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What is a Vaccine?

  • What is a Vaccine?


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    #immunization #vaccines #viruses

    Immunization is the process of becoming immune to or protected against a disease usually by receiving a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate your immune system to protect you from certain diseases so you won't get sick or get an infection. Normally, the organs and cells of your immune system defend your body from harmful germs, such as bacteria and viruses. Immune cells are constantly circulating through your body. They monitor certain substances on the surfaces of cells called antigens. Healthy cells have different antigens than diseased body cells or foreign invaders in the body. Immune cells usually ignore the antigens on healthy cells. But when immune cells come across antigens on germs, they destroy the germ. Afterward, the immune cell displays the germ's antigen on its surface. This activates other types of immune cells to help get rid of the infection. For example, some activated immune cells recognize the antigen on infected body cells and then destroy them. Other activated immune cells, called plasma cells, make molecules called antibodies. These antibodies travel through your body and lock on only to germs that have its specific antigen. This marks the germ for destruction. Then other immune cells attack the germs that have these antibodies. Once the infection is gone, some of the immune cells that were exposed to the antigen become memory immune cells. In the future, if the same type of germ infects your body again, the memory immune cells will be ready to destroy it so you don't get sick. This is called natural immunity. In many cases, it will last your whole lifetime. The problem with getting natural immunity from having the disease itself is that some naturally acquired infections can cause serious complications or may even be deadly. For example, polio can result in permanent paralysis or death. Measles can cause swelling of the brain resulting in permanent brain damage or death, especially in children under age 5. And whooping cough also known as pertussis can cause complications such as pneumonia, slowed or stopped breathing, and death, especially in babies under 1 year of age. While symptoms may not be severe in all people, it's not possible to know who will be affected enough to become very ill or even die. Vaccines can protect you from getting these diseases and their harmful symptoms. Vaccines often contain a small amount of weakened or killed germs, but some contain genetic material such as RNA or DNA that provide instructions for your body's own cells to make the germ's antigen. Usually, you receive a vaccine as a shot. Inside your body, the germ particles in the vaccine teach your immune cells to attack these germs. This process doesn't make you sick, but it does cause your body to make memory cells and antibodies for those germs. As a result, if that germ infects your body later in life, your immune system is ready to fight the infection so that you don't get sick. The main types of vaccines include: live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, toxoid vaccines, subunit and conjugate vaccines, mRNA vaccines, and viral vector vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines use alive but weakened germs. They're most like a natural infection and provide a strong disease immunity, examples are the measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, and flu nasal spray vaccines. Inactivated vaccines use inactive or killed germs. You may need several doses or booster shots over time. Examples are the hepatitis A, flu, polio, and rabies vaccines. Toxoid vaccines protect against harmful substances made by germs called toxins. They use weakened versions of the toxins called toxoids. You may need booster shots to maintain protection against diseases.


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  • How do vaccines work? - Kelwalin Dhanasarnsombut


    Learn the science behind how vaccines trigger an immune response and teach our bodies to recognize dangerous pathogens.


    The first ever vaccine was created when Edward Jenner, an English physician and scientist, successfully injected small amounts of a cowpox virus into a young boy to protect him from the related (and deadly) smallpox virus. But how does this seemingly counterintuitive process work? Kelwalin Dhanasarnsombut details the science behind vaccines.

    Lesson by Kelwalin Dhanasarnsombut, animation by Cinematic.

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  • What Is An mRNA Coronavirus Vaccine?


    More than 30 biotech and pharmaceutical companies around the world are racing to develop a safe Covid-19 vaccine. The process is moving quickly with several vaccine candidates entering late-stage trials in a matter of months. Two of the companies developing a vaccine — Pfizer and Moderna — are utilizing a promising new technology called messenger RNA. Watch the video to learn why experts believe this vaccination method could be a game-changer for getting back to normal.

    CORRECTION At 0:30, this video misstated the number of companies chosen by the White House to receive ‘fast track’ designation from Operation Warp Speed. Vaccine projects from Sanofi, in partnership with GSK, and Novavax also received fast-track status.

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    What Is An mRNA Coronavirus Vaccine?

  • Vaccines 101: How vaccines work


    As the world waits for a potential COVID-19 vaccine, we delve into how vaccines actually work. What are the different types of vaccine? How do they trigger and train the immune system, and what is the role of herd immunity?


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  • COVID-19 Coronavirus Vaccine: How Does It Affect Your Body?


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    This video is a collaboration between Nucleus Medical Media and our friends at the What If Channel. To watch interesting hypothetical scenarios on the human body, humanity, the planet and the cosmos, please visit the What If Channel at

    This video explains what happens in your body when you get the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, including how the vaccine helps your immune system recognize and fight the COVID-19 virus, possible side effects from the vaccine, and how long before you are fully-vaccinated against the virus after receiving the vaccine.

    Hash tags: #CoronavirusVaccine #COVID19Vaccine #Coronavirus

  • Why Do We Get Vaccines?


    Jessi is about to go to the doctor's to get a vaccine and she's sort of nervous. But she knows that vaccines are really important, so she learned all about how they help us stay healthy! Now she wants to share what she learned with you!
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  • Vaccines and the Immune Response: How Vaccines Work


    Vaccines and the Immune Response: How Vaccines Work
    This animation provides an overview of vaccines and the immune response, and how influenza vaccines work. Influenza vaccines are able to trigger an immune response by mimicking viral infection. They are usually manufactured using inactivated or killed virus particles taken from various circulating influenza strains.

  • How vaccines work against COVID-19: Science, Simplified


    After we have been exposed to an infection, our immune system remembers the threat, in particular by producing antibodies. These are proteins that circulate in the blood and throughout the body; they quickly recognize and disable the invader upon contact, thereby preventing or minimizing illness. This is why we usually do not get sick with the same bug twice; we are immune. Vaccines mimic this process, encouraging the immune system to make antibodies without us having to go through the illness.

    Some of the leading SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates are “mRNA vaccines,” based on incorporating the genetic blueprint for the key spike protein on the virus surface into a formula that when injected into humans instructs our own cells to make the spike protein. In turn, the body then makes antibodies against the spike protein and they protect us against viral infection.
    This strategy is faster than more traditional approaches, which often involve generating weakened or inactivated forms of a live virus or making large amounts of the spike protein to determine whether they can prompt an antibody response.

    Once a potential vaccine is discovered, a number of checkpoints exist before it can be administered to people. First are preclinical tests, which involve experiments in a laboratory and with animals. Scientists must ensure the vaccine candidate is not only effective, but also safe. For example, an antibody response to an imperfect vaccine could, under extremely rare circumstances, end up increasing the danger of becoming infected.
    When the potential vaccine achieves the necessary preclinical results, clinical trials can begin in a small group of people. As the vaccine candidate advances, it is tested on increasing numbers of people, with scientists and doctors closely monitoring safety, efficacy and dosing. Upon successful completion of clinical trials, the vaccine candidate must be reviewed and approved by regulatory agencies such as the FDA before large-scale manufacturing and distribution gets underway and the licensed vaccine is administered widely.

  • What Is In A Vaccine: Vaccine Ingredients And Safety


    Watch this video to learn about the different ingredients in vaccines and how these ingredients are used to keep vaccines safe and effective.

    Before a vaccine is approved for use in the United States, the vaccine is tested extensively in clinical trials. The results from these clinical trials help determine if the vaccine is safe and effective. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) looks at the results from these clinical trials before determining whether the vaccine can be approved for use in the United States. Vaccines contain only the ingredients they need to be safe and effective. There are many different ingredients in vaccines. Each ingredient serves a specific purpose. • Some ingredients may help provide immunity (which is protection) against a disease. • Some ingredients may help keep the vaccine safe and long lasting. • Some ingredients may be included because they are used when producing the vaccine. Let’s go over these three types of ingredients in more detail. The first type of ingredient we will talk about are ingredients that help a person’s immune system respond to and build immunity against a specific disease. Examples of this kind of ingredient are antigens, which are very small amounts of weak or dead germs that can cause diseases. Antigens help your immune system learn how to fight off infections faster and more effectively. Another example of a vaccine ingredient that helps a person build immunity are adjuvants. Adjuvants, which are in some vaccines, are substances that help your immune system respond more strongly to a vaccine. This means that you may have increased immunity against the disease. The second type of ingredient we will talk about are ingredients that help keep vaccines safe and long lasting. These ingredients help make sure that the vaccine continues to be safe and work like it’s supposed to work. They also help make sure that germs and bacteria don’t get into the vaccine. An example of this type of ingredient is a preservative, which protects the vaccine from outside bacteria or fungus. Preservatives are usually only used in vaccines that have more than one vaccine dose in each vial or container. Preservatives are used in these vaccines because each time an individual dose of the vaccine is taken from the vial, it’s possible for harmful germs to get inside the vial. Most vaccines are available in single-dose vials and do not have preservatives in them. Another example of this type of ingredient are stabilizers, like sugar or gelatin. These ingredients help the active ingredients in vaccines continue to work while the vaccine is made, stored, and moved around. One example of how stabilizers work is that they keep the active ingredients in vaccines from changing if there is a shift in temperature in the area where the vaccine is being stored. The third type of ingredient we will talk about are ingredients that are used during the production of vaccines. Sometimes ingredients that are needed to produce a vaccine are no longer needed for the vaccine to work when it is given to a person. These ingredients are taken out of the vaccine after it is produced so only very small amounts are left in the vaccine. These small amounts of ingredients that remain in the vaccine aren’t harmful to people. Examples of ingredients that are used during the production of vaccines include: • Cell culture material, which helps grow the vaccine antigens • Inactivating ingredients, which weaken or kill viruses, bacteria, or toxins in the vaccine • Antibiotics, which help keep outside germs and bacteria from growing in the vaccine All of these ingredients are used to make vaccines. All vaccines go through a lot of testing before the FDA approves them for use in the United States. You can feel confident that any vaccine you receive is safe and effective. Let’s review what we just discussed and go over some of the key points: • Vaccines contain only the ingredients they need to be safe and effective. • Each ingredient in a vaccine serves a specific purpose. • Ingredients in vaccines: o Provide immunity against a disease, keep a vaccine safe and long lasting and are used when producing a vaccine.

    CEAL Video 5 English 052582021

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  • What The COVID Vaccine Does To Your Body


    Is the coronavirus vaccine safe? Now that the first COVID19 vaccine from Pfizer is being released, how do mRNA vaccines work?
    Are Vaccines Causing Magnetism?
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    There’s a lot of excitement right now around the record-speed vaccines for COVID19, some of which are already starting distribution in parts of the world. But given that these are mRNA vaccines - a relatively new technology that has not been widely used before - we wanted to explain how they work, and what happens in your body from the moment the needle touches your skin.

    Written by Gregory Brown and Mitchell Moffit
    Editing by Luka Šarlija

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  • The Truth about COVID-19 Vaccines | The Agenda


    Many people are still hesitant about getting vaccinated for many reasons. Dr. Nicole Lurie, Director of the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations in the U.S., will address concerns, from the speed with which the vaccines made it to market to the effects of the various vaccines out there. And what lessons can be learned from the vaccine manufacturing and distribution for the future?

  • What is vaccination | vaccine kya hai? | How vaccines work?


    What is vaccination | vaccine kya hai? | How vaccines work? - This lecture explains about the mechanism of vaccination and the principle of vaccination. it explains how vaccine works to protect us against any infection. Vaccines can be prepared against any virus or bacteria to kill the infectious agent by providing our body's immune system with inactive copies of that virus or bacteria. In this video, the process of vaccination is explained along with the vaccination mode of action. so if you want to know how vaccines work, this video is just for you.
    this video will answer few of your questions -
    what is vaccination in hindi?
    what is vaccine in hindi
    vaccine kya hai?
    vaccine kaise kam karta hai?
    how vaccines work?
    So stay tuned to know more about vaccines and vaccination process in this video lecture.
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    Thank you for watching the video lecture on vaccination process and mechanism of vaccine action. Learn more about how vaccine fight against a disease.

  • Whats in a vaccine and what does it do to your body?


    There are all sorts of different vaccines but many of them share specific types of ingredients. Josh Toussaint-Strauss talks to Professor Adam Finn to find out what is in most conventional vaccines, as well as what they do to our bodies when we take them – and why the mRNA Covid jabs from Pfizer/BioNTech, Oxford/AstraZeneca and Moderna work differently

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  • How Vaccine Patents Make The Covid Crisis Worse


    The multi-billion-dollar patent war over the mRNA coronavirus vaccine has grabbed the attention of the likes of leaders from President Biden to Bill Gates. Its outcome could yet again change the course of the pandemic.

    It's been well over a year since a landmark proposal brought the issue of patent waiver for the mRNA Covid vaccine to the spotlight. But many observers don't see that waiving the intellectual property (IP) rights on Covid vaccines is an effective way to put a stop to the pandemic.

    Supporters of patent waivers like Harsha Thirumurthy, associate professor of medical ethics and health policy at the University of Pennsylvania, argue the issue lies at the heart of the reason why vaccines are less accessible in lower-income countries.

    It limits how much manufacturing there can be of that product or that vaccine, said Thirumurthy, adding it keeps the price artificially high enough that it limits the ability of other countries in the world.

    But critics counter that patent waivers will not automatically lead to an improvement in global vaccine distribution.

    Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates was among those who originally spoke out against the patent waiver, emphasizing that there are problems beyond patents that must be addressed first. Gates later reversed his stance and is now in full support of temporarily waiving the protections over coronavirus vaccine patents.

    Having a billion vaccines sitting in a warehouse of a lab that's developing will do no good getting us back to normal, said Heath Naquin, vice president of government and capital engagement at the University City Science Center, a nonprofit research organization, in Philadelphia.

    The patent waiver itself doesn't actually solve that core issues in many developing countries, which are not related to the recipe, they are related to the way you get that out the door to people.

    However, experts on both sides of the debate seriously doubt whether a patent waiver on Covid-19 vaccines will ever come to be.

    I think we had the best hope of it last year when there was a proposal that was put forward at the WTO and the Biden administration had supported it, said Thirumurthy.

    But we had European countries that objected to those patent waivers.

    Watch the video to find out more about why vaccine patents exist and the ongoing debate over their impact on the Covid pandemic.

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    How Vaccine Patents Make The Covid Crisis Worse

  • What is an mRNA vaccine?


    Learn more to help make your decision to get a COVID-19 vaccine. Our experts developed this to briefly explain in layperson’s terms an mRNA vaccine. It is aimed at answering questions and educating you about the safety and effectiveness of the mRNA vaccines, specifically the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines. Please share with others you know who may have questions or be hesitant to receive a vaccine. Learn more about UF Health’s COVID-19 response at

  • What’s in a Covid-19 vaccine?


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    Countries around the world are ramping up efforts to vaccinate their populations in a race to achieve herd immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. As of March 2021, there are about nine leading vaccines used across various countries and regions, each relying on different forms of technology to trigger an immune response in the body to fight the coronavirus. But what exactly goes into each vial? How different are the components? Here’s what you need to know about the ingredients that make up the vaccines against Covid-19.

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  • A 4th COVID-19 vaccine dose? What to know


    Israel approved a fourth dose which 500,000 people have already received, although data doesn’t show an added benefit for younger people.

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  • Covid-19 vaccines: what information can you trust? | The Economist


    Factual and reliable information is vital to creating trust in vaccines and to overcoming the pandemic. Ed Carr, The Economist’s deputy editor, and Natasha Loder, our health policy editor, answer some of the big questions about the global vaccination drive.

    00:00 - Challenges in vaccinating the world
    00:45 - Trust in vaccines
    02:30 - mRNA vaccines
    03:23 - Impact of variants on vaccination
    04:29 - Time between vaccine doses
    06:09 - Mandatory vaccines for travel?

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  • COVID-19: Will Canadians have to take more vaccine boosters in the future?


    As the pandemic drags on, the coronavirus is only expected to keep mutating. Does that mean vaccinated people will have to get more booster shots?

    As the latest data shows just over a third of Canadians already have a third dose, new Ipsos polling conducted for Global News reveals many Canadians aren't eager to get additional shots beyond that. About 56 per cent express some concerns and wonder how many more we may need.

    Jamie Mauracher hears what some doctors have to say about a fourth dose and how vaccine makers are planning for the future.

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  • Vaccines part 1 - what is vaccination


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    Vaccines work by presenting a foreign antigen to the immune system to evoke an immune response, but there are several ways to do this. Four main types are currently in clinical use:

    An inactivated vaccine consists of virus or bacteria that are grown in culture and then killed using a method such as heat or formaldehyde. Although the virus or bacteria particles are destroyed and cannot replicate, the virus capsid proteins or bacterial wall are intact enough to be recognized and remembered by the immune system and evoke a response. When manufactured correctly, the vaccine is not infectious, but improper inactivation can result in intact and infectious particles. Since the properly produced vaccine does not reproduce, booster shots are required periodically to reinforce the immune response.
    In an attenuated vaccine, live virus or bacteria with very low virulence are administered. They will replicate, but locally or very slowly. Since they do reproduce and continue to present antigen to the immune system beyond the initial vaccination, boosters may be required less often. These vaccines may be produced by passaging, for example, adapting a virus into different host cell cultures, such as in animals, or at suboptimal temperatures, allowing selection of less virulent strains, or by mutagenesis or targeted deletions in genes required for virulence. There is a small risk of reversion to virulence, which is smaller in vaccines with deletions. Attenuated vaccines also cannot be used by immunocompromised individuals. Reversions of virulence were described for a few attenuated viruses of chickens (infectious bursal disease virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus, avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus [3], avian metapneumovirus [4])[21]
    Virus-like particle vaccines consist of viral protein(s) derived from the structural proteins of a virus. These proteins can self-assemble into particles that resemble the virus from which they were derived but lack viral nucleic acid, meaning that they are not infectious. Because of their highly repetitive, multivalent structure, virus-like particles are typically more immunogenic than subunit vaccines (described below). The human papillomavirus and Hepatitis B virus vaccines are two virus-like particle-based vaccines currently in clinical use.
    A subunit vaccine presents an antigen to the immune system without introducing viral particles, whole or otherwise. One method of production involves isolation of a specific protein from a virus or bacterium (such as a bacterial toxin) and administering this by itself. A weakness of this technique is that isolated proteins may have a different three-dimensional structure than the protein in its normal context, and will induce antibodies that may not recognize the infectious organism. In addition, subunit vaccines often elicit weaker antibody responses than the other classes of vaccines.

    A number of other vaccine strategies are under experimental investigation. These include DNA vaccination and recombinant viral vectors. Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia.

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  • What is an mRNA vaccine?


    Learn more to help make your decision to get a COVID-19 vaccine. Our experts developed this to briefly explain in layperson’s terms an mRNA vaccine. It is aimed at answering questions and educating you about the safety and effectiveness of the mRNA vaccines, specifically the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines. Please share with others you know who may have questions or be hesitant to receive a vaccine. Learn more about UF Health’s COVID-19 response at

  • A kids guide to Covid-19: How vaccines work


    Whether for flu, COVID, measles, or something else, our kid-friendly video explains how vaccines work.

    For more Covid-19 resources visit:

  • What is a vaccine?


    Dr Anna Riddell, Consultant Virologist answers our Head of Chaplaincy, Yunus Dudhwala's questions about vaccines.

  • What Are Vaccinations? | Health | Biology | FuseSchool


    Vaccinations protect both humans and animals from a wide range of preventable and potentially serious illnesses.

    With vaccines, we take advantage of one of the most important aspects of the immune system: the ability to develop immunological memory. This means that once a person or animal is exposed to a particular pathogen - in other words anything that can cause illness - they will develop resistance to infections with that same pathogen in the future.

    Our adaptive immune system contains white blood cells known as T and B lymphocytes. These become activated during first time or ‘primary’ exposure to a pathogen. Once the pathogen has been fought off by our body, a population of T and B lymphocytes known as memory cells, remain in the individual. These memory cells remain on standby, ready to react quickly when the individual is re-exposed to that particular pathogen in what is known as ‘secondary exposure’. The ‘immunological memory’ helps the immune system respond much more rapidly and effectively than during the primary exposure. As a result, the individual is generally protected from the development of disease symptoms.

    Vaccines generate this immunological memory effect artificially and at an early stage to prevent future diseases. This means we inject a weakened version of pathogens, inactivated pathogens, or just particular parts of pathogens into the individual that we want to protect. In healthy individuals, these vaccine components activate a specific immune response, mimicking primary infection, but weak enough not to cause development of disease symptoms!

    By taking advantage of immunological memory in this way, vaccination prevents and controls the spread of a wide range of illnesses, including polio, smallpox, whooping cough, measles, and the seasonal influenza virus.

    In recent years, there has been controversy over the safety of vaccination programs. To date, all credible scientific evidence strongly supports the importance of vaccination in avoiding preventable illnesses in individuals and populations.

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  • What is a vaccine?


    When you receive a vaccine, you are protecting your body by building immunity to diseases and infections. Learn more at

  • What is a vaccine?


    English version. A vaccine is a substance that teaches your body to recognize and fight off things like viruses and bacteria. Vaccines work by looking as much like the virus or bacteria as possible without causing the harmful effects of the disease. Vaccines can be made from a weakened form of the virus itself; from unique pieces of the virus; from a chemical that the virus creates; or even from substances that scientists make that are similar to parts of the virus. After you receive a vaccine, your immune system will recognize and attack the virus or bacteria if you are exposed to it later. This means that you will either not become ill at all, or you will have a milder response to the infection. Vaccines use your own body to fight off infection. Vaccines are very effective — and they’re the best protection against many serious diseases. Most people who get vaccinated will be protected against the disease.

  • What’s in a vaccine?


    Each ingredient in every vaccine is present for a very specific purpose and this video explores what goes into a vaccine and why. Watch this video to learn about vaccine ingredients and visit our website for more information on vaccines:

    The main ingredient in any vaccine is the antigen, which is a small part of the virus or bacterium being targeted. The antigen is the ingredient in the vaccine that challenges our immune system to generate the right defences.

    Some vaccines add an adjuvant to the antigen to help strengthen and lengthen your body’s immune response. Stabilisers are used to help the active ingredients to remain effective while the vaccine is made, stored, and moved. Antibiotics and preservatives are sometimes used in the manufacturing process of some vaccines however these elements aren’t in the final vaccine. The patient information leaflet that comes with every vaccine tells you exactly what was used in making the vaccine, what is still in it and how much is in the final product.

  • Introduction to Vaccination: Definition & Immunization – Immunology | Lecturio


    This video “Introduction to Vaccination: Definition & Immunization” is part of the Lecturio course “Immunology” ► WATCH the complete course on

    - Definition of vaccination
    - Active and passive immunization
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  • What is a vaccine? Little Journey | NHS


    Scientists have worked out a way to help our immune system fight off certain germs or viruses more quickly. These are called vaccines.

    Having the coronavirus vaccine lets our immune system practice and learn how to destroy it. It doesn’t stop someone from catching coronavirus but it does mean that they won’t become very unwell if they do because their immune system is prepared and ready to fight it.

    Little Journey have supported NHS Test and Trace to create accessible information for young people around coronavirus (COVID-19).

    Thank you to all the children, families and NHS staff and researchers who have helped create these animations.

  • What is a Vaccine?


    Every vaccine has the same goal: to prepare our immune system so it’s ready to fight as soon as a virus or bacterium enters our body.

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  • What is a vaccine and how is it produced?


    NC State's Jennifer Pancorbo describes how vaccines are produced and tested for effectiveness and safety.

  • What Is A Vaccine and How Does It Work?


    Here is a short animated video to get you up to speed on vaccines and how they work.

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  • What is a Phase 3 Clinical Trial for a Vaccine Candidate?


    Curious about how #COVID19 vaccines were developed and approved?

    Through the ACTIV program, NIH is working with many partners to develop a safe and effective vaccine for COVID-19. Learn how candidate vaccines are tested through the different phases of clinical trials - tune in for this brief but insightful video!

    For more information about NIH's COVID-19 efforts, visit: or follow @nihgov on Instagram.

  • Explainer: What Is A Vaccine Passport?


    The travel industry has a new term that has entered their vocabulary: a vaccine passport. Several European countries are all set to roll out a digital passport that will allow citizens to show they have been vaccinated. So, is a vaccine passport your golden ticket to travel? Our explainer has the answers.

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  • What is a vaccine passport?


    As people around the world prepare for COVID-19 vaccinations, documenting the shots are becoming an important step in easing cross-border travel. Airports, workplaces and public places may soon require people to produce records of their inoculation status.

    For these purposes, a 'vaccine passport' may soon become an essential document.

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  • What is a vaccine passport and how would it be used?


    Having a vaccine passport could be used to give you access to sports and entertainment venues, restaurants, travel -- just to name a few. FULL STORY HERE:

  • What Is a Vaccine Passport? The Future of Travel, Explained


    Vaccinations in America have begun to give people hope that they’ll be able to return to “normal” living come this summer. Add to that the fact that states like California and Texas are reopening with no restrictions and it feels like we are tempting fate with another spike in infection rates. Despite all of that, the word that has been buzzing in inboxes and on timelines is that “vaccine passports” will soon be the next wave in getting us out and about.

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  • What is an mRNA Vaccine?


    In 2020, an mRNA vaccine platform was approved for mass use for the first time to help combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Infectious diseases expert Kathleen Mullane, DO, PharmD, has helped lead the Moderna vaccine clinical trial at the University of Chicago Medicine, and she’s here to share some information about how the mRNA vaccine platform works and how we know it’s safe.

    This video was filmed on February 10, 2021, and its content was reviewed by Kathleen Mullane, DO, PharmD, on March 25, 2021.

    For the most up-to-date information and vaccine recommendations, please visit the CDC’s website,

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  • What ingredients are in vaccines? | The Vaccines Project, Episode 2


    To understand what is in modern vaccines—and why—let's look back at one of the first lab-created vaccinations that prevented a gruesome childhood illness. Reporter Anna Rothschild will explore why there are things like aluminum, formaldehyde, and mercury in vaccines, and what new vaccine technology is around the corner. Read more: Subscribe to The Washington Post on YouTube:

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  • What is a Vaccine Cold Chain?


    Life-saving vaccines require a temperature-controlled supply chain to be safely distributed around the world.

  • What is a vaccine?


  • What are the different types of vaccines?


    Vaccines teach the immune system to fight off disease by helping it learn what a pathogen looks like. What kinds of vaccines are out there, and how do they differ from one another?

    This video was filmed on October 29, 2020, and its content was reviewed by Kathleen Mullane, DO, PharmD, on October 6, 2020.
    For the most up-to-date information and vaccine recommendations, please visit the CDC’s website,
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  • Do COVID-19 vaccines protect against variants? Also, what is a variant?


    Dr. Seema Yasmin answers your questions about the COVID-19 vaccine and coronavirus variants: Should I get a COVID-19 vaccine if there are new variants? What is a variant? Are COVID-19 vaccines effective against new variants? Should I wait to get a COVID-19 vaccine while the variants are being studied?


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  • We Cant Vaccinate Our Way Out of the Pandemic: Johns Hopkins Adalja


    Dr. Amesh Adalja, Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security senior scholar, discusses vaccine goals for Covid-19 and what has been learned about the omicron variant. The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health is supported by Michael R. Bloomberg, founder of Bloomberg LP and Bloomberg Philanthropies.

  • Vaccination vs. Immunization vs. Inoculation: Know the Difference! What is Vaccine?


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    The term inoculation, meanwhile, is often used interchangeably with vaccination or immunization. From a historical perspective, it describes the introduction of a substance into the body to confer protection. The term was first coined in the 18th century to describe variolation (the act of introducing a small amount of pus from someone with smallpox into the body of someone without it).
    As with immunization, the term inoculation almost invariably infers the use of vaccines.

    Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease. If you are immune to a disease, you can be exposed to it without becoming infected.
    Vaccine: A product that stimulates a person’s immune system to produce immunity to a specific disease, protecting the person from that disease. Vaccines are usually administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose. Some vaccines contain a very small dose of a live but weakened form of a virus. Some vaccines contain a very small dose of killed bacteria or small parts of bacteria, and other vaccines contain a small dose of a modified toxin produced by bacteria.
    Vaccines may also contain either a small amount of preservative or a small amount of an antibiotic to preserve the vaccine. Some vaccines may also contain a small amount of an aluminium salt, which helps produce a better immune response.
    Vaccination: The act of introducing a vaccine into the body to produce immunity to a specific disease.
    Immunization: A process by which a person becomes protected against a disease through vaccination. This term is often used interchangeably with vaccination or inoculation.

  • What is VACCINE? What does VACCINE mean? VACCINE meaning, definition & explanation


    ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪

    What is VACCINE? What does VACCINE mean? VACCINE meaning - VACCINE pronunciation - VACCINE definition - VACCINE explanation - How to pronounce VACCINE?

    Source: article, adapted under license.

    A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing micro-organism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and keep a record of it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these micro-organisms that it later encounters. Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by any natural or wild pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g., vaccines against cancer are being investigated).

    The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified; for example, the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently available to prevent or contribute to the prevention and control of twenty-five infections.

    The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Edward Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 in the long title of his Inquiry into the...Variolae vaccinae...known......the Cow Pox, in which he described the protective effect of cowpox against smallpox. In 1881, to honour Jenner, Louis Pasteur proposed that the terms should be extended to cover the new protective inoculations then being developed.

    The immune system recognizes vaccine agents as foreign, destroys them, and remembers them. When the virulent version of an agent is encountered, the body recognizes the protein coat on the virus, and thus is prepared to respond, by (1) neutralizing the target agent before it can enter cells, and (2) recognizing and destroying infected cells before that agent can multiply to vast numbers.
    When two or more vaccines are mixed together in the same formulation, the two vaccines can interfere. This most frequently occurs with live attenuated vaccines, where one of the vaccine components is more robust than the others and suppresses the growth and immune response to the other components. This phenomenon was first noted in the trivalent Sabin polio vaccine, where the amount of serotype 2 virus in the vaccine had to be reduced to stop it from interfering with the take of the serotype 1 and 3 viruses in the vaccine. This phenomenon has also been found to be a problem with the dengue vaccines currently being researched, where the DEN-3 serotype was found to predominate and suppress the response to DEN-1, -2 and -4 serotypes.

  • What’s In the Pfizer & Moderna COVID Vaccines?


    Curious what's inside the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines? Let's go down the ingredient list one by one and find out why they’re all in there.
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    The key, active ingredient in both Moderna’s and Pfizer’s vaccine is messenger RNA, what we call mRNA. mRNA is a molecule containing the genetic code that tells your cells how to make ONE kind of protein. That’s the spike protein on the surface of the virus.

    Your cells read those instructions and then make that spike protein—which can’t infect you on its own— and your immune system learns how to recognize it. You start to build an army of antibodies, those are immune proteins that bind to the REAL virus and clear it away if you get infected. Then, after a while, your cells get rid of that mRNA, that genetic material, but your body remembers how to defend itself.

    Now, we can’t just inject straight mRNA into someone’s body, because your body is actually really good at chewing up and getting rid of foreign genetic material that’s not supposed to be there. That’s where the other vaccine ingredients come in. Both Pfizer and Moderna contain a variety of lipids. The word ‘lipid’ is basically just the scientific name for a fat or fat-like molecule. You can even see the word cholesterol in the lipid list for both vaccines, same as the kind that’s in your body naturally. All of these lipids together form tiny little protective bubbles around the mRNA. One of the lipids sticks to the mRNA, others form the structure of the bubble and help it cross your cell membrane into your cells where it can be used, and other lipids keep the bubbles from clumping together. In both of these vaccines, this whole complex is called a lipid nanoparticle, or LNP.

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    Read More:

    Pfizer's COVID-19 Vaccine Ingredient List: What to Know, According to Experts

    'Lipids are unique to this type of vaccine,' Jamie Alan, PhD, an assistant professor of pharmacology and toxicology at Michigan State University, tells Health. But, she says, 'the rest of the ingredients are very common in vaccines.'

    Why are mRNA vaccines so exciting?

    Within minutes, scientists 10,000 miles away began working on the design of an mRNA vaccine. Within weeks, they had made enough vaccine to test it in animals, and then in people. Just 11 months after the discovery of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, regulators in the United Kingdom and the US confirmed that an mRNA vaccine for COVID-19 is effective and safely tolerated, paving the path to widespread immunization.

    Why Does Pfizer's COVID-19 Vaccine Need To Be Kept Colder Than Antarctica?

    One of the front-runners in the vaccine race — the one made by Pfizer — needs to be kept extremely cold: minus 70 degrees Celsius, which is colder than winter in Antarctica.


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  • What is a vaccine vial monitor ?


    A vaccine vial monitor (VVM) is a smart label. Triggered by a temperature rise above a certain threshold, it changes colour if the vial has been exposed to too high a temperature, or for too long.

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  • Austria passes vaccine mandate +++ Spain mulls exiting pandemic strategy | COVID latest


    Austria's parliament has passed a new law making COVID-19 vaccination mandatory for adults - the first European country to approve such a measure. Only 72 percent of Austrians are currently fully vaccinated against the coronavirus - one of the lowest rates in western Europe.
    Spain, meanwhile has one of the highest vaccination rates in the world, and it's now considering a pandemic exit strategy. The government says it's time to start treating COVID-19 like any other endemic seasonal respiratory disease. It might be a view that resounds with the Spanish public, but it doesn't yet have the backing of the experts.
    Germany has reported a record number of new coronavirus infections – more than 140,000 in a single day. That's 48,000 more new cases than this time last week.
    France will begin to lift COVID-19 restrictions on February 2nd thanks to what are being called 'encouraging signs' that the wave of Omicron variant infections is ebbing.
    And the World Bank has approved a 750-million dollar loan to South Africa aimed at helping the poor, it says, recover from the effects of the pandemic.


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  • Vaccination


    Vaccination lecture - This lecture explains about different types of vaccination process and the properties of different vaccines. Vaccines are classified like live attenuated type, dead vaccine etc. Watch this video lecture thoroughly to understand the mechanism of action of different types of vaccines and the role of vaccination process to cure any disease.
    Watch this video lecture to know more about how vaccines are made and how vaccines function.
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