during the Pleistocene and probably died out around 11,000 years ago. Researchers say this animal could have weighed around 4,000 pounds (1,814 kg). When standing upright they could have reached at least 11 feet (3.4 m). Those proportions would make them not only the largest bears ever, but also one of the largest carnivorous mammals ever found on land. Did you know that their common name was inspired by the shape of their snouts? Compared to other bears, they can appear unusually short.




    #5 Glyptodon (glip-tuh-don) (4400 pounds)
    This animal is often described as Volkswagen Beetle with a flattened top. They were large, armored mammals related to armadillos that died out about 11,000 years ago. These beasts weighed about 4,400 pounds (2 metric tons), measured 11 feet long (3.3 m), and stood about 5 feet high (1.5 m). Along with squat limbs, it had a bony rounded shell which had a turtle-like shape. Researchers say the animal’s shells may have been used by humans as shelter against hostile weather. If so, that activity may have been a factor in their extinction.











    #4 Elasmotherium (elaz-moe-THEER-ee-um) (8,000 pounds)
    This animal was native to Eurasia, first appearing more than 2.5 million years ago. The creature was covered in shaggy fur, and is considered to be the largest rhinoceros. They measured around 20 feet (6 m), while weighing about 8,000 pounds (3,629 kg)! Of the three species known, one was nearly the size of a mammoth. Experts think it had a huge, thick horn located on its forehead, although its exact purpose is unknown. Some theories speculate it could have been used for attracting mates, self-defense, or digging for water and plants. They’re thought to have existed as late as 29,000 years ago.






    #3 Stegomastodon (10,400 pounds)
    Despite the name, these animals weren’t the same as mastodons. Nor were they the same as Stegodons. All those creatures belong to separate Proboscidean (pro-bo-sid-ee-uhn) families, which we’ll talk about more in another segment. These animals were smaller by comparison. They stood about 8.5 feet tall (2.6 m) and weighed around 10,400 pounds (4.7 metric tons). Similar to modern elephants, Stegomastodon had two upward curving tusks that could measure 11.5 feet long (3.5 m). Experts say it would have ranged throughout North America, and possibly into South America.








    #2 Woolly Mammoth (13,000 pounds)
    Geneticists say that these prehistoric beasts are more closely related to Asian elephants than they are to African elephants. But in terms of average size, they more closely resemble the African Bush species. Woolly Mammoths stood more than 11 feet (3.5 m) high at the shoulder and weighed more than 13,000 pounds (6.6 metric tons). Their ivory tusks could measure 14 feet (4.2 m), and weigh over 200 pounds (90 kg). Long, thick fur enabled the animals to survive cold, harsh habitats that ranged from North America to northern Asia. Evidence that humans coexisted with these animals is confirmed by their depictions in cave art that dates back some 35,000 years. Researchers say that the last populations were found on Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean only 4,000 years ago!


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  • Ice Age Dawn Of The Dinosaurs EP 10: The Geography, Linda - KSS

    15:40

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