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The Inner Secrets of Planets and Star - Formation of the Solar System Documentary

  • The Inner Secrets of Planets and Star - Formation of the Solar System Documentary

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    In the beginning - before the 1920s, these words had no place in our scientific understanding of the universe. Astronomers believed the cosmos to be eternal and unchanging. We knew of only one galaxy and a few million visible stars, and this was the scope of our observable universe.

    Then astronomer Edwin Hubble observed, courtesy of redshift, distant galaxies speeding away from each other and formulated Hubble's Law to explain the universe's uniform expansion. Redshift just refers to a distant celestial body's shift toward longer, or redder, wavelengths, compliments of the Doppler effect.

  • The Formation of the Solar System in 4K

    6:17

    In beautiful 4K resolution, the story of how our Earth was formed four and a half billion years ago told from the perspective of an asteroid called Bennu (which has survived until now). NASA has sent a satellite to study Bennu and help us learn more about the beginning of our solar system.

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    Earth intro:

  • History of the Planets in Solar System Documentary The Universe

    48:40

    To the Greeks and Romans there were seven known planets, each presumed to be circling Earth according to the complex laws laid out by Ptolemy. They were, in increasing order from Earth (in Ptolemy's order and using modern names): the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn

  • Secrets of the Universe | The Solar System

    15:38

    Simple moving pictures explains the origin and workings their Solar System to the ignorant and superstitious native Earthlings.
    #secretsoftheuniverse #solarsystem #science

    ►Credit:
    Mark Leslie - Director, Scriptwriter
    Peter Whittaker - Graphic Animator

  • Sun 101 | National Geographic

    5:01

    The sun keeps the planets in its orbit with a tremendous gravitational force. What would happen if it disappeared entirely? Learn about the star at the center of our solar system, and how it is critical to all life as we know it.
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  • The Beginning and Evolution of the Universe - How to Search for Exoplanets Documentary

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    We are entering a new era in research. The synergy of technological advancement and scientific discovery enables a new approach to solving the universe's greatest mysteries. Through the world of particle physics, we see the great machines and the global collaborations working together in a unified quest. A diversity of people, a diversity of machines.

    Theoretically, in a Universe where the density of matter is high, clusters of galaxies would continue to grow and so, on average, should contain more mass now than in the past.

    Most astronomers believe that we live in a low-density Universe in which a mysterious substance known as ‘dark energy’ accounts for 70% of its content, and therefore, pervades everything.

  • Biggest Secrets of the Cosmos | Documentary | Major Discoveries that Changed Astrophysics

    37:02

    The telescope also began a series of discoveries concerning black holes. It spotted evidence of a Type 2 quasar black hole emanating X-rays behind a thick sheet of material that previously hid the black hole's existence.

    Later, scientists announced a possible new kind of black hole in the galaxy M82. From eight months of observations, the scientists said the black hole could represent an evolutionary stage between small black holes formed from stars, and the much more massive ones lurking in the centers of galaxies.

    The black hole in M82 packs the mass of at least 500 suns into a region about the size of the moon, NASA wrote in September 2000.

    Such a black hole would require extreme conditions for its creation, such as the collapse of a 'hyperstar' or the merger of scores of black holes.


    Possible dark matter and other findings
    Astronomers are on a continual hunt for dark matter, which is believed to be practically invisible stuff that makes most of the universe. So far, we can only detect it through its gravity.

    In 2006, a team of astronomers spent more than 100 hours using Chandra to watch the galaxy cluster 1E0657-56, which contains gas from a galaxy cluster collision. Chandra's observations were combined with that of several other observatories.

    Researchers examined the effect the galaxy cluster had on gravitational lensing, which is a known way that gravity distorts the light from background galaxies. Their observations of the gravity showed that normal matter and dark matter ripped apart during the galaxy collision.

    While the dark matter search continues, Chandra has been used to find other missing matter. In 2010, researchers used Chandra and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton observatory, probing a reservoir of gas resting along a wall of galaxies about 400 million light-years away from Earth.

    Scientists found evidence of baryons, which are electrons, protons and other particles that compose matter found through much of our universe. The researchers suspected the gas would contain a significant amount of this matter.

    While scientists continue to probe the nature of matter, Chandra continues to produce stunning pictures that also reveal the structure of the universe. These pictures include a survey of planetary nebulas and a fast-growing galaxy cluster, as well as a superbubble found in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    In 2013, Chandra detected a record-breaking outburst from the Milky Way's supermassive black hole, an object known as Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At the time, astronomers were observing how Sgr A* would react to what was then suspected to be a cloud of gas but later determined to be a cloud surrounding a compact object. While G2 didn't produce the fireworks scientists hoped for, scientists did spot a megaflare that was 400 times brighter than the black hole's normal quiescent state, three times brighter than the previous record holder.

    If an asteroid was torn apart, it would go around the black hole for a couple of hours – like water circling an open drain – before falling in, Fred Baganoff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts, said in a statement. That's just how long we saw the brightest X-ray flare last, so that is an intriguing clue for us to consider.

    Another theory suggests that the magnetic field lines within G2 became tangled as they flowed toward Sgr A*. The occasional reconfiguration of the field lines produces a bright x-ray outburst similar to magnetic flares seen on the sun.

    In 2017, Chandra was one of several instruments that picked up a pulse of high-energy light from the powerful explosion caused by two merging neutron stars. Observations with the National Science Foundation's Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) had spotted gravitational waves tied to the collision, encouraging scientists to hunt for signs of the explosion's aftermath.

    This is extremely exciting science, Paul Hertz, director of NASA's Astrophysics Division, said in a statement. Now, for the first time, we've seen light and gravitational waves produced by the same event. The detection of a gravitational-wave source's light has revealed details of the event that cannot be determined from gravitational waves alone. The multiplier effect of study with many observatories is incredible

  • PLUTO AND BEYOND - A Travelers Guide to the Planets | Full Documentary

    50:00

    Pluto is so far away from Earth that it is a mere pinprick of light in our powerful telescopes. Learn what it would take for humans to journey to the uncharted limits of our solar neighborhood and what NASA scientists think we'll find when we get there.

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  • StoryBots Outer Space | Planets, Sun, Moon, Earth and Stars | Solar System Super Song | Fun Learning

    15:12

    The StoryBots are curious little creatures who live beneath our screens, offering a world of learning and fun for kids. The Emmy Award-winning “Ask the StoryBots” is now streaming on Netflix!

    #StayHome and Learn About Outer Space #WithMe !

  • Secrets Of Planet Venus | planet Venus Planet Documentary in hindi

    8:35

    In this video, we will learn about the planet Venus and the facts about that planet.
    why life does not exist on planet Venus and what are the environmental conditions on that planet. and much more things we will learn about that planet.
    why Venus is called evening star and why it is the hottest planet in our solar system, All the answers you will find in this video...
    what are the current issues related to the planet Venus and the mysteries related to the planet Venus?
    This is an Educational Video in the Hindi language.

    credits and attributions for images, videos and music are given below:-

    Ishtar Terra (Venus) topography
    By Martin Pauer (Power) - plotted using GMT and gridded VenusTopo719.shape model expansion, Public Domain,

    Color-coded elevation map of Venus, showing the elevated continents in yellow: Ishtar Terra at the top and Aphrodite Terra just below the equator to the right.
    By NASA Ames Reseach Center, U.S Geological Survey and Messachusetts Institute of Technology - direct link to the picture:ftp://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/photo_gallery/hi-res/planetary/venus/pvo_topo_mercator.tiff, Public Domain,

    Venus - Lakshmi Planum and Maxwell Montes
    By NASA/JPL - Public Domain,

    Maat Mons on Venus
    Public Domain,

    Venus In-Situ Explorer proposed by NASA's New Frontiers program
    By NASA - Public Domain,

    Venus interacts with the solar wind. Components of the induced magnetosphere are shown.
    By Venusian_magnetosphere.jpg: Ruslik0derivative work: Alexparent (talk) - Venusian_magnetosphere.jpg, CC BY-SA 3.0,

    Composition of the atmosphere of Venus
    By Junkcharts - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

    GreenhouseEffectOnVenus
    CC BY-SA 3.0,

    the spacecraft Venera 1
    By Armael - Own work, CC0,

    the Mariner 1 spacecraft
    By NASA - Great Images in NASA Description, Public Domain,

    Venus Express in Venus orbit.
    By Andrzej Mirecki - Self-made with Celestia program with Addon by Jestr, Public Domain,

    and all other images and videos are taken from pixabay


    and music is taken from the music library.


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  • Mercury 101 | National Geographic

    3:32

    The planet Mercury is named after the messenger of the Roman gods because of its fleeting nature across the sky. Find out the reason behind its incredible speed, if it is indeed the hottest planet in the Solar System, and why the smallest planet in the solar system is slowly shrinking.
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  • The Sun Documentary in Telugu | The Journey of The Universe Episode 3 | Telugu Badi

    12:33

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    How the Sun Works?
    The Sun is the center of our solar system and makes up 99.8 percent of the mass of the entire solar system.
    As a star, the Sun is a ball of gas (92.1 percent hydrogen and 7.8 percent helium) held together by its own gravity.
    Many spacecraft constantly observe the Sun, helping us keep an eye on space weather that can affect satellites and astronauts.
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    Time Passing By by Audionautix is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
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    Disclaimer- Some contents are used for educational purpose under fair use. Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for fair use for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.
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    #Sun#JourneyoftheUniverse#TeluguBadi

  • THE SUN - Giver Of Life & Death Star | SPACETIME - SCIENCE SHOW

    49:40

    SPACETIME - SCIENCE SHOW: It is the source of all life on Earth. The sun determines time and climate. A huge nuclear reactor full of seemingly infinite energy. A star whose presence all can feel firsthand. And yet only one star among billions in our galaxy. But the lifespan of the sun is finite. Its death will mean our death. The end of all life forms. But before its demise, our sun will demonstrate all its mighty power.

    The sun is at the end of its life cycle. Its diameter will expand and its luminosity will increase. The sun will swell into a red giant, swallowing the closest planet Mercury, and probably Venus and Earth as well. The Exodus of our solar system, as we know it. However, before that happens - life - as we know it, will be long gone. With the first initial expansion of the sun, the temperature on the surface of the earth will rise steadily. Our home planet will first turn into a desert planet. All higher life on earth scorched. In the end, the warming will be so great that the surface of the former Blue Planet will only consist of lava. But not only the high temperatures, even the changed UV spectrum of the sun will destroy every form of life on earth.

    In the end, the sun will have used up all of its hydrogen. What remains is a huge shell of helium. Shockwaves go through the star and after several explosions the sun throws off its outer shell. What's left is a glowing core of oxygen, carbon and helium no bigger than Earth. The red giant has become a white dwarf, which will cool down more and more. In the end, all that remains is a black, cold ball of slag and a planetary nebula from the remnants of the star's shell.

    When will it happen? In five to seven billion years. But the end of humanity will take place much earlier. In about 900 million years, the average temperature of our earth will have risen from the current 15°C to 30°C degrees. This will mean the end of life as we know it.
    The observation and research of the sun largely determines astrophysics. It forms the basis for understanding the structure of stars and the formation of planetary systems. Generations of people venerated or feared the sun. When the sun hid its face, it meant plague, death, and the end of the world.
    Only after the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus had placed the sun at the center of our solar system did scientific exploration of the central star begin. Astronomy experienced a boom.
    In this episode Spacetime, Professor Ulrich Walter explains how stars and planetary systems are formed from ancient matter and supernova dust. How our sun came into being and how it works. Its construction and development over the billions of years of its lifetime. We study solar winds, eruptions and the black spots on our sun and what effects these phenomena have on our planet and life on Earth. We look at binary star systems and learn how light emerges. And Professor Walter shows us the end of the world: What happens when our sun dies?

    About the documentary series SPACETIME
    Take a look at the Earth from space: Prof. Dr. med. Ulrich Walter has fulfilled the dream of mankind. In 1993 he traveled to Earth orbit. For the science format Spacetime, the astronaut once again sets off for the universe. In this reportage series, the physicist and professor of space technology presents current space travel trends and pioneering discoveries in space research.
    The challenges of the dream call Astronaut, the new race of the space nations to the moon or the discovery of further Earth-like exoplanets: In this documentary series, Ulrich Walter proves how lifelike science can be and what answers space travel offers to some of the fundamental questions of human existence.
    In Spacetime, the viewer learns about the visions that space research is currently pursuing and what insights will change our future forever.

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    #Sun #Universe #Spacetime

  • Puzzling Moons of the Solar System | DOCUMENTARY | Science is Exploring These Hidden Worlds

    37:54

    These moons are strange it more ways than one, it is not just their unique features and behavior that have astronomers fascinated, but also how they formed and how they came to be where they are. Their intriguing mystery is making astronomers and scientists work harder than ever before to find out exactly how they affect planets, sometimes how they affect us and if they could harbor life.

  • Undiscovered Worlds | Secrets Of The Universe | Spark

    24:28

    Epic black holes, nuclear furnaces at the core of giant stars and volcanic pressure cookers inside planets - all across the immense reaches of time and space, the universe is being transformed by seething caldrons of energy.

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    #Undiscoveredworlds #spaceage #spacetravel #solarsystem #aliens #science #sciencefiction #technology #spacetechnology #planets #gravity

  • Venus 101 | National Geographic

    3:29

    Named after the ancient Roman goddess of beauty, Venus is known for its exceptional brightness. Find out about the volcanoes that dot Venus's surface, the storms that rage in its atmosphere, and the surprising feature that makes Venus outshine every planet or star in the night sky.
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  • Solar System Moon Discoveries Documentary | Space Exploration of Extraordinary Worlds

    37:21

    Space scientists are turning their attention from Mars to another possible haven for alien life – liquid oceans locked under miles of ice on some of our Solar System's moons. ... Europa is perhaps the most well-known target for exploration. ... more extraordinary claim than we have found life on another world ...

  • Exoplanets From Hell - Life In Other Planets In The Universe

    1:16:03

    In this Space and universe video documentary, we are going to present you the exoplanets which are not suitable for living in our world i.e., exoplanets from hell. Watch this space and universe documentary to understand about hot or planets which are not suitable for sustaining life.

    Watch this Planets from hell video documentary to learn everything about the different planets in the universe, life in other planets in the universe, is life exist only on earth, etc.

    Watch Exoplanets From Hell - Life In Other Planets In The Universe (Documentary) here.

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  • Naked Science - Moon Mysteries

    50:08

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    Every other Wednesday we present a new video, so join us to see the truth laid bare...

    The moon is far more than just a beautiful object in the night sky.

    Ever since its creation 4.5 billion years ago the moon has been edging away from Earth into space. Throughout its journey, it has influenced our planet in different ways. But one things clear, without it life would never have emerged on Earth.

    4.5 billion years ago the moon forms when another planet slams into the early Earth. The impact knocks our planet “off-balance” onto an axis of 23 degrees, which we still rotate around today. This is what gives us our seasons. Without it we would have no summers, springs, winters or falls.

    4 billion years ago the solar system endures the most violent meteorite bombardment in its history, the Lunar Cataclysm. The Earth, being 50 times bigger than the moon, exerts a massive gravitational pull on incoming space debris. Because the moon is still so close to Earth it too gets hit. 99% of all craters on the lunar surface visible today are a result of this bombardment.

    3 billion years ago the Earth has water and oceans. Because the moon is far closer its gravitational pull is far stronger on the Earth. The tides it creates are thousands of feet high and smash hundreds of miles inland every day. Scientists believe that these tides feed the Primordial Soup with the minerals required to start life. Without them only the most basic microbes would be on Earth today.

    Today the moon has the same gravitational pull as a mosquito landing on your head, yet some people still believe it can influence our planet in bizarre ways.

    The San Francisco Police Department tell us how crime appears to soar during a full moon. But the scientific data suggests otherwise, studies show no correlation between the Full Moon and violence. Naked Science investigates.

    Scientific research into the moon is allowing some scientists to predict when natural disasters will strike. Some researchers believe that when the sun and moon align and pull together on the Earth they can trigger both earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

    In the future the moon will move so far from Earth that it will affect the fine balance of our planet, sending our climate tumbling out of control.

  • The Universe The Outer Planets Uranus, Neptune ✪ Universe Documentary HD 2017

    1:13:05

    We always have to keep in mind that a Documentary, after all, can tell lies and it can tell lies because it lays claim to a form of veracity which fiction doesn't.

    [Space Documentary] A Traveler's Guide to the Planets Season 1 Episode 5: Neptune & Uranus Got time for a 24 year vacation? Then consider a journey to our .

    Got time for a 24 year vacation? Then consider a journey to our most distant planets, the ice giants Uranus and Neptune. ---- This channel offers you full .

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    Journey to the Planets aka Voyage To The Planets Have you ever wondered what it would be like to leave Earth? To lose sight of our home planet and go where .

  • The Year of Pluto - New Horizons Documentary Brings Humanity Closer to the Edge of the Solar System

    58:34

    New Horizons is the first mission to the Kuiper Belt, a gigantic zone of icy bodies and mysterious small objects orbiting beyond Neptune. This region also is known as the “third” zone of our solar system, beyond the inner rocky planets and outer gas giants. Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Maryland, designed, built and operates the New Horizons spacecraft, and manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Year of Pluto - NASA New Horizons is a one hour documentary which takes on the hard science and gives us answers to how the mission came about and why it matters. Interviews with Dr. James Green, John Spencer, Fran Bagenal, Mark Showalter and others share how New Horizons will answer many questions. New Horizons is part of the New Frontiers Program, managed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

  • The Advanced Technology Of Atlantis | Secret Star Mappers Of The Lost World | Spark

    49:34

    Go beyond the lost human history! A profile and examination of the recent findings of a highly advanced human settlement submerged at the end of the Ice Age when the sea level rose. The story of Atlantis has its roots in actual historical events!

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    #Ancienttechnology #Atlantis #Technology #Engineering #sciencedocumentary #Iceage #Advancedcivilizations #atlantiantech #starmappers #lostworld #spacetravel #mythology

  • Porsche: High-Level Car Manufacturer | Mega Manufacturing | Free Documentary

    48:15

    Mega Manufacturing: The Porsche Manufacturer | 4K Engineering Documentary

    The Porsche Macan: Mass car production with a level of customization that comes close to manufacturing.

    The Porsche Macan: the most successful horse in the stable of this legendary sports car manufacturer. A compact SUV, combining off-road qualities and everyday versatility with the DNA of a sports car. In its Leipzig factory Porsche produces with 4,300 employees over 90,000 Macan vehicles per year. Every single vehicle: absolutely individual and bespoke manufactured to order. A masterpiece of logistics and engineering design. Retaining their outstanding quality and delivering volume – a balancing act.

    Everything begins with the fabrication of the body. Eight hours is all they need for the entire production of a fully galvanized aluminum-steel car body. On more than 35 thousand square meters, a 400-strong robot army supported by people turn pure sheet metal into sub-frames. Around the clock. A perfectly synchronized spectacle with the precision of a clockwork in perpetual motion.

    Each individual Macan car body is checked with utmost precision. The same applies to the paint surface and the assembled car. The extent of the individual quality control is unique in mass production – and for Porsche, an absolute necessity.

    Since the opening of the Leipzig factory, Porsche has invested over EUR 1.3 billion in this facility – and it is always constantly expanding. Protecting the environment is one key aspect of the investments. Energy is saved in the halls through efficient robotic use, and produced on the rooftops from natural solar energy. The photovoltaic system consists of more than 17,500 modules. Immediately behind the assembly halls and the company's own circular track, there is an entirely different world! Here, Porsche has created ecological compensation areas for the sealed ground space. 25 Exmoor ponies and 75 aurochs graze on this managed eco-system.

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  • अगर हम Jupiter पर गिरे तो क्या होंगा?

    11:03

    Thank You For Your Love And Support Friends

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    This Episode is About: #Jupiter, #Space, #Universe, #Adventure, #Knowledge, #Science

  • Why Pluto is No Longer a Planet? in Hindi

    3:46

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  • Star Formation in Orion

    1:20:21

    Star Formation in Orion
    Will Fischer, Space Telescope Science Institute

    The Sun plays a constant and pivotal role in life on Earth. It is natural to take its presence for granted. Yet we know that the Sun, and the entire Solar System, formed about 5 billion years ago. To probe those origins, astronomers study stars elsewhere in our galaxy that are in the process of formation. Thousands of such young stellar objects can be found in the direction of the Orion constellation. Observations with a variety of space telescopes—including Hubble, Spitzer, and Herschel—have illuminated aspects of the birth of stars and contributed greatly to our understanding of star formation in Orion.

    Host: Dr. Frank Summers

    Recorded live on Tuesday, June 5 at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

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  • Neil deGrasse Tyson: 3 mind-blowing space facts | Big Think

    14:00

    Neil deGrasse Tyson: 3 mind-blowing space facts
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    Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson joins us to talk about one of our favorite subjects: space.

    In the three-chaptered video, Tyson speaks about the search for alien life inside and outside of the Goldilocks Zone, why the term dark matter should really be called dark gravity, and how the rotation of the Earth may have been the deciding factor in a football game.

    These fascinating space facts, as well as others shared in Tyson's books, make it easier for everyone to grasp complex ideas that are literally out of this world.
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    NEIL DEGRASSE TYSON:

    Neil deGrasse Tyson was born and raised in New York City where he was educated in the public schools clear through his graduation from the Bronx High School of Science. Tyson went on to earn his BA in Physics from Harvard and his PhD in Astrophysics from Columbia. He is the first occupant of the Frederick P. Rose Directorship of the Hayden Planetarium. His professional research interests are broad, but include star formation, exploding stars, dwarf galaxies, and the structure of our Milky Way. Tyson obtains his data from the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as from telescopes in California, New Mexico, Arizona, and in the Andes Mountains of Chile.Tyson is the recipient of nine honorary doctorates and the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal. His contributions to the public appreciation of the cosmos have been recognized by the International Astronomical Union in their official naming of asteroid 13123 Tyson.

    Tyson's new book is Astrophysics for People in a Hurry, you can check it at
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    TRANSCRIPT:

    NEIL DEGRASSE TYSON: When we think of places you might find life we typically think of the Goldilocks Zone around the star where water would be liquid in its natural state. And if you get a little too close to the star, heat would evaporate the water and you don't have it anymore. It's gone. Too far away it would freeze and neither of those states of H2O are useful to life as we know it. We need liquid water. So you can establish this Green Zone, this habitable zone, this Goldilocks Zone, where if you find a planet orbiting there hey, good chance it could have liquid water. Let's look there first for life as we know it.

    Now it turns out that this source of heat, of course is traceable to the sun and if you go farther out everything water should be frozen, all other things being equal. But Europa, a moon of Jupiter sitting well outside of the Goldilocks Zone is kept warm not from energy sources traceable to the Sun, but from what we call the tidal forces of Jupiter itself. So, Jupiter and surrounding moons are actually pumping energy into Europa. And how does it do that? As Europa orbits Jupiter its shape changes. It's not fundamentally different from tides rising and falling on Earth. The shape of the water system of the Earth is responding to tidal forces of the moon. And when you do that to a solid object, the solid object is stressing. And because of this, a consequence of this is that you are pumping energy into the object. It is no different from when you say to anyone who's familiar with racquet sports, indoor racquet sports. It could be racquetball or squash. You say let's arm up the ball before we start playing.

    You want to hit it around a few times. You are literally warming up the ball. It's not just simply let's get loose. You are literally warming up the ball. How? You are distorting it every time you smack it and then the resilience of the ball pops it back into shape and every time you do that, every smack, you're pumping energy into the ball. It's not fundamentally different from what's going on in orbit around Jupiter. So, you have this frozen world, Europa, completely frozen on its surface but you look at the surface and there are cracks in the ice. There are ridges in the ice where there's a crack and it shifted and then refroze. So this ridge has a discontinuity in the crack and it continues in another place. So what this tells you is that Europe cannot be completely frozen because if it were nothing would be moving. You look at the surface of Europa, the frozen surface, there are like ice chunks that are shifted and refrozen and shifted again. It looks just like if you fly over the Arctic Ocean.

    Fly over the Arctic Ocean in the winter...

    Read the full transcript on

  • Extraterrestrial Life in Our Solar System | Documentary | National Geographic

    1:5:39

    If we discovered evidence of alien life, would we even realize it? Life on other planets could be so different from what we're used to that we might not recognize any biological signatures that it produces.

    Recent years have seen changes to our theories about what counts as a biosignature and which planets might be habitable, and further turnarounds are inevitable. But the best we can really do is interpret the data we have with our current best theory, not with some future idea we haven't had yet.

    This is a big issue for those involved in the search for extraterrestrial life. As Scott Gaudi of Nasa's Advisory Council has said: One thing I am quite sure of, now having spent more than 20 years in this field of exoplanets … expect the unexpected.

    But is it really possible to expect the unexpected? Plenty of breakthroughs happen by accident, from the discovery of penicillin to the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation leftover from the Big Bang. These often reflect a degree of luck on behalf of the researchers involved. When it comes to alien life, is it enough for scientists to assume we'll know it when we see it?

    Many results seem to tell us that expecting the unexpected is extraordinarily difficult. We often miss what we don't expect to see, according to cognitive psychologist Daniel Simons, famous for his work on inattentional blindness. His experiments have shown how people can miss a gorilla banging its chest in front of their eyes. Similar experiments also show how blind we are to non-standard playing cards such as a black four of hearts. In the former case, we miss the gorilla if our attention is sufficiently occupied. In the latter, we miss the anomaly because we have strong prior expectations.

    There are also plenty of relevant examples in the history of science. Philosophers describe this sort of phenomenon as theory-ladenness of observation. What we notice depends, quite heavily sometimes, on our theories, concepts, background beliefs, and prior expectations. Even more commonly, what we take to be significant can be biased in this way.

    For example, when scientists first found evidence of low amounts of ozone in the atmosphere above Antarctica, they initially dismissed it as bad data. With no prior theoretical reason to expect a hole, the scientists ruled it out in advance. Thankfully, they were minded to double-check, and the discovery was made.
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  • How the Moon was ACTUALLY Created

    16:55

    How the Moon was Created is a longstanding puzzle. Astronomers believe the Moon formed in a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized protoplanet named Theia. But this model has several problems. New models show the Moon was formed in a synestia - a giant cloud of molten rock vapor after the proto-Earth was blasted apart in a giant impact.

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  • Stars: Crash Course Astronomy #26

    10:41

    Today Phil’s explaining the stars and how they can be categorized using their spectra. Together with their distance, this provides a wealth of information about them including their luminosity, size, and temperature. The HR diagram plots stars’ luminosity versus temperature, and most stars fall along the main sequence, where they live most of their lives.

    --

    Table of Contents
    Stars Can Be Categorized Using Their Spectra 1:32
    Spectra With Distance Can Identify Luminosity, Size, and Temperature 5:20
    The HR Diagram Plots Luminosity vs Temperature 6:33
    Most Stars Fall Along the Main Sequence 7:16

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    PHOTOS/VIDEOS
    Stars [credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA]
    Spitzer Spectrum [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Leiden/SRON]
    Sun spectrum [credit: N.A.Sharp, NOAO/NSO/Kitt Peak FTS/AURA/NSF]
    Annie Jump Cannon [credit: New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper]
    Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin [credit: Smithsonian Institution]
    OBAFGKM [credit: NOAO/AURA/NSF]
    Betelgeuse [credit: ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2. Acknowledgment: Davide De Martin]
    Sirius [credit: NASA, ESA, H. Bond (STScI) and M. Barstow (University of Leicester)]
    Solar AM0 spectrum with visible spectrum background [credit: Danmichaelo, Wikimedia Commons]
    Blue sky [credit: Skitter Photo]
    Hawaii sunset photo [credit: Phil Plait]
    Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram [credit: ESO]

  • Why Earth Is A Prison and How To Escape It

    6:57

    We are trapped on earth. Controlled by an ancient debt to the universe...

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    Overpopulation – The Human Explosion Explained

  • Aliens under the Ice – Life on Rogue Planets

    8:25

    The first 1000 people to use this link will get a 2 month free trial of Skillshare:

    Out in the vast coldness of outer space, there are planets that travel alone through darkness without the boundaries of a system. Here’s how this can happen – and why these frozen deserts might secretly harbor alien life.

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  • The Beauty Of The Hubble Telescope | Hubbles Canvas | Spark

    24:26

    Hubble takes us on a journey through the cosmos, showing us planetary nebulae which are composed of puffs of gas that is expelled and illuminated by the stars it houses.

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  • The Universe I, II & III | Tim and Eric Awesome Show, Great Job! | Adult Swim

    4:00

    ► Want more? Full episodes of Tim and Eric Awesome Show, Great Job! in full and for free on All 4. Watch now:

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    Watch Adult Swim every Thursday midnight on FOX UK.

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  • Planets in Our Solar System - Space Documentary

    45:49

    Some information are posted below for details. Pls check. Thanks.
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    How the Universe Works - Planets in Our Solar System - Space Discovery Documentary.
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  • How Are Stars Formed? | Secrets Of The Universe | Spark

    3:30

    Electromagnetic data and supercomputer models let us simulate the very first stars.

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  • Exploring The Sky - Finding Stars And Constellations

    1:1:11

    In this Space and Universe video, we are going to take you through a journey where you can learn about the exploration of the southern sky by Europe using the European Space observatory.

    By watching this space documentary, you can learn about the exploration of sky, space exploration, finding stars, finding constellations, star gazing at night, European space observatory, finding biggest stars, etc.

    Watch Exploring The Sky - Finding Stars And Constellations (Documentary) in high definition (HD) here.

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  • History of the Planets in Solar System Documentary - Journey from the Center of the Universe

    48:30

    In the beginning - before the 1920s, these words had no place in our scientific understanding of the universe. Astronomers believed the cosmos to be eternal and unchanging. We knew of only one galaxy and a few million visible stars, and this was the scope of our observable universe.

    Then astronomer Edwin Hubble observed, courtesy of redshift, distant galaxies speeding away from each other and formulated Hubble's Law to explain the universe's uniform expansion. Redshift just refers to a distant celestial body's shift toward longer, or redder, wavelengths, compliments of the Doppler effect.

  • The Inner Planets - Secrets Of Inner Solar System

    1:18:26

  • What Do We Know About Undiscovered Worlds? | Secrets Of The Universe | Absolute Science

    24:17

    Since the dawn of the space age, we've imagined travelling to worlds beyond our solar system. Touching down on eerie landscapes and encountering alien lifeforms. What was once science fiction is now becoming science fact.

    Subscribe to Absolute Science:

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  • JUNOS MISSION

    14:54

    To go where no spacecraft has been to before - into Jupitor's inner realms. It's a perilous journey for the NASA spacecraft, Juno. Jupiter has the harshest radiation of any planet in the solar system - and the strongest magnetic field. It has storms that rage for centuries and the strongest gravity. The environment is so harsh; Juno's delicate scientific instruments need a special protective titanium vault to shield them. Catalyst goes to Australia's tracking station Tidbinbilla to witness Juno going into orbit around Jupiter and begin its mission - will it reveal new information about the birth of our solar system?

  • Secrets of Sixth Planet Saturn | Saturn planet Documentary in hindi

    12:55

    This video is related to our sixth planet Saturn. the facts and figures related to that planet, different missions sent to the planet Saturn , all the topics are discussed in this video. Titan is the biggest moon of that planet and some facts related to the titan is also discussed. saturn planet documentary in hindi and saturn planet in hindi
    images:--
    Galileo showed the Doge of Venice how to use the telescope (Fresco by Giuseppe Bertini)
    By Giuseppe Bertini - Embedding web page: Public Domain,

    Since NASA's Cassini spacecraft arrived at Saturn in mid-2004, the planet's appearance has changed greatly.
    By Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI - Public Domain,

    NASA image of Saturn
    By NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute - NASA CICLOPS, Public Domain,

    Christiaan Huygens. Cut from the engraving following the painting of Caspar Netscher by G. Edelinck, between 1684 and 1687.
    By Unknown - Public Domain,

    Titan's surface revealed by VIMS
    By NASA/JPL/University of Arizona - Public Domain,

    Galileo first observed the rings in 1610.
    By Justus Sustermans - Galileo oil portrait in the Uffizi, Florence., Public Domain,

    Side view of Saturn system, showing Enceladus in relation to the E Ring
    Public Domain,

    Diagram of Saturn, to scale
    By Kelvinsong - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

    Simulated image using color to present radio-occultation-derived particle size data
    By NASA / JPL - Public Domain,

    The dark Cassini Division separates the wide inner B Ring and outer A Ring
    By NASA, ESA and E. Karkoschka (University of Arizona) - (direct link), Public Domain,

    A 2007 artist impression of the aggregates of icy particles that form the 'solid' portions of Saturn's rings.
    By NASA/JPL/University of Colorado - Public Domain,

    Cassini image
    By NASA - Public Domain,

    Five moons in another Cassini image
    By NASA/JPL - Public Domain,

    Pioneer spacecraft
    By NASA Ames - Public Domain,

    Pioneer 11's flyby of Saturn
    By NASA Ames - Public Domain,

    Artist's concept of Voyager in flight
    By NASA/JPL - (file), Public Domain,

    Trajectory of Voyager 2 primary mission.
    By Voyager_2_path.png: *Voyager_Path.jpg: created by NASAderivative work: Xession (talk)derivative work: Hazmat2 (talk) - This file was derived from  Voyager 2 path.png:, Public Domain,

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    By NASA/JPL - This image or video was catalogued by Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Photo ID: PIA03883.This tag does not indicate the copyright status of the attached work. A normal copyright tag is still required. See Commons:Licensing for more information.????????? | Català | Ceština | Deutsch | English | Español | ????? | Français | Galego | Magyar | ??????? | Bahasa Indonesia | Italiano | ??? | ?????????? | ?????? | Polski | Português | ??????? | Türkçe | ?? | ??(??)? | +/- Public Domain,

    planet Uranus taken by the spacecraft Voyager 2
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  • The Search for Planet X / Planet 9 / Nibiru

    8:55

    More dire predictions that Nibiru aka Planet X or Planet 9 will trigger earthquakes, floods and generally the end of the world have been and gone as was expected but Planet X and Planet 9 were and are real. Here we look at the basis of how these have ended up being hijacked by the Nibiru believers.

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  • The Whole History of the Earth and Life 【Revised edition】

    1:5:57

    This is a documentary which portrays the birth of the solar system, the birth of the Earth, and the emergence and evolution of life on Earth depicted through latest research activities.
    Executive producer: prof. Shigenori Maruyama.
    Supported by Hadean Bioscience Project.
    1. The Origin of the Earth. 00:00
     4.567 billion years ago : The formation of the Solar System.
     4.56 billion years:ago : The formation of the Earth.
     4.55 billion years ago : Giant impact.
    2. Initiation of Plate Tectonics. 02:53 【Partially revised】
     4.37-4.20 billion years ago : The formation of the atmosphere and ocean.
     4.37-4.20 billion years ago : The initiation plate tectonics.
    3. Birth of Proto-life. 07:08
     4.10(4.20?) billion years ago : The birth of first proto-life.
    4. The Initial Stage of Life. 11:04
     4.37-4.20 billion years ago : The loss of the primordial continent and the generation of a strong geomagnetic field.
     4.20 billion years ago : The emergence of sun-powered life.
     4.10 billion tears ago : Mass extinction.
    5. Second Stage of Evolution of Life. 16:46
     2.90 billion years ago : The emergence of photosynthetic life.
     2.70 billion years ago : Mantle overturn.
    6. Third Stage of the Evolution of Life. 20:46
     2.30 billion years ago : Mass extinction by snowball Earth.
     2.10 billion years ago : From prokaryotes to eukaryotes.
    7: The Dawn of the Cambrian Explosion. 25:19
     1.90-0.80 billion tears ago : The Formation of a Supercontinent.
     700-600 million years ago : The Sturtian Glaciation
     700-600 million years ago : The Leaking Earth.
    8: The Cambrian Explosion. 31:08
     640 million years ago : The Origin of Multicellular Life. The Marinoan Glaciation.
     580 million years ago : Appearance of Ediacaran Fauna. The Gaskiers Glaciation.
     550 million years ago : Evolution Responds to Environmental Changes
     540 million years ago : The First Cambrian Organisms
    9: The Paleozoic Era. 37:18
     600 million years ago : Expanding Habitats.
     540 million years ago : The Co-evolution of Planets and Insects
     550-540 million years ago : The Evolution of Vertebrates
     260-250 million years ago : The Largest Mass extinction of the Phanerozoic Eon. Collision with a Dark nebula
    10: From the Mesozoic to the birth of human beings. 43:34
     Dispersion and amalgamation of continents, and the evolution of life.
     The birth of primates.
    11: The Humanozoic eon : the appearance of human beings and civilization. 50:38
     Evolution into primates.
     The birth of human beings, the fourth animal category : the Humanozoic eon.
     10000 years ago : The Agricultural Revolution.
     5000 years ago : The Urban Revolution.
     2400 years ago : The Religious Revolution.
     300 years ago : The Industrial Revolution.
     The Information Revolution.
    12: Future of the Earth. 58:05
     Challenges for Human society.
     Future of Human society.
     Future of the Earth.
     200 million years later : Formation of the supercontinent.
     400 million years later : Extinction of the C4 plants.
     1 billion years later : Cessation of plate tectonics.
     1.5 billion years later : Disappearance of the ocean.
     4.5 billion years later : Collision between the Milky Way Galaxy and the Andromeda Galaxy.
     8 billion years later : Annihilation of the Earth.
    *Kaoru GreenEmerald

  • The Grand Tour: Exploring the Diversity of Planets Outside the Solar System - H. Knutson - 11/15/17

    54:08

    The Grand Tour: Exploring the Diversity of Planets Outside the Solar System, by Heather A. Knutson,  Professor of Planetary Science, Caltech

    The past decade has marked a period of great progress in our quest to discover and characterize the properties of the planets outside of our own solar system. Observations of eclipsing systems, in which the planet periodically passes in front of and then behind its star as seen from the earth, have given us new insight into the nature of these alien worlds. In her talk, Dr. Knutson will discuss ongoing efforts to investigate the diverse properties of exoplanetary systems using a combination of both ground- and space-based telescopes.

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    Produced in association with Caltech Academic Media Technologies. ©2017 California Institute of Technology

  • Star Forming Where Planet Should be in Mysterious Star System

    1:2:07

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  • Universe HD THE SOLAR SYSTEM UNIVERSE SECRETS HD Documentary

    49:48

    The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the systems mass is in the Sun, with most of the.

    checkout this other amazing documentary: Follow me on Instagram: This video is for education purposes only, and is legal.

    Universe documentary 2017 - series that features computer-generated imagery and computer graphics of astronomical objects in the universe plus interviews with experts who study in the fields.

  • Born To Be A STAR

    27:58

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  • Galaxies are Cosmic Magnets - Gina Panopoulou - 1/31/2020

    1:40:32

    Magnetic fields are common throughout the cosmos, even coming from galaxies like our own Milky Way! Presentation: 00:56; speaker Q&A: 22:00; panel Q&A: 33:56

    Date: January 31, 2020
    Lecturer: Gina Panopoulou
    Title: Galaxies are Cosmic Magnets
    Abstract: Did you know that galaxies have something in common with fridge magnets? Galaxies generate magnetism! But they do so in a very different way. What does galactic magnetism look like? Where does it come from and what cool phenomena does it produce? We’ll see how scientists use supernovae, space dust and polarized glasses to answer these questions and learn about this mysterious property of the Galaxy.

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    Thumbnail Image Credit: NASA / SOFIA / JPL-Caltech / Roma Tre University

  • Cosmic Journeys - Mars: Earth that Never Was

    25:18

    Did Mars long ago develop far enough for life to arise? If so, does anything still live within Mars' dusty plains, beneath its ice caps, or somewhere underground?

    In 1964 the Mariner Four spacecraft flew by Mars and got a good look. What it saw looked more like the Moon than the Earth. Then, in the mid-1970's, two lander-orbiter robot teams, named Viking, went in for an even closer look. The landers tested the soil for the chemical residues of life. All the evidence from Viking told us: Mars is dead. And extremely harsh.

    The mission recorded Martian surface temperatures from -17 degrees Celsius down to -107. We now know it can get even colder than that at the poles. The atmosphere is 95% carbon dioxide, with only traces of oxygen. And it's extremely thin, with less than one percent the surface pressure of Earth's atmosphere.

    And it's bone dry. In fact, the Sahara Desert is a rainforest compared to Mars, where water vapor is a trace gas in the atmosphere. On Earth, impact craters erode over time from wind and water... and even volcanic activity. On Mars, they can linger for billions of years.

    Earth's surface is shaped and reshaped by the horizontal movement of plates that make up its crust driven by heat welling up from the planet's hot interior. At half the width and only 11% the mass of Earth, Mars doesn't generate enough heat to support wide-scale plate tectonics.

    Nor does it have the gravity to hold a thick atmosphere needed to store enough heat at the surface to allow liquid water to flow. Nonetheless, some areas that looked to Viking-era scientists like craters and volcanic areas, were later shown to be riverbeds, lake bottoms, and ocean shorelines.

    If water once flowed on Mars' surface, where did it all go?

    This was the scene at NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab in 2004. The twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity had just bounced down on the Red Planet. When the excitement died down, the rovers were set off on one of the most remarkable journeys in the history of planetary exploration. Missions like this could one day pave the way for a day when we'll view images from a real astronaut's camera.

    Opportunity had come to rest in a small crater near the equator, at a spot called Meridiani Planum. Here, in plain view, on a nearby crater wall, its camera revealed exposed bedrock, the first ever seen on Mars. Not far away, the rover found layered rocks on the face of a cliff. On Earth, they typically form as sedimentary layers at the bottom of oceans.

    And at every turn, Opportunity rolled across tiny, smooth, round pellets. They became known as blueberries because they appeared purplish-brown against Mars' rust-colored surface. Initially thought to be volcanic in origin, they turned out to be iron-rich spherules of the type that form within cavities in the mud at the bottom of an ocean.

    Drilling into rocks, the rover inserted a spectrometer to read the mineral content. The readings showed significant amounts of sulfate salt, a tracer for standing water. That wasn't all. Spirit's broken wheel, dragging behind it, exposed soils saturated in salt.

    Clearly there once was water on Mars' surface, but how long ago? And, if there is anything left, where would you find it? One possible answer: the North Pole. From orbit, this region seemed to be covered in frozen CO2 - what we call dry ice. But was there water ice below the surface?

    Enter Phoenix, a lander that touched down near the North Pole in early 2008. Radar readings from orbit, taken by the Mars Express mission, hinted at the presence of ice just below the surface.

    The Phoenix lander's descent thrusters blew away the top layer of soil, allowing its camera to snap pictures of what looked like ice. Scientists instructed the robot to conduct a simple experiment: reach out and dig a trench, then watch what happens.

    As expected, clumps of white stuff appeared. A couple of days later, it was gone. Vaporized. That means it can't be salt or frozen CO2, which is stable in the cold dry temperatures of the Martian pole. So it had to be water, the first ever directly seen on Mars.

    There are indications that the North Pole was actually warm enough in the recent past for water ice to become liquid. The Mars Reconaissance Orbiter, or MRO, used radar pulses to peer beneath the surface of the ice cap. These data reveal that the ice, just over a mile thick, formed in a succession of layers as the climate alternated between warm and cold.

    Our planet avoids mood swings like this in part because its spin is stabilized by a massive moon. Mars' spin is not, so it can really wobble, with the pole tilting toward the sun for long periods. New observations by the MRO spacecraft show that these wobbles can lead to dramatic releases of CO2, and warming periods due to an increase in the greenhouse effect.

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