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What Did Pangaea Look like?

  • What Did Pangaea Look like?


    Tell me if you noticed any slight improvements in this one, there are a couple.

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  • How Do We Know Pangea Existed?


    Pangea was a supercontinent millions of years ago? But how can we be sure? How do we know that it even existed in the first place?


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  • What Is Pangaea & Plate Tectonic? | CONTINENTAL DRIFT | The Dr Binocs Show | Peekaboo Kidz


    What Is Pangaea & Plate Tectonic? | Plate Tectonic | What Is Pangaea | SUPERCONTINENT | Earth Crust | Earth Mantle | Continents On Earth | Continental Drift | Mountain Formation | Binocs Show | Dr. Binocs | Peekaboo Kidz

    Hey kids, in this video, Dr Binocs will explain, What Is Pangaea & Plate Tectonic? | CONTINENTAL DRIFT | Earth Plates | Dr Binocs Show | Peekaboo Kidz

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  • How Earth Will Look In 250 million Years


    According to plate tectonics theory, Earth's outer shell is divided into multiple plates that slowly glide over the mantle. This slowly changes Earth's surface over time by merging, or separating, continents.

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  • What if Pangea Never Broke Apart? + more videos | #aumsum #kids #science #education #children


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    Firstly, it would have been very bad for the diversity of life forms on earth. Earth's history has shown that isolated geographic landmasses are very important for the evolution of new species. For example, isolated landmasses like Australia and Madagascar have many species which are not found anywhere else.
    Secondly, life would have thrived on the coastal areas, but the deep interiors would have become extremely hot and arid. These areas would have experienced almost desert like conditions as clouds would have almost lost their moisture before reaching them.
    Thirdly, ocean transportation would have lost its luster as everybody would be connected by land.
    But on the flip side, beach-goers and surfers would have been one happy lot as beaches would have stretched for thousands and thousands of miles.

  • What will the world look like in 250 million years?


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  • What is Pangea - More Grades 3-6 Science on Harmony Square


    Pangea or Pangaea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras. It assembled from earlier continental units approximately 335 million years ago, and it began to break apart about 175 million years ago. In contrast to the present Earth and its distribution of continental mass, much of Pangaea was in the Southern Hemisphere and surrounded by a super-ocean, Panthalassa. Pangaea was the most recent supercontinent to have existed and the first to be reconstructed by geologists.

    Pangea's formation is now commonly explained in terms of plate tectonics. The involvement of plate tectonics in Pangea's separation helps to show how it did not separate all at once, but at different times, in sequences. Additionally, after these separations, it has also been discovered that the separated land masses may have also continued to break apart multiple times. The formation of each environment and climate on Pangaea is due to plate tectonics, and thus, it is as a result of these shifts and changes different climatic pressures were placed on the life on Pangea. Although plate tectonics was paramount in the formation of later land masses, it was also essential in the placement, climate, environments, habitats, and overall structure of Pangea.

    What can also be observed in relation to tectonic plates and Pangea, is the formations to such plates. Mountains and valleys form due to tectonic collisions as well as earthquakes and chasms. Consequentially, this shaped Pangea and animal adaptations. Furthermore, plate tectonics can contribute to volcanic activity, which is responsible for extinctions and adaptations that have evidently affected life over time, and without doubt on Pangea.

    For the approximately 160 million years Pangea existed, many species did well, whereas others struggled. The Traversodonts were an example of such successful animals. Plants dependent on spore reproduction were largely replaced by the gymnosperms, which reproduce through the use of seeds. Later on, insects also thrived, during the Permian period 299 to 252 million years ago. However, the Permian extinction at 252 Mya greatly impacted these insects in mass extinction, being the only mass extinction to affect insects. When the Triassic Period came, many reptiles were able to also thrive, including Archosaurs, which were an ancestor to modern-day crocodiles and birds.

    Little is known about marine life during the existence of Pangea. Scientists are unable to find substantial evidence or fossilized remains in order to assist them in answering such questions. However, a couple of marine animals have been determined to have existed at the time - the Ammonites and Brachiopods. Additionally, evidence pointing towards massive reefs with varied ecosystems, especially in the species of sponges and coral, have also been discovered.

    Fossil evidence for Pangea includes the presence of similar and identical species on continents that are now great distances apart. For example, fossils of the therapsid Lystrosaurus have been found in South Africa, India and Antarctica, alongside members of the Glossopteris flora, whose distribution would have ranged from the polar circle to the equator if the continents had been in their present position; similarly, the freshwater reptile Mesosaurus has been found in only localized regions of the coasts of Brazil and West Africa.

    Additional evidence for Pangea is found in the geology of adjacent continents, including matching geological trends between the eastern coast of South America and the western coast of Africa. The polar ice cap of the Carboniferous Period covered the southern end of Pangaea. Glacial deposits, specifically till, of the same age and structure are found on many separate continents that would have been together in the continent of Pangea.

  • How Did Pangaea & The Supercontinents Get Their Names?



    Glad I could get this video done so soon after the continents one, was worried I'd make the first continents one then take forever to make this one, but nevertheless here it is, enjoy!

    Pangea Etymology:
    Laurasia Etymology:
    Gondwana Etymology:
    Pannotia Etymology:
    Rodinia Etymology:
    Columbia and Nuna Etymology:
    Ur Etymology:
    Vaalbara Etymology:

    Gaea: Anselm Feuerbach

    Rite of Passage
    Kevin MacLeod (
    Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0

  • The Whole Saga of the Supercontinents


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    The study of natural history is the study of how the world has changed but Earth itself is in a constant state of flux -- because the ground beneath your feet is always moving. So if we want to know how we got here, we have to understand how here got here.

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    → Hess’s first paper proposing seafloor spreading
    → Vine and Matthews’s first description of mirrored magnetic anomalies
    → Class notes from Stephen Nelson @ Tulane on the history of discovery and mechanisms of plate tectonics
    → Additional rundown on the mechanisms of plate tectonics
    → Biography of Marie Tharp
    → review article of pre-pangaean continents
    doi:10.1038/ngeo1069 → Paper linking the P-Tr extinction to Siberian Traps volcanism lighting coal on fire
    → Very solid reconstructions of Rodinia and Pannotia
    → review of the potential and probable causes of the PTr extinction, as well as some discussion linking the TrJ extinction to the rifting of North America away from Pangaea
    → TrJ extinction linked with North American rifting
    → Future continents
    → Basic animation of continental movements
    → Animation of Pangaea Ultima (although video called it Pangaea Proxima for some reason)

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  • What if Civilization started during Pangaea?!


    What if civilization started before the Earth's continents went through puberty?
    What if India Formed 1000 Years Early?

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  • Pangaea Continent Puzzle | Earth Science Video Lesson


    Students will move the continents from their present day locations on the earth’s surface to their location in the supercontinent Pangaea. As a result, students will understand how scientists use evidence to formulate theories and determine past locations of the continents.

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  • Continental Drift 101 | National Geographic


    Plate tectonics have shuffled the earth’s landmasses around—and continue to do so.
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    What is continental drift? Anyone who’s ever experienced an earthquake or seen a volcano knows that the phrase “solid ground” doesn’t always apply. Over Earth's long history, the great landmasses have continually rearranged themselves, separating from one ancient land mass known as Pangea. Find out how the world came to look the way it does.

    Continental Drift 101 | National Geographic

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  • The World Before Plate Tectonics


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    There was a time in Earth’s history that was so stable, geologists once called it the Boring Billion. But the fact is, this period was anything but boring. In fact, it set the stage for our modern version of plate tectonics - and probably for the rise of life as we know it.

    Thanks to Fabrizio de Rossi for the excellent supercontinent reconstructions:

    This video features a map by the USGS as well as this Paleogeographic Map: Scotese, C.R., 2019. Plate Tectonics, Paleogeography, and Ice Ages, YouTube video:

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios:

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  • Pangaea and the Bible | Creation Questions


    While we see numerous different continents on Earth's surface today, there seems to be some evidence for these continents being joined together into one large landmass, sometimes called Pangaea. Does the Bible say anything about Pangaea? Would this idea be contradictory to the Bible or fit within the history described? Listen as Kyle Butt discusses this topic and addresses these questions.

  • Continental Drift from Pangea to Today


    This animation begins at 200 million years ago when one land mass, Pangea, dominated the Earth. Watch as the continents split apart and move to their present-day locations.

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  • How Do We Know Plate Tectonics Is Real?


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    Why do Africa and South America fit together? Anyone who’s ever looked at a map can see that Earth’s continents are kind of like a jigsaw puzzle. The idea that continents are constantly moving and weren’t always in their current spots is a pretty obvious idea, right? You might be surprised to learn that geologists only accepted that idea recently in the past few decades, and it figuring out how plate tectonics and continental drift work required some pretty strange evidence.

    Some background on Alfred Wegener:

    Lystrosaurus (ancient mammal relative):

    Glossopteris (ancient fern):

    The splitting of Africa:


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  • Plate Movement: 200 Million Years Ago to Present Day | California Academy of Sciences


    Witness how Earth's forces have shaped the continents—from millions of years ago to present day.

    Today’s configuration of continents is dramatically different than it was in the past. See how plate tectonics built and fragmented supercontinents—land masses made of multiple continents merged together—over the past 200 million years.

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  • Pangaea - 300 Million Years Ago There Was One Super Continent


    Be More Productive: Know our Founder: - Do visit our website to connect better with us! About 300 million years ago, Earth didn't have seven continents, but instead one massive supercontinent called Pangaea, which was surrounded by a single ocean called Panthalassa. The explanation for Pangaea's formation ushered in the modern theory of plate tectonics, which posits that the Earth's outer shell is broken up into several plates that slide over Earth's rocky shell, the mantle. Over the course of the planet's 3.5 billion-year history, several supercontinents have formed and broken up, a result of churning and circulation in the Earth's mantle, which makes up most of planet's volume. This breakup and formation of supercontinents has dramatically altered the planet's history.

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  • What If We Made A New Continent?


    What would it take to build an entire continent from scratch?
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  • Continents Are Cracking, What Will They Look Like in the Future?


    It’s been 250 million years since the supercontinent Pangea, but the tectonic plates that formed it are still very much active. Could entire continents be splitting in half?

    The Earth’s Spin Is Slowing Down! What Happens If It Stops? -

    Read More:
    What Will Earth Look Like 100 Million Years From Now?

    “Embedded into Earth's independently moving tectonic plates, continents have shifted and collided for many millions of years. The supercontinent of Pangea existed until 200 million years ago, when it began to rip itself apart into the arrangement we observe today. But this is by no means their final resting place.”

    Africa Splitting Is Just The Beginning, Earth's Undergoing Massive Changes

    “Compared to our knowledge of other rocky worlds in our Solar System, our planet is an incredibly dynamic one. Water in its various states weathers, erodes, and builds anew. Beneath our feet a slowly churning mantle grinds and spews rock.”

    History of life on Earth

    “The Earth is a little over 4.5 billion years old, its oldest materials being 4.3 billion-year-old zircon crystals. Its earliest times were geologically violent, and it suffered constant bombardment from meteorites. When this ended, the Earth cooled and its surface solidified to a crust - the first solid rocks.”


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  • Why Triassic Animals Were Just the Weirdest


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    The Triassic was full of creatures that look a lot like other, more modern species, even though they’re not closely related at all. The reason for this has to do with how evolution works and with the timing of the Triassic itself: when life was trapped between two mass extinctions.

    Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the Drepanosaurus reconstruction. Check out more of Ceri's paleoart at and

    And thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart:

    Finally, thanks to Emilio Rolandia, Matt Celeskey, and Studio 252mya for their excellent images as well.

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    Original description of Triopticus with a description of repeated bodyplans and lifestyles of Triassic and later Mesozoic animals
    Original description of Shringasaurus with discussion of allokotosaur evolution

    Original description of Avicranium with a discussion of drepanosaurids

    An earlier phylogenetic analysis of drepanosaurs with discussion of their likely habits in life

    A very thorough, but fairly technical discussion of adaptive radiations (including those triggered by extinctions) can be found in chapters 4, 5, and 10 of:
    Stanley, SM. 1979. Macroevolution: Pattern and Process. John Hopkins University Press.
    ISBN 0-8018-5735-X

  • Supercontinents - Vaalbara to Pangaea


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    The theory of continental drift suggests that we go through cyclical phases of continental dispersion and collision, over hundreds of millions of years.

    The Earth, 3.4 billion years ago, plate tectonics pushes the protocontinents together. They combine to form ever larger tracts of land. Scientists suggest that cratons combine with other cratons to form a supercontinent, a huge continuous stretch of land, called Vaalbara.

    Clip taken from the Naked Science documentary “Colliding Continents”.

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    There's a continent called Pangaea?! Well, there once was. Hundreds of millions of years ago, Earth looked completely different from how it does today. All of the land was packed into a single supercontinent. Geologist Alfred Wegener theorized that this giant landmass split into chunks and slowly drifted apart. Rejected at first by the scientific community, Wegener's theory of continental drift eventually was proved correct: The earth's crust is split up into dozens of pieces called tectonic plates, which float on top of the mantle. Warmed by the blazing-hot core, the mantle churns in circular convection currents, dragging tectonic plates along for the ride. Today, plate tectonics is the unifying theory of the entire field of geology. It explains the rock cycle, the origin of Earth's surface features, and the cause of seismic activity, such as earthquakes and volcanoes. Get the drift? Watch this movie to learn more!

  • The Pangaea Pop-up - Michael Molina


    View full lesson:

    The supercontinent Pangaea, with its connected South America and Africa, broke apart 200 million years ago. But the continents haven't stopped shifting -- the tectonic plates beneath our feet (in Earth's two top layers, the lithosphere and the asthenosphere) are still traveling at about the rate your fingernails grow. Michael Molina discusses the catalysts and consequences of continental drift.

    Lesson by Michael Molina, animation by TED-Ed.

  • Animated Life: Pangea | Op-Docs | The New York Times


    This animated documentary tells the story of polar explorer Alfred Wegener, the unlikely scientist behind continental drift theory.

    Produced by: Flora Lichtman and Sharon Shattuck

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    Animated Life: Pangea | Op-Docs | The New York Times

  • What Will Earth’s Next Supercontinent Be?


    In about 200 million years, Earth is due for another supercontinent. What exactly that supercontinent will look like, though, depends on a lot of geological factors, and is harder to guess at than you might think! Today, SciShow walks you through a few possible scenarios.

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  • Pangaea | Earth geological and climatic history | Cosmology & Astronomy | Khan Academy


    Pangaea - the idea of Pangaea and some of the evidence behind it. Created by Sal Khan.

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    Cosmology & Astronomy on Khan Academy: The Earth is huge, but it is tiny compared to the Sun (which is super huge). But the Sun is tiny compared to the solar system which is tiny compared to the distance to the next star. Oh, did we mention that there are over 100 billion stars in our galaxy (which is about 100,000 light years in diameter) which is one of hundreds of billions of galaxies in just the observable universe (which might be infinite for all we know). Don't feel small. We find it liberating. Your everyday human stresses are nothing compared to this enormity that we are a part of. Enjoy the fact that we get to be part of this vastness!

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  • 11. 1 Pangaea Notes


  • Pangaea


    Either before or after creating this simple art project, check out some great background information!
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  • Pangaea


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  • Short Stories for Kids - Pangaea and the Tectonic Plates


    #PangaeaAndTheTectonicPlates #ShortStoriesForKids #StoryTime

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    The tectonic plates story will teach your kids about Pangea and it is a very informative story.

    Appu has a broader expanse to explore, and so does his friends. Neena's globe shows them exactly what the planet is made up of. The enthusiastic three, Appu, Neena, and Tiger, and their gang of Upvan friends set out to learn all about it.

    What are tectonic plates?

    The land has gone through so many changes. The different types of animals, birds, and other beings add in so much variety! The curious friends learn all about how mountains grow, and how lands move.

    Terrains, plains, deserts, mountains and a number of other beautiful sites. Pangaea is what they learn about.
    Watch this episode to see where this learning expedition takes them. This tectonic plates story will teach you a lot about the world continents.

    Join Appu and friends on their many adventures through their interpretation of popular stories, kids nursery songs and baby nursery rhymes songs for kids to sing along to. Appu makes learning fun and entertaining for children of all ages.

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  • From Pangaea to the Modern Continents


    This animation is from Tasa Graphics The Theory of Plate Tectonics.

    This video shows the progression of continental movement from ~235 MYA to the present. Pangea was not the only super-continent in Earth's history, but it is the most recent.

  • Pangea | Pangea Animation | Pangea Divides | Continental Drift | Pangaea | Pangea in the Bible


    This video explains what led to the division of the original super continent, and why God separated this land into the continents we have today.

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  • About Pangaea


  • The pangaea theory or an expanding Earth ?


    The pangaea theory or an expanding Earth ?

  • Pangaea Animation


    This was an animation I made for science class with the help of my group (their names are in the credits). I've decided to post it so that everyone can check it out if they want. I hope you all enjoy!

  • Pangaea: Earths most recent major supercontinent


    This video covers Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift, the concept of a supercontinent and what Earth's geography might look like in the future. The viewer will find that Pangaea was Earth's most recent major supercontinent, but not its first and it's speculated there will be more in the future. This video also discusses the impact of continental drift on species and their respective ecosystems.

  • Pangaea and Continental Drift


  • Pangaea Puzzle


  • Pangaea 2016: Taking astronauts to other planets – on Earth


    ESA is now training astronauts in identifying planetary geological features for future missions to the Moon, Mars and asteroids. This Pangaea course – named after the ancient supercontinent – will help astronauts to find interesting rock samples as well as to assess the most likely places to find traces of life on other planets.

    This video was made during the second part of the Pangaea course held in Lanzarote, one of the Spanish Canary Islands in 2016 with ESA astronauts Luca Parmitano, Pedro Duque and Matthias Maurer and features interviews with the instructors and astronauts.

    The students were tasked with interpreting geological features to understand the history of how the island formed. The goal is to help astronauts choose the best places to explore and collect rock samples.

    This session put into practice a week’s training in Bressanone, Italy, where they learned about Earth and planetary geological processes as well as how to recognise rocks and meteorites.

    The trio went on progressively difficult day trips, ending with a free exploration of the countryside searching for interesting samples while keeping in contact via radio with scientists at ‘mission control’.

    Lanzarote was chosen for this course because of its geological similarity with Mars, such as a volcanic origin, mild sedimentary processes owing to a dry climate, hardly any vegetation and a well-preserved landscape.

    More about the Pangeae course:

  • Pangaea


    An example of Pangaea

  • Pangaea Puzzle - student version


    This video was produced with a Swivl!

  • Pangaea the Supercontinent!


    This video shows the evolution of the lithospheric plates', from Pangaea to the present. The Pangaea is a supercontinent that existed about 250 million years ago. This can be used as supplementary video material.

    Science 10
    Module 1: The Earth's Lithosphere
    Lesson 2: The Supercontinent!

  • Watch the continents move into Pangaea, meaning, All the Earth.


  • Alfred Wegener and Pangaea


  • PANGAEA | Continent Formation | Continental Drift Theory


    This Video shows how the supercontinent Pangaea separated into different continents, this video also show evidences of Continental Drift Theory.

    Continental Drift Theory - the gradual movement of the continents over time.
    The upper layer of the crust is broken down into large slabs called plates.

    Disclaimer: I do not own the right on this video. This video is only be used for Educational Purposes only. Some part of this video is owned by Fuse School Global Education and Wiz Science.

    Background Music:
    The Place Inside by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library.

    This video uses material/images from which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 .

    This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.

  • Pangaea and Continental Drift


    This a screencast I made about Pangaea and the Theory of Continental Drift for my 9th grade Earth Science class.

  • Theme 0 Pangaea


    How can we reconstruct the supercontinent of Pangaea?

  • Pangaea 2017


    ESA’s Pangaea training course is preparing astronauts and space engineers to identify planetary geological features for future missions to the Moon, Mars and asteroids.

    The campaign provides the crew with introductory and practical knowledge of Earth and planetary geology. Astronauts work under leading European planetary geologists.

    The theory part was followed by field trips to the Ries Crater in Germany, the Italian Dolomites and to the volcanic landscapes of Lanzarote, Spain.

    More about Pangaea:

    Pangaea blog:

    Film Director: Sirio Sechi
    Video shooting and editing: Sirio Sechi
    Videocopilot: TheBattleShips - ChangeIt
    ccmixter: 700P3D - Feeling Dark (Behind The Mask)
    ccmixter: Airtone - Leaves
    A singing comet - original data credit: ESA/Rosetta/RPC/RPC-MAG
    Sonification: TU Braunschweig/IGEP/Manuel Senfft, CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0
    Jason Shaw - Essence2 (

    Curiosity picture: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    Rosetta pictures: ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM – CC BY-SA IGO 3.0

  • Pangaea Movement




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