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What If Our Sun Became a Neutron Star?

  • What If Our Sun Became a Neutron Star?

    4:27

    Neutron stars are massive gravitational monsters, and orbiting one wouldn't end up well for our planet. But what if we took just a spoonful of it and transported it to Earth? Such a tiny amount of a neutron star couldn't possibly destroy us all... or could it?

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    What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure — grounded in scientific theory — through time, space and chance, as we ask what if some of the most fundamental aspects of our existence were different.

  • What If Our Sun Was A Neutron Star?

    8:37

    What If Our Sun Was A Neutron Star?
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    Hello internet, what’s going on - and once again welcome back to the most inquisitive channel on YouTube - Life’s Biggest Questions. Today we curiously ask the question - What If Our Sun Was A Neutron Star?

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  • What If Our Sun Became a Black Dwarf?

    3:58

    What if instead of shining brightly for another 5 billion years, the only star in our Solar System turned into a dark and cold remnant? A black dwarf.

    How long would the Earth last without all the heat and light it gets from the Sun? What would happen to the rest of our Solar System?

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    About What If: Produced by Underknown in Toronto, Canada, What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure — grounded in scientific theory — through time, space and chance, as we ask what if some of the most fundamental aspects of our existence were different.

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  • What If a Neutron Star Entered the Solar System?

    10:02

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  • What If a Magnetar Entered Our Solar System?

    4:20

    This is the most powerful object in the Universe. The biggest spinning magnet to ever exist.
    It's the cosmic equivalent of a great white shark. But it wouldn't eat you. It would just turn all your atoms to dust... If you thought neutron stars were big and scary, well, you haven't heard of their more powerful stellar cousins yet. Like neutron stars, magnetars are leftovers from supernova explosions.

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    Produced by Underknown in Toronto, What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure — grounded in scientific theory — through time, space and chance, as we ask what if some of the most fundamental aspects of our existence were different.
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  • What If a Spoonful of Neutron Star Appeared on Earth?

    4:00

    Neutron stars are massive gravitational monsters, and orbiting one wouldn't end up well for our planet. But what if we took just a spoonful of it and transported it to Earth? Such a tiny amount of a neutron star couldn't possibly destroy us all... or could it?

    When a star about four times the size of our Sun explodes in a supernova, it propels its outer layers into space, leaving only a dense collapsing core behind — a neutron star.

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    Produced by Underknown in Toronto, What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure — grounded in scientific theory — through time, space and chance, as we ask what if some of the most fundamental aspects of our existence were different.
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  • If the Sun Became a Black Hole, Would Earth Fall In?

    3:20

    If our sun turned into a black hole, you might think our solar system would be doomed, but in reality that's just not how black holes work.

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  • Can A Neutron Star Destroy The Sun?

    2:11

    When a medium size star whose mass is 15 to 29 times the mass of Sun dies, it's central core collapses into itself and a Neutron Star is born.

    Neutron Stars have diameter of 20 kilometres and mass 1.4 times of the Sun making them one of the densest objects in universe. So, What will happen if a Neutron star collides with the Sun?

    What Will Happen if Pluto Hits The Earth?
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    Credits: NASA, ESO

  • 如果我們的太陽成為黑矮星怎麼辦,地球會失去了溫暖嗎? | 大膽科學

    4:02

    地球只剩下冬天...

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  • What If a Quasi-Star Entered Our Solar System?

    4:52

    This rogue star has been traveling the Universe. And now, it's finally entering our Solar System. But this isn't just any regular star. It's known as a quasi-star and is one of the biggest stars in existence. What would happen if this star entered our Solar System? And how would Earth be affected?

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  • Earth Was Pierced By a Neutron Star In The Past!

    5:21

    Be like SMART BANANA:

    Earth is a weird place. We all know this, right Mr. Banana? There are mysteries that we haven’t been able to explain yet, even with our best sciences.
    Mysteries like the Patomskiy Crater.
    What’s that, you ask?
    Well keep watching because we’re about to blow your minds with their weirdness of this odd and fascinating crater in the ground.

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  • What Would Happen if Neutron Star Passed Near Earth? Universe Sandbox²

    17:44

    Hello and welcome to What Da Math!
    In this video, we will talk about a hypothetical situation if a neutron star or a pulsar would pass next to Earth.

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  • What If Earth Orbited UY Scuti?

    4:47

    UY Scuti: It's the largest star that we've ever discovered. And if it were to replace our Sun, it would change a lot more than just the amount of sunscreen you'd have to put on. Like, how long would it take for our planet to orbit this massive star? What would that do to our seasons? And would we even survive a single orbit?

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  • What Actually Happens When You Drop Something into a Real Black Hole?

    14:32

    Get your Action Lab Box Now!

    In this video I show you what it actually looks like to drop different things into a black hole! I talk about gravitational lensing, gravitational time dilation and gravitational red shifting. All of this to show you what it would actually look like to watch something fall into a black hole.

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    DISCLAIMER: Any experiment you try is at your own risk

  • Warning: DO NOT TRY—Seeing How Close I Can Get To a Drop of Neutrons

    8:26

    Get your Action Lab Box Now!
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    In this video I show you what happens when you try to get close to 1 drop of a neutron star. I tell you how a neutron star is made and then also talk about different types of stars and show you a method that you could use to actually get very close to a small drop of a neutron star!

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    If you use the information from this video for your own projects then you assume complete responsibility for the results.

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    What Happens if You Open a Vacuum Chamber Under Water? And Do Vacuums Float?


    Can Light be Black? Mind-Blowing Dark Light Experiments!


    Mirror-Polished Japanese Foil Ball Challenge Crushed in a Hydraulic Press-What's Inside?


    Mixing the World's Blackest Paint With the World's Brightest Paint (Black 2.0 vs LIT)


    Is it Possible to Unboil an Egg? The Amazing Uncooking Experiment!


    What if You Try To Lift a Negative Mass? Mind-Blowing Physical Impossibility!


    What Does a Giant Monster Neodymium Magnet do to a Mouse?


    The Worlds Blackest Black vs The Worlds Brightest Flashlight (32,000 lumen)—Which Will Win?


    How Much Weight Can a Fly Actually Lift? Experiment—I Lassoed a Fly!

  • The Last Light Before Eternal Darkness – White Dwarfs & Black Dwarfs

    6:29

    Everything will end. Even the universe. But in a future so far away that it defies description, there will still be light and therefore a chance for life. It will be around White Dwarfs, the corpses of stars. But even they will fade one day..

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    The Last Light Before Eternal Darkness – White Dwarfs & Black Dwarfs

  • What Makes Neutron Stars the Most Extreme Things in the Universe

    9:01

    What is a neutron star? What are neutron stars made of? Well, they might not be as popular as black holes, but it doesn't make them any less enigmatic! Little is known about these super-dense remains of ancient stars. But one recent event may shed light on at least some of their mysteries!

    When energy starts to leave the fading star, it transforms into a neutron star. Energy is leaving it in the form of neutrinos - particles. During a supernova explosion, the star emits almost 10 times more neutrinos than the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in the Sun! No wonder such conditions give birth to something truly scary…

    TIMESTAMPS:
    How regular stars transform into neutron stars 0:41
    Small yet superheavy 2:13
    What happens when two neutron stars collide 3:08
    If there was life on a neutron star... 5:37
    Why it's so hard to locate neutron stars 6:49

    Other videos you might like:
    The Most Dangerous Thing in the Whole Universe
    Something Strange Is Glowing in the Milky Way Right Now
    What Would a Journey to the Black Hole Be Like?

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  • Neutron Stars Are Scarier Than Black Holes!

    13:03

    It may seem crazy to think that there are things in the universe scarier than a Black Hole, but a Neutron Star might just be that. Join us as we explore why that might be!
    8. Let's Define A Black Hole
    Before we get into the power and fear of Neutron Stars, it's important to know exactly what a Black Hole is and why they too are to be feared. Because while you might have a loose definition as to what they are what they do, they're actually far more complex than you might realize. Which is why many people in NASA and other space programs are fascinated by them.
    If you're looking for a technical definition, this is how NASA describes Black Holes:
    A black hole is a place in space where gravity pulls so much that even light cannot get out. The gravity is so strong because matter has been squeezed into a tiny space. This can happen when a star is dying.
    This singularity as it is often called is a bit of a mystery in space, and for a very good reason. You see, black holes can form in large sizes, small sizes, and sometimes they don't even need a fully fledged star to form at all! Which is scary in the sense that it means black holes can form in various ways.
    Plus, since no light can actually escape them, it means that they can't technically be seen by anyone. That being said, it's easy to see their work, as the intense gravity of the Black Holes is enough to stretch objects from their starting point and slowly pull them to the Black Hole. This is known as spaghettification, because like a stretched piece of spaghetti, the object will get thinner and thinner until nothings exists but particles. And if you think that a Black Hole is limited in what it can absorb, you would be wrong. Very wrong in fact. If it is close enough, it'll break down a star, a planet, multiple stars and planets at once, etc. It's a question of range more than anything.
    But there's a catch to that, as you won't be able to observe the spaghettification yourself. Why? Remember, no light escapes the void that is the Black Hole, so because of that, you'll see the last known position of the object that light allows you to see. It'll seem like they're stuck in place and slowly going away until they're gone. When in fact, they or it will be slowly pulled apart.
    So just based on that alone you can see why Black Holes aren't just an entity in space, they're something to be feared by every living thing, and NASA is trying to map them all out in the universe as best they can so that we don't get caught up in them at any point in time.
    So given all of that fear and power that Black Holes give off, how the heck is a star scarier than that?
    7. The Birth Of A Neutron Star
    Believe it or not, Black Holes and Neutron Stars do share many things in common aside from being objects of great power and being something to avoid when possible. For example, the way they're created is somewhat similar, as they both depend on the of stars in certain cases (Black Holes can form many different ways for the record).
    Stars may not look it, but just like planets they thrive on a certain balance. Mainly, the balance of the gasses that are within them and the gravity that is exerted on them. The reason that stars are able to be balls of gas in the sky is because of this balance. The gravity of the star pushes gasses like Hydrogen and Helium down, causing molecules to fuse in order to emit light and energy, which is why we feel warm because of the sun. However, eventually, the gasses needed to maintain the balance, in this case Hydrogen and Helium, gets burned out. When that balance is thrown out the window, bad things start to happen.
    Usually when the balance is disrupted the sun will transform into a red supergiant, where it will begin the end of its lifecycle before it gets turned back into a new star via a White Dwarf. But in certain massive stars, the balance that is lost by the gasses that are gone causes a chain reaction. One that causes the core of the massive star to be compressed, and that gets a chain reaction of elements to transform into one thing and then another until only Iron is left. Yeah, a star can literally turn its core into solid Iron, and that's bad.
    Because Iron has no energy to give off, and that massive ball of iron will get crushed by the gravity of the star itself. Then, the electrons of the core will start to transform into Neutrons, and via the compression of both the core and the outer layer, a supernova will occur. Where the core continues to be compressed, but everything else in the star is jettisoned into the wilds of space itself. This is cool in context, especially when you consider that the light that will be emitted by this can eclipse entirely galaxies (which means you probably shouldn't stare at it...you'll go blind), which shows just how powerful the is.
    However, the result of all of this compression and destruction is a Neutron Star..

  • What If All Stars Exploded at the Same Time?

    4:09

    For every galaxy that's visible from Earth, there are nine smaller ones that we can't see, even with all the technology we've developed. That's 90% of all space stuff in the observable universe that we're missing out on. We can't even see all the stars in the Milky Way. Our home galaxy is just too cluttered with gas, dust, smaller stars and, well, one supermassive black hole. All that makes it impossible to tell how many stars there really are out there. But whatever that number is, it sure has a lot of zeros in it.

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  • What If Betelgeuse Exploded Right Now?

    5:10

    At about 950 times bigger than our Sun, Betelgeuse is one of the biggest stars in our Universe. But that comes with a price. Just like us, stars have a life expectancy, and Betelgeuse is no different. It’s a ticking time bomb that's ready to go, but we're not sure when. So, what if today was the day Betelgeuse went out with a bang? How would the Earth be affected? And will our Universe ever be the same?

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    #Betelgeuse

  • What if there was a black hole in your pocket?

    3:38

    What would happen to you if a black hole the size of a coin suddenly appeared in your pocket? Lets find out!

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  • What If a Rogue Planet Entered Our Solar System

    3:43

    Scientists found a mysterious rogue planet roaming aimlessly outside our solar system. What if it came closer?

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    What If asks some of the most provocative hypothetical questions in science — and then tries to answer them with the help of established scientific theory and the latest research.

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  • Can a Black Hole Destroy a Neutron Star?!

    8:27

    Welcome to another experiment in Universe Sandbox 2, for science. Today I'll be testing a suggestion from AAV asking what would happen if we orbited a white dwarf around a black hole with a mass equal to that of 100 solar masses? Let's find out!

    Universe Sandbox 2 is a space sandbox with endless possibilities, and is an awesome game for people who want to see visually intense events that happen in our universe. But, keep in mind the game is still an alpha in early development, the physics and results depicted in this game are to be taken with a grain a salt, the game tries to, but does not always accurately reproduce the expectations of our current knowledge of physics, it's a useful resource for education, but this is a let's play based on events in this game, not an educational series!

    A lot of the ideas in this series are suggestions by viewers and aren't intended to be educational, we are more just seeing how the game behaves with these events.

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  • The Life and Death of Stars: White Dwarfs, Supernovae, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

    16:36

    We've learned how stars form, and we've gone over some different types of stars, like main sequence stars, red giants, and white dwarfs. But a star will move between these categories over its lifetime. How does that happen, exactly? And what is leftover when a star dies? A white dwarf? A neutron star? A black hole? What are these objects? Let's answer all of these questions and more by analyzing the life cycle of a few different star types!

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  • The Power Of Neutron Stars!

    14:26

    We know how terrifying and powerful black holes can be, but what comes second place in terms to it in terms of overall awesomeness? Join us today as we learn about neutron stars!

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    One of the most popular outer space entities that pop culture love to revolve about is the black hole. We’ve seen various movies, TV programs, even some songs talk about how magnificent and mysterious they are. But what if black holes aren’t the only objects that we should be amazed with?

    Of course we have a lot of picks for that matter, but the particular thing we would talk about today is the star that ranks number 1 in the universe in terms of density: the neutron stars.

    Okay, astro fans, I can hear you argue and say “No, black holes are the densest objects in the universe!” But let me tell you this: remember how black holes work? They are effectively stars that collapsed to an almost zero volume, which results in their enormous gravitational force. If they effectively are dimensionless, can we really say that they are “objects”?

    We can’t be really sure, and that’s something that only philosophy can answer, but while we’re here at the subject of definitions and what we actually know for certain, let’s just say the one we can categorize as the densest object, quote-unquote, is the neutron star.

    And no, a neutron star is not a subatomic particle which grew to the size of the star. It isn’t also a bunch of neutrons agreeing to somehow collectively come together to form a humongous star. Although we can effectively say that a neutron star is like a giant atom, we'll get to that later.

    For now, I want to discuss how neutron stars are born and why they are like Phoenixes: how from the ashes of their old corpses, they rise up and fly with their new, replenished lives!

    I know you already know this if you’re an astro buff, but to some of our viewers out there who are new, first of all, welcome! We hope we spark your curiosity more through our videos!

    Anyway, stars were discovered to follow some kind of lifecycle, just like us living beings on Earth. They too, get born, have a childhood phase, then grow to adulthood, then also die, after certain circumstances.

    A star’s usual routine involves fusing hydrogen into helium. Quite honestly, in its lifetime, that’s all it ever does. Now, as we know from basic nuclear physics, when we fuse atoms together, it creates energy. The energy that the fusion in the star creates is countered by the gravitational force towards its center, effectively keeping the balance and preventing it from collapsing towards its center. As long as this goes on, everything is good and well at a star’s life.

    But of course, like all lives, stars experience a tipping point in theirs.

    Remember how stars burn hydrogen to fuse to helium? Well, eventually, stars run out of hydrogen to fuse, so they fuse helium instead, forming elements such as carbon and oxygen. The energy pushes out the borders of the star causing it to move to its giant phase, until the pressure from electron degeneracy collapses the core of the star, and expelling its outer layer leaving a white dwarf.

    For heavy mass stars, a number of times larger than the mass of our own Sun, the story is different.

    The same as earlier, when the star runs out of hydrogen to fuse, it begins to fuse heavier elements. The difference this time is that the collapse caused by gravity is so extremely strong, way stronger than what we described earlier, that the fusion goes to Neon, to Oxygen, to Silicon, then finally to Iron.

    As this happens, the outer layer of the star begins to fatten up faster as time goes by.

    When the core of the star is finally iron, fusion can no longer take place, as iron is stubborn this way. We can imagine at this point, there is no more energy resulting from fusion. So what if that happens? The own weight of the star collapses in itself, effectively crushing it to the size of up to around a 10 kilometer radius. It’s like compressing the star to about the size of Malta!

    Now, we know how subatomic particles don’t want to get near each other, right? We can practically say that an atom is made of empty space. However, the strength of the gravitational force that occurs when a heavy mass star collapses crushes this space in between, merging the protons and electrons together to form neutrons, with some neutrinos in excess.

    But the extravaganza of energy doesn’t end there! See, neutrons hate being compressed towards one another, too. Just like protons and electrons. The collapse can only occur up to a certain moment where the neutrons form a lattice-like structure, the crushing in stops. By the way, this sudden halt is what we call neutron degeneracy pressure.

    #InsaneCuriosity#NeutronStars #HowTheUniverseWorks

  • What if you fell into a Black Hole? | #aumsum #kids #science #education #children

    4:20

    Boundary of the black hole is called event horizon. Small black holes have stronger gravitational forces than large ones. If you fell towards a small black hole, the strong gravitational forces would stretch you, until you are torn apart, even before you cross the event horizon. In case of a large black hole, you would be able to enter it, unharmed, falling freely until you reach its center or point of singularity. Here, you would get squashed and merge into it.

    But your friend observing this from outside never actually sees you enter the black hole. He just sees you fall in slow motion, freeze and then go dimmer. This is because our current laws of physics don’t apply beyond the event horizon, making it impossible for us to see beyond.

  • What If We Moved Earth?

    4:49

    Some 5 billion years from now, the Sun will expand and become a red giant. And Earth might be just in the way... If humans were still around then, would we leave Earth? Or would we move it? What is the Sun's problem anyway?

    Like any other star, it has an expiration date. The beginning of its end will feature our Sun swelling into a red giant, wiping out everything that happens to be orbiting it too closely. Like Earth.

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  • Black Hole vs Neutron Star collision, Who wins?

    1:44

    Black Hole vs. Neutron Star, who would win? Watch to know!!

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  • Black Hole vs Neutron Star vs White Dwarf | Science Of Space

    2:17

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    The universe is an amazingly entity that scientists have studied for hundreds of years. Much about our universe has been thoroughly explained but yet there is still so much more that has to be explained. Stars are arguably the most researched objects in our entire Universe. Since the dawn of time stars have been visible to the people on earth. Stars are so very interesting to people because they are extremely complex. From the beginning to the end of a stars life cycle there is so much to observe and so much to document. Stars all begin life the same way but the end of the life cycle of a star is the interesting part. Depending on many different variables a star can end up as a white dwarf, neutron star, or a black hole. The biggest deciding factor on how a star will end its life, according to many astronomers, is its mass.

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  • What If You Fell Into a Black Hole?

    4:55

    What would the outcome be if you took a leap of faith straight into a black hole? We looked to Einstein and Hawking to ponder the scenario.

    Say one day you were exploring space looking for a new planet for humans to inhabit, but came across a black hole and decided – why not check it out? Would you have any chance of survival? How would you get out if at all? Would you find a shortcut to another universe? Watch the video to learn about what would happen if you fell into a black hole.

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    About What If: Produced by Underknown in Toronto, Canada, What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure — grounded in scientific theory — through time, space and chance, as we ask what if some of the most fundamental aspects of our existence were different.

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    Imagination will often carry us to worlds that never were. But without it, we go nowhere. — Carl Sagan

  • Ocean Worlds in the Outer Solar System

    1:33:20

    Apr. 10, 2019
    Dr. Kevin Hand of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory asks where the best place is to find life beyond Earth. He concludes it may be that the small, ice-covered moons of Jupiter and Saturn harbor some of the most habitable real estate in our Solar System. Life loves liquid water and these moons have lots of it! Dr. Hand explains the science behind our understanding of these worlds, with a special focus on Jupiter’s intriguing moon Europa, which is a top priority for future NASA missions.

  • Turned Earth Into A Giant Star And This Happened in Universe Sandbox 2

    17:51

    Welcome to Universe Sandbox 2! Create & destroy on an unimaginable scale... with a space simulator that merges real-time gravity, climate, collision, and material interactions to reveal the beauty of our universe and the fragility of our planet.

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  • Unraveling the Mysteries of Exploding Stars

    1:9:01

    Supernovae are cosmic explosions where a single star can become as bright as a billion stars combined. Even though supernovae are crucial to the Universe, including producing the elements necessary for life, many mysteries remain. What powers them? Which stars are exploding? How do stars die? Astrophysicists are combining clues from observations with theoretical modeling to finally address these issues. And just like with any good mystery, often the answers lead to even more questions.

    Dr. Tony Piro
    George Ellery Hale Distinguished Scholar in Theoretical Astrophysics
    Carnegie Institution for Science, The Observatories

    Thank you to The Huntington Library and the Norris Foundation for making Carnegie's Astronomy Lecture Series possible.

  • What Happens If We Bring the Sun to Earth?

    7:01



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    What Happens If We Bring the Sun to Earth?

  • What If We Lived in a Globular Cluster?

    4:21

    Take some cosmic dust and gas, then add billions and billions of planets and a whole lot of stars to the mix. Spice it all up with a handful of gravity to hold things together, and you get a galaxy. Shaken, not stirred. Some of those ingredients would get clumped together. The gases and dust would merge into stars. And stars would get packed together into globular clusters. Some of these clusters could count up to a million stars stuffed into an area 3.2 light-years across. To put that in perspective, the closest star to our Sun is about 4.37 light-years away.

    Could a planet even exist where so many stars are so close together?

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  • What is a Neutron Star?

    2:17

    Here's just some of what we already know about neutron stars. An upcoming NASA mission will further investigate these unusual objects from the International Space Station. The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer mission, or NICER, will study the extraordinary environments — strong gravity, ultra-dense matter, and the most powerful magnetic fields in the universe — embodied by neutron stars. NICER is a two-in-one mission. The embedded Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology, or SEXTANT, demonstration will use NICER data to validate, for the first time in space, pulsar-based navigation.

    NICER is planned for launch aboard the SpaceX CRS-11, currently scheduled for June 1, 2017. Learn more about the mission at nasa.gov/nicer.

    This video is public domain and along with other supporting visualizations can be downloaded from the Scientific Visualization Studio at:

    Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Clare Skelly

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  • What if Neutron Star Collided with White Dwarf? Universe Sandbox²

    12:47

    Hello and welcome to What Da Math!
    In this video, we will talk about a possibility of a neutron star and a white dwarf colliding.

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  • New study might explain our suns twin Nemesis

    1:07

    Astronomers say it's likely Nemesis broke away from our sun millions of years ago.

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  • Our sun-the Proton/Neutron Star & the dwarf Star

    10:56

  • WHAT IF....EARTH was near a NEUTRON STAR

    8:53

    WHAT IF....EARTH was near a NEUTRON STAR
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  • What if a Neutron Star hits the Sun?

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  • What Can Do Neutron Star To Our Solar System

    10:16

    Simulation Created In Universe Sandbox 2

  • What If We Could Harness the Energy of a Black Hole?

    3:53

    What would happen if you put a couple of physicists in a room with a rope, a box and a black hole? They might come up with a plan to power the Earth for centuries. Black holes aren't something you come across every day. To make a black hole of your own, you'd have to squeeze a star ten times bigger than our Sun into a sphere the diameter of New York City.

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  • Neutron Stars - Victoria Kaspi

    1:7:17

    General Relativity at 100: Institute for Advanced Study and Princeton University Celebrate the Enduring Reach, Power and Mysteries of Einstein’s Theory

    Victoria Kaspi - November 5, 2015



    Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, a pillar of modern physics formulated 100 years ago, will be celebrated by the Institute for Advanced Study and Princeton University in a two-day conference, General Relativity at 100. The conference, which will feature ten colloquium-style talks by international experts on diverse aspects of general relativity and its fascinating history—from cosmology to quantum gravity, from black holes to neutron stars—will take place in Wolfensohn Hall on the Institute’s campus on November 5–6. The conference will also celebrate the seminal role of Princeton physicists, particularly John Wheeler and Bob Dicke and their students, in advancing an examination of general relativity.

    “The general theory of relativity is based on profound and elegant principles that connect the physics of motion and mass to the geometry of space and time,” stated Robbert Dijkgraaf, Director of the Institute and Leon Levy Professor. “With Einstein’s equations, even the universe itself became an object of study. Only now, after a century of calculations and observations, the full power of this theory has become visible, from black holes and gravitational lenses to the practical use of GPS devices.”

    Einstein was one of the Institute’s first Faculty members, serving from 1933 until his death in 1955, and played a significant part in its early development. Einstein came to the United States to take up his appointment at the invitation of Abraham Flexner, the Institute’s Founding Director. Today, theorists at the Institute continue to interpret and test Einstein’s theory of general relativity, about which questions persist: What is the physics of black holes? Do space and time emerge from a more fundamental description? Why is the universe accelerating? How can general relativity be reconciled with quantum mechanics? What are the origins and the long-term fate of the universe?

    The celebration will open on November 4 with a special performance of Light Falls: Space, Time, and an Obsession of Einstein, a dramatic portrayal of Einstein’s discovery of the general theory of relativity, at Princeton University’s Richardson Auditorium. Light Falls, written by Brian Greene, Member (1992-93) in the Institute’s School of Natural Sciences and Professor of Theoretical Physics at Columbia University, composed by Jeff Beal (“House of Cards”), designed by 59 Productions (“An American in Paris”) and directed by Scott Faris (“Walking with Dinosaurs”), is an original work weaving together dramatic portrayals, state-of-the-art animation and innovative projection techniques to trace Einstein’s electrifying journey toward one of the most beautiful ideas ever conceived.

    The conference will close on November 6 with a recital for the Institute campus community by world-acclaimed violinist Joshua Bell and a screening of the new documentary Einstein’s Light by Nickolas Barris, Director’s Visitor (2013) at the Institute and founder of Imaginary Films. Einstein’s Light explores how scientific imagination and innovation advance knowledge, with Einstein and Dutch Nobel Laureate Hendrik Lorentz as models. The film examines Einstein’s discoveries as well as modern examples of scientific imagination and innovation, highlighting institutions such as the Institute and others around the world. Bruce Adolphe’s score reflects the power of music as a catalyst for Einstein’s scientific creativity and his deep connection to the music of Mozart and Bach. Joshua Bell’s performance at the Institute will mark the world premiere of the score set to the final visualization from the film.

    Major support for the General Relativity at 100 conference and related events has been provided by Eric and Wendy Schmidt.

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  • Glitch in neutron star reveals its hidden secrets

    5:10

    Glitch in neutron star reveals its hidden secrets
    Greg Ashton and Paul Lasky in Nature Astronomy,





  • What if you brought a TEASPOON of NEUTRON STAR to earth?

    3:24

    Neutron stars are one of the most fascinating, mysterious and scary thing in the universe. what would happen if you can bring a teaspoon of neutron star to earth
    Also, learn about what is a neutron star, their formation, weight, density and other amazing properties
    Correction
    Supernova only occurs when a star is at least 1.44 times the mass of sun (if a star accumulates too much mass from its companion binary star system )
    or
    if the star is above 8 times the mass of sun

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  • What Will Happen If a Neutron Star With Size of Sugar Cube Hit With Earth. IN اردو And हिन्दी

    4:44

    A neutron star is the collapsed core of a giant star which before collapse had a total mass of between 10 and 29 solar masses. Neutron stars are the smallest and densest stars, excluding black holes and hypothetical white holes, quark stars, and strange stars. Neutron stars have a radius on the order of 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) and a mass of about 1.4 solar masses. They result from the supernova explosion of a massive star, combined with gravitational collapse, that compresses the core past white dwarf star density to that of atomic nuclei.

    Once formed, they no longer actively generate heat, and cool over time; however, they may still evolve further through collision or accretion. Most of the basic models for these objects imply that neutron stars are composed almost entirely of neutrons (subatomic particles with no net electrical charge and with a slightly larger mass than protons); the electrons and protons present in normal matter combine to produce neutrons at the conditions in a neutron star. Neutron stars are partially supported against further collapse by neutron degeneracy pressure, a phenomenon described by the Pauli exclusion principle, just as white dwarfs are supported against collapse by electron degeneracy pressure. However, neutron degeneracy pressure is not by itself sufficient to hold up an object beyond 0.7M☉ and repulsive nuclear forces play a larger role in supporting more massive neutron stars. If the remnant star has a mass exceeding the Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit of around 2 solar masses, the combination of degeneracy pressure and nuclear forces is insufficient to support the neutron star and it continues collapsing to form a black hole.

    Neutron stars that can be observed are very hot and typically have a surface temperature of around 600000 K. They are so dense that a normal-sized matchbox containing neutron-star material would have a weight of approximately 3 billion tonnes, the same weight as a 0.5 cubic kilometer chunk of the Earth (a cube with edges of about 800 meters) from Earth's surface. Their magnetic fields are between 108 and 1015 (100 million to 1 quadrillion) times stronger than Earth's magnetic field. The gravitational field at the neutron star's surface is about 2×1011 (200 billion) times that of Earth's gravitational field.

    As the star's core collapses, its rotation rate increases as a result of the conservation of angular momentum, and newly formed neutron stars hence rotate at up to several hundred times per second. Some neutron stars emit beams of electromagnetic radiation that make them detectable as pulsars. Indeed, the discovery of pulsars by Jocelyn Bell Burnell and Antony Hewish in 1967 was the first observational suggestion that neutron stars exist. The radiation from pulsars is thought to be primarily emitted from regions near their magnetic poles. If the magnetic poles do not coincide with the rotational axis of the neutron star, the emission beam will sweep the sky, and when seen from a distance, if the observer is somewhere in the path of the beam, it will appear as pulses of radiation coming from a fixed point in space (the so-called lighthouse effect).


    There are thought to be around 100 million neutron stars in the Milky Way, a figure obtained by estimating the number of stars that have undergone supernova explosions. However, most are old and cold and radiate very little; most neutron stars that have been detected occur only in certain situations in which they do radiate, such as if they are a pulsar or part of a binary system. Slow-rotating and non-accreting neutron stars are almost undetectable; however, since the Hubble Space Telescope detection of RX J185635−3754, a few nearby neutron stars that appear to emit only thermal radiation have been detected. Soft gamma repeaters are conjectured to be a type of neutron star with very strong magnetic fields, known as magnetars, or alternatively, neutron stars with fossil disks around them

    Neutron stars in binary systems can undergo accretion which typically makes the system bright in X-rays while the material falling onto the neutron star can form hotspots that rotate in and out of view in identified X-ray pulsar systems. Additionally, such accretion can recycle old pulsars and potentially cause them to gain mass and spin-up to very fast rotation rates, forming the so-called millisecond pulsars. These binary systems will continue to evolve, and eventually, the companions can become compact objects such as white dwarfs or neutron stars themselves, though other possibilities include the complete destruction of the companion through ablation or merger.

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  • Astronomy - Ch. 22: Neutron Star How Does a Neutron Star Form?

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    We will learn a neutron star form when a super massive red giant (at a last stage) when it elements are fused into heavier elements fusing into the iron core with enormous pressure at temperature of 5 billion K. Then the red giant star becomes a Type 2 supernova going through photodisintegration resulting a neutron star.

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  • What If We Extinguished the Sun?

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    How much water would you need to extinguish the Sun? How would we deliver such an enormous amount of water anyway? Would all that water even make it to the star?
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  • What makes neutron stars so special? | Michelle Thaller | Big Think

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    What makes neutron stars so special?
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    Being outside of Earth's atmosphere while also being able to look down on the planet is both a challenge and a unique benefit for astronauts conducting important and innovative experiments aboard the International Space Station.

    NASA astrophysicist Michelle Thaller explains why one such project, known as NICER (Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer), is one of the most amazing discoveries of the last year.

    Researchers used x-ray light data from NICER to map the surface of neutrons (the spinning remnants of dead stars 10-50 times the mass of our sun). Thaller explains how this data can be used to create a clock more accurate than any on Earth, as well as a GPS device that can be used anywhere in the galaxy.
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    MICHELLE THALLER:

    Dr. Michelle Thaller is an astronomer who studies binary stars and the life cycles of stars. She is Assistant Director of Science Communication at NASA. She went to college at Harvard University, completed a post-doctoral research fellowship at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, Calif. then started working for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Spitzer Space Telescope. After a hugely successful mission, she moved on to NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), in the Washington D.C. area. In her off-hours often puts on about 30lbs of Elizabethan garb and performs intricate Renaissance dances. For more information, visit
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    TRANSCRIPT:

    MICHELLE THALLER: I'm an astrophysicist and one of the things that I have been really impressed with with the International Space Station, some of the most amazing and innovating and strange experiments today are actually located on the space station. It's, of course, a wonderful platform to look at a lot of stuff because you're up above the atmosphere, you're up in space and you can both look out into space and you can also look back down at our home planet the Earth.

    One of the things that makes it a challenge to actually use it as, for example, an observatory with telescopes is that the space station swings around a lot so you have to be able to actually stabilize the image and what you're looking at, especially if you're working on the space station. But to me certainly one of the most amazing discoveries of the last year has come out of the space station experiment called NICER, that's the acronym. It stands for the Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer so NICER. And NICER it's actually a camera that looks at x-ray light. So, this is very, very high energy light and luckily for us this light does not get through the atmosphere. There are x-rays coming from space all the time and they would be very harmful to us but they're absorbed by the air in the Earth's atmosphere. Of course that means if you want to study x-rays coming from space you need to get up above the atmosphere and the space station is. Now, NICER was specifically designed to look at a very interesting type of dead star called a neutron star. And a neutron star is the remnants when a very massive star, a star that might have been 10, 20, 50 times the mass of the sun violently dies and explodes. And incredibly the core of the star is usually still intact after that because the core became so compressed in that explosion that it holds together as a giant ball of atoms basically. Neutron stars are only about ten miles across. They have the density of one big atomic nucleus and that means that if you had a teaspoon full of this material, this neutronium, that teaspoonful would have about as much mass as Mount Everest. So, a ten mile ball every little bit of it is that dense and not only that these things spin hundreds of times a second. They are wonderful. They are real monsters. The gravity around them is so intense, it's not a black hole but it's sort of natures next best thing. The gravity is so intense that light is actually bent around these objects. And one of the most amazing things that we did with NICER recently is we used data coming in from x-rays from these hot dense little balls to actually map the surface and see where parts were hotter than others. And that was very challenging to do because when you actually took an image, and this wasn't a simple image it was constructed out of many...

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