Origins of the Universe 101 | National Geographic
How old is the universe, and how did it begin? Throughout history, countless myths and scientific theories have tried to explain the universe's origins. The most widely accepted explanation is the big bang theory. Learn about the explosion that started it all and how the universe grew from the size of an atom to encompass everything in existence today.
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How the Universe is Way Bigger Than You Think
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The Universe is so enormous we can't really comprehend it all. I try my best to visualize it in this video. This video had without a doubt the most complicated math I've ever done in a video before. If I made errors or miscalculations please let me know in the comments or message me! I want to know. Sources are listed below...
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What Is Beyond The Universe?
Scientists have found that the universe is expanding in all directions at once, but how can that be? And what is it expanding into?
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The Universe Is Expanding Faster Than We Thought
Less than 20 years after the startling discovery that the expansion of the universe is accelerating -- a finding that led to a Nobel Prize in Physics for two teams of astronomers -- comes a potentially more jarring revelation that the cosmos is busting out in all directions even faster than predicted.
Cosmology safe as universe has no sense of direction
The new study, published today in Physical Review Letters, studied the cosmic microwave background (CMB) which is the remnant radiation from the Big Bang. It shows the universe expands the same way in all directions, supporting the assumptions made in cosmologists' standard model of the universe.
Universe Expanding Symmetrically, Real-Time Analysis Shows
The universe is expanding - and it is doing so at the same rate in all directions, according to new measurements that appear to confirm the standard model of cosmology.
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Journey Through The Universe - HD Documentary
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Why does the universe exist? | Jim Holt
Why is there something instead of nothing? In other words: Why does the universe exist (and why are we in it)? Philosopher and writer Jim Holt follows this question toward three possible answers. Or four. Or none.
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Whats At The End Of The Universe?
The Big Bang Theory says the universe is expanding. But, what's at the very end of our universe?
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Is The Universe A Simulation?
Is The Universe A Simulation? - The Simulation Hypothesis Explained
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Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space by Carl Sagan
A Universe from Nothing by Lawrence M. Krauss:
What If?: Serious Scientific Answers to Absurd Hypothetical Questions
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A Journey to the End of the Universe
What will happen to us in the next few hundred years? Or a thousand? How will the Universe end? Nobody knows for sure, but we can gather all the existing theories together and find it out. Just a century from now humans will be the first living species outside Earth that we know of. In 1,000 years, humanity will accept technology not only in their lives but inside their bodies too. Ever heard about cyborgs? That’s exactly what every other human being will become in the future.
100,000 years in the future — and many of the constellations we know will become unrecognizable because of the natural movement of stars. At nearly the same time, Earth will celebrate the distant anniversary by a supervolcanic eruption, with hot magma and volcanic ash covering thousands upon thousands of square miles of land...
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Will we become cyborgs? 0:49
Supervolcanic eruption 1:31
Mass destructions on Earth 2:07
Betelgeuse explosion 2:22
What will happen to Mars? 2:36
When will life on our planet cease to exist? 3:21
The birth of a new galaxy 3:34
There will be no new stars 4:52
The Degenerate Era 5:10
The Black Hole Era 6:33
The era when time won’t matter 7:19
Birth of a new Universe 7:48
- In 100 years, technology will leap forwards, and we’ll all become part of a web larger than the Internet. We’ll also finally start colonizing nearby planets, most likely Mars.
- And here goes… 10,000 years from today. Antares, the red supergiant star that is fifteenth brightest in our night sky, will explode in a supernova.
- 100,000 years in the future — and many of the constellations we know will become unrecognizable because of the natural movement of stars.
- In 500,000 years, our planet will be struck with a huge boulder from the sky: an asteroid of about a half mile in diameter. If humans don’t find a way to avoid the impact, it will cause mass destructions on Earth.
- In 1 million years, two out of four moons of Uranus will collide with each other, causing chaos on the planet.
- Just 400,000 years later, Phobos, one of Mars’s two satellites, will break apart because of increasing gravity, and the red planet will have its own set of rings, just like Saturn.
- 110 million years from now is when the Sun will become 1% brighter. It will change the climate on every planet in the Solar system, ever so slightly making it hotter and hotter still.
- 4 billion years from now the Milky Way galaxy will collide with the Andromeda galaxy.
- In 7.9 billion years, the Sun will become super-inflated and turn into a red giant, swallowing the closest planets — including the scalding hot piece of rock that was once Earth.
- In 100 billion years, the Universe will stretch so far and so fast that galaxies will become invisible from each other’s perspective.
- In 1 trillion years, new stars will stop appearing in space.
- In 100 trillion years, the Degenerate Era will begin. With no fuel to feed the new stars, they will simply stop forming at all, even if some tried at first.
- In 120 trillion years, only white and brown dwarf stars will remain where normal stars have once been.
- In 1 quadrillion years, all planets will be thrown out of their orbits and sent drifting in the cold, dark outer space.
- 1 quintillion years, and things that once were stars will also become ejected from their galaxies, wandering the empty Universe for the rest of their time.
- Now, for quintillions of quintillions of years, there will be nothing; this period is called the Dark Era, and time won’t matter at this point.
- The false vacuum has just inflated and heated up to extreme temperatures, exploding in the empty space and filling it with new energy.
- Giving life to the new universe — and possibly not even a single one. You know this event as the Big Bang. That’s how our Universe was born, and how it will probably be reborn after billions upon billions of years.
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VFX Artist Reveals the True Scale of the Universe
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If The Earth was shrunk down to the size of a tennis ball, how big would the universe be? Wren is here to show you!
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How far is the edge of the universe?
Did you ever sit under the clear night sky and wonder “does it go on forever? The size of the universe has long been a question that has puzzled scientists, philosophers, and theologians, without a clear answer… well, until now. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln leads you through what modern science can say about the size of the universe.
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Naked Science - Birth of the Universe
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Where does a cup of coffee come from? In this film, it’s not Starbucks, it’s stars busting. We go right back to the beginning of time to show where the ingredients in your cup of coffee were born.
The main ingredient is hydrogen; it makes up most of the water in your cup. And that formed in the big bang. How it got from there, into your cappuccino is one of the most dramatic stories in science. It has taken thousands of scientists to track its trail. We follow it through stars and galaxies, exploding supernovae, and giant clouds of gas to show just how it reached your cup.
But that isn’t the end of the story. For where it goes in the future, depends on the fate of the universe. Will it carry on expanding for ever, or tear itself apart?
How Large is the Universe?
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The universe has long captivated us with its immense scales of distance and time. How far does it stretch? Where does it end, and what lies beyond its star fields and streams of galaxies extending as far as telescopes can see?
These questions are beginning to yield to a series of extraordinary new lines of investigation and technologies that are letting us to peer into the most distant realms of the cosmos. But also at the behavior of matter and energy on the smallest of scales. Remarkably, our growing understanding of this kingdom of the ultra-tiny, inside the nuclei of atoms, permits us to glimpse the largest vistas of space and time. In ancient times, most observers saw the stars as a sphere surrounding the earth, often the home of deities. The Greeks were the first to see celestial events as phenomena, subject to human investigation rather than the fickle whims of the Gods.
One sky-watcher, for example, suggested that meteors are made of materials found on Earth... and might have even come from the Earth. Those early astronomers built the foundations of modern science. But they would be shocked to see the discoveries made by their counterparts today. The stars and planets that once harbored the gods are now seen as infinitesimal parts of a vast scaffolding of matter and energy extending far out into space.
Just how far began to emerge in the 1920s. Working at the huge new 100-inch Hooker Telescope on California's Mt. Wilson, astronomer Edwin Hubble, along with his assistant named Milt Humason, analyzed the light of fuzzy patches of sky... known then as nebulae.
They showed that these were actually distant galaxies far beyond our own. Hubble and Humason discovered that most of them are moving away from us. The farther out they looked, the faster they were receding. This fact, now known as Hubble's law, suggests that there must have been a time when the matter in all these galaxies was together in one place.
That time, when our universe sprung forth, has come to be called the Big Bang. How large the cosmos has gotten since then depends on how long its been growing and its expansion rate. Recent precision measurements gathered by the Hubble space telescope and other instruments have brought a consensus...
That the universe dates back 13.7 billion years. Its radius, then, is the distance a beam of light would have traveled in that time ... 13.7 billion light years. That works out to about 1.3 quadrillion kilometers. In fact, it's even bigger.... Much bigger. How it got so large, so fast, was until recently a deep mystery.
That the universe could expand had been predicted back in 1917 by Albert Einstein, except that Einstein himself didn't believe it until he saw Hubble and Humason's evidence. Einstein's general theory of relativity suggested that galaxies could be moving apart because space itself is expanding.
So when a photon gets blasted out from a distant star, it moves through a cosmic landscape that is getting larger and larger, increasing the distance it must travel to reach us. In 1995, the orbiting telescope named for Edwin Hubble began to take the measure of the universe... by looking for the most distant galaxies it could see.
Taking the expansion of the universe into account, the space telescope found galaxies that are now almost 46 billion light years away from us in each direction... and almost 92 billion light years from each other. And that would be the whole universe... according to a straightforward model of the big bang. But remarkably, that might be a mere speck within the universe as a whole, according to a dramatic new theory that describes the origins of the cosmos.
Here at SpaceRip, we value the exploration of the unknown. We surpass boundaries for the sake of uncovering the mysteries of the cosmos and what they may tell us about our origin and our future. With our videos, we hope to educate our viewers on how we fit into the universe, and more so how we can do our part to better it.
Dark Matter — The Greatest Mystery of The Universe | VICE on HBO
Dark matter and dark energy comprise the vast majority of our universe, but it is the biggest mystery in modern physics to figure out what they actually are.
The five percent of matter we can perceive abides by the laws of physics as we understand them. But when scientists applied the laws of gravity to how fast nearby galaxies are rotation, the math didn't add up. The other 95% of our universe is known only as dark matter and dark energy and scientists around the world are scrambling to understand what these two forces are.
Who knows what discoveries and impacts on our lives will come said Dr. Bruno Leibundgut, an astronomer at the European Southern Observatory, where he and his team are utilizing the most powerful telescope on Earth to figure out just how much the universe's expansion is accelerating.
And in an abandoned gold mine a mile beneath the Black Hills of South Dakota, scientists are using a massive tank of supercooled liquid xenon as they wait for photosensors to measure an elusive dark matter particle.
Nuclear physicist and VICE correspondent Taylor Wilson went to meet the scientists working to solve the greatest mystery of the universe.
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The Edge of an Infinite Universe
Have you ever asked “what is beyond the edge of the universe?” And have you ever been told that an infinite universe that has no edge? You were told wrong. In a sense. We can define a boundary to an infinite universe, at least mathematically. And it turns out that boundary may be as real or even more real than the universe it contains.
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Our universe may be infinite. In order to wrap our puny human minds around such a notion we like to come up with boundaries. For example we have the “observable universe” – that patch that we can see, and beyond which light has not yet had time to reach us. It’s boundary is called the particle horizon. Beyond it there exists at a minimum of thousands and possibly infinitely more regions just as large. Our observable universe is like a tiny patch of land in a vast plain. We define its horizon like we might build a little picket fence around our little patch – meaningless from the point of view of the plain, but it makes our patch feel more homey and us less crushingly insignificant.
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The Biggest Stars In The Universe
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VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) is a red hypergiant star located in the constellation Canis Major. With a size of 2600 solar radii, it is the largest known star and also one of the most luminous known. It is located about 1.5 kiloparsecs (4.6×1016 km) or about 4,900 light years away from Earth. Unlike most stars, which occur in either binary or multiple star systems, VY CMa is a single star. It is categorized as a semiregular variable and has an estimated period of 6,275,081 days, or just under 17,200 years.
Antares is a red supergiant star in the Milky Way galaxy and the sixteenth brightest star in the nighttime sky (sometimes listed as fifteenth brightest, if the two brighter components of the Capella quadruple star system are counted as one star). Along with Aldebaran, Spica, and Regulus it is one of the four brightest stars near the ecliptic. Antares is a variable star, whose apparent magnitude varies from +0.9 to +1.8.
The Pistol Star is a blue hypergiant and is one of the most luminous known stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. It is one of many massive young stars in the Quintuplet cluster in the Galactic Center region. The star owes its name to the shape of the Pistol Nebula, which it illuminates. It is located approximately 25,000 light years from Earth in the direction of Sagittarius. It would be visible to the naked eye as a fourth magnitude star, if it were not for the interstellar dust that completely hides it from view in visible light.
Rigel (β Ori / β Orionis / Beta Orionis) is the brightest star in the constellation Orion and the sixth brightest star in the sky, with visual magnitude 0.18. Although it has the Bayer designation beta, it is almost always brighter than Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse).
Aldebaran (α Tau, α Tauri, Alpha Tauri) is an orange giant star located about 65 light years away in the zodiac constellation of Taurus. With an average apparent magnitude of 0.87 it is the brightest star in the constellation and is one of the brightest stars in the nighttime sky. The name Aldebaran is Arabic (الدبران al-dabarān) and translates literally as the follower, presumably because this bright star appears to follow the Pleiades, or Seven Sisters star cluster in the night sky. This star is also called the Bull's Eye because of its striking orange color and its location in the bull's head shaped asterism. NASA's Pioneer 10 spacecraft, which flew by Jupiter in 1973, is currently traveling in the direction and will reach it in about two million years.
Arcturus (α Boo / α Boötis / Alpha Boötis) is the brightest star in the constellation Boötes. With a visual magnitude of −0.05, it is also the third brightest star in the night sky, after Sirius and Canopus. It is, however, fainter than the combined light of the two main components of Alpha Centauri, which are too close together for the eye to resolve as separate sources of light, making Arcturus appear to be the fourth brightest. It is the second brightest star visible from northern latitudes and the brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere. The star is in the Local Interstellar Cloud.
Pollux (β Gem / β Geminorum / Beta Geminorum) is an orange giant star approximately 34 light-years from the Earth in the constellation of Gemini (the Twins). Pollux is the brightest star in the constellation, brighter than Castor (Alpha Geminorum). As of 2006, Pollux was confirmed to have an extrasolar planet orbiting it.
Sirius is the brightest star in the night sky. With a visual apparent magnitude of −1.46, it is almost twice as bright as Canopus, the next brightest star. The name Sirius is derived from the Ancient Greek Σείριος. The star has the Bayer designation α Canis Majoris (α CMa, or Alpha Canis Majoris). What the naked eye perceives as a single star is actually a binary star system, consisting of a white main sequence star of spectral type A1V, termed Sirius A, and a faint white dwarf companion of spectral type DA2, termed Sirius B.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. The Sun has a diameter of about 1,392,000 kilometres (865,000 mi) (about 109 Earths), and by itself accounts for about 99.86% of the Solar System's mass; the remainder consists of the planets (including Earth), asteroids, meteoroids, comets, and dust in orbit. About three-fourths of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen, while most of the rest is helium.
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A 3D atlas of the universe - Carter Emmart
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For the last 12 years, Carter Emmart has been coordinating the efforts of scientists, artists and programmers to build a complete 3D visualization of our known universe. He demos this stunning tour and explains how it's being shared with facilities around the world.
Talk by Carter Emmart.
Michio Kaku: The Universe in a Nutshell | Big Think
Michio Kaku: The Universe in a Nutshell
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In a profoundly informative and deeply optimistic discussion, Professor Michio Kaku delivers a glimpse of where science will take us in the next hundred years, as warp drives, teleportation, inter-dimensional wormholes, and even time travel converge with our scientific understanding of physical reality. While firing up our imaginations about the future, he also presents a succinct history of physics to the present.
Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study as well as New York University (NYU).
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My name is Professor Michio Kaku. I’m a professor of theoretical physics at the City University of New York and I specialize in something called string theory. I’m a physicist.
Some people ask me the question, “What has physics done for me lately? I mean, do I get better color television, do I get better internet reception with physics?” And the answer is yes. You see, physics is at the very foundation of matter and energy. We physicists invented the laser beam, we invented the transistor. We helped to create the first computer. We helped to construct the internet. We wrote the World Wide Web. In addition, we also helped to invent television, radio, radar, microwaves, not to mention MRI scans, PET scans, x-rays. In other words, almost everything you see in your living room, almost everything you see in a modern hospital, at some point or other, can be traced to a physicist.
Now, I got interested in physics when I was a child. When I was a child of eight, something happened to me that changed my life and I wanted to be part of this grand search for a theory of everything. When I was eight, a great scientist had just died. I still remember my elementary school teacher coming into the...
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The Observable Universe
-This video illustrates the scaled size of our universe from quarks to the entirety of the observable universe. Each circle used in the video represents a scale factor of 10; meaning each larger circle is zoomed out 10x more than its predecessor.
( i.e. after 1 circle you are now looking at 10x larger horizon, after 2 circles 100x, 3 would be 1000x, and so forth. This also applies to the speed, ignoring relativistic effects, at which the observer (you) would be traveling.)
*EDIT: Please note that the zoom out from 2:26 - 2:34 is a simplistic model of the *hypothetical* mutliverse intended to aid conceptualization of the idea, but is currently not definitively known to science and is most certainly NOT part of the observable universe. I left some comments explaining why I kept it in the video for those who still aren't satisfied with this explanation. Thanks and enjoy!
***IMPORTANT INFORMATION UPDATE***:
In October of 2016, NASA has conducted another deep field survey with Hubble and found that the already unfathomably large observable universe actually has.... about 10x more galaxies than we originally thought, putting the new estimated total at around 2 trillion. That means that there are more galaxies in our viewable universe than there are stars in our own galaxy, by a large margin. And remember, this is all just the parts of the universe we can see. Much of it is obscured behind a cosmic horizon where the light cannot reach us. Truly astounding.
Misconceptions About the Universe
Can we see things travelling faster than light?
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The expanding universe is a complicated place. During inflation the universe expanded faster than light, but that's something that actually happens all the time, it's happening right now. This doesn't violate Einstein's theory of relativity since nothing is moving through space faster than light, it's just that space itself is expanding such that far away objects are receding rapidly from each other. Common sense would dictate that objects moving away from us faster than light should be invisible, but they aren't. This is because light can travel from regions of space which are superluminal relative to us into regions that are subluminal. So our observable universe is bigger than our Hubble sphere - it's limited by the particle horizon, the distance light could travel to us since the beginning of time as we know it.
THE UNIVERSE - Out of Nothing: Infinity | SPACETIME - SCIENCE SHOW
SPACETIME - SCIENCE SHOW: The beginning of everything was the Big Bang. The creation of our universe was set in motion. But what came before the big bang? And what happened right after the big bang? We are fascinated by the infinite vastness of the universe. A vastness inconceivable to anything we can imagine. But how do we know that the universe is infinite? These are the questions humanity has been preoccupied with since we looked up at the stars: where do we come from? Where are we going? And where is our place in the infinity of the cosmos?
The Big Bang is the absolute starting point of our universe. The birth of space and time. But was there really nothing before that? A nothing beyond our imagination, or was there something before the big bang? What cosmologists and astrophysicists can say with certainty: Our universe came into existence exactly 13.8 billion years ago. And everything started from a single speck. A tiny speck where our three-dimensional universe, space, was buried. But where was this speck, this dot? There is no answer comprehensible for average human imagination. Only mathematics helps here. And it states: this three-dimensional, strongly curved speck was just there.
After the big bang, our universe ballooned. And continues to expand today, maybe for all eternity. Nevertheless, astronomers define the universe as manageable: it is as big as the eye can see. It consists of what we can observe in principle. In order to discover and observe galaxies and stars, we need to light. The light of our central star, our sun, takes 8 minutes to reach us. The light of the nearest stars a few years. Tens of thousands of years from the next galaxies. The Hubble Space Telescope photographs galaxies several billion light-years away, and satellites measure the microwave radiation produced only 400,000 years after the Big Bang. With this data, cosmologists measure our universe in space and time.
Let there be light! In this episode of Spacetime, Professor Ulrich Walter explains how out of nowhere our universe emerged. How it expanded, and what happened and continues to happen today. We focus on the question whether our Universe will last forever, or whether it is finite. What would happen at the end? We examine the phenomena that our cosmos holds: What are dark energy and dark matter? Why black holes exist and how do wormholes work? Are there really parallel universes? And what does the detection of gravitational waves mean for science? We look at the theories, methods and instruments that cosmologists use to track down the origin and function of our universe.
The view into space gives us images of a fascinating and bewildering beauty. Landscapes of light and gas and stardust, shaped by cosmic wind and radiation. We are surrounded by an intangible infinity. A universe in which the earth is just a grain of sand on the beach of an ocean. But we are deciphering more and more secrets of the universe around us.
About the documentary series SPACETIME
Take a look at the Earth from space: Prof. Dr. med. Ulrich Walter has fulfilled the dream of mankind. In 1993 he traveled to Earth orbit. For the science format Spacetime, the astronaut once again sets off for the universe. In this reportage series, the physicist and professor of space technology presents current space travel trends and pioneering discoveries in space research.
The challenges of the dream call Astronaut, the new race of the space nations to the moon or the discovery of further Earth-like exoplanets: In this documentary series, Ulrich Walter proves how lifelike science can be and what answers space travel offers to some of the fundamental questions of human existence.
In Spacetime, the viewer learns about the visions that space research is currently pursuing and what insights will change our future forever.
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Michio Kaku: The Universe Is a Symphony of Vibrating Strings | Big Think
Michio Kaku: The Universe Is a Symphony of Vibrating Strings
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The co-founder of Field String Theory explains why the universe has 11 dimensions rather than any other number.
Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).
Question: Why are there only 11 dimensions in the universe rather than something higher? (Submitted by John Menon)
Michio Kaku: I work in something called String Theory, that’s what I do for a living. In fact, that’s my day job. I’m the co-founder of String Field Theory, one of the main branches of String Theory. The latest version of String Theory is called M-Theory, “M” for membrane. So we now realize that strings can coexist with membranes. So the subatomic particles we see in nature, the quartz, the electrons are nothing but musical notes on a tiny vibrating string.
What is physics? Physics is nothing but the laws of harmony that you can write on vibrating strings. What is chemistry? Chemistry is nothing but the melodies you can play on interacting vibrating strings. What is the universe? The universe is a symphony of vibrating strings. And then what is the mind of God that Albert Einstein eloquently wrote about for the last 30 years of his life? We now, for the first time in history have a candidate for the mind of God. It is, cosmic music resonating through 11 dimensional hyperspace.
So first of all, we are nothing but melodies. We are nothing but cosmic music played out on vibrating strings and membranes. Obeying the laws of physics, which is nothing but the laws of harmony of vibrating strings. But why 11? It turns out that if you write a theory in 15, 17, 18 dimensions, the theory is unstable. It has what are called, anomalies. It has singularities. It turns out that mathematics alone prefers the universe being 11 dimensions.
Now some people have toyed with 12 dimensions. At Harvard University, for example, some of the physicists there have shown that a 12-dimensional theory actually looks very similar to an 11-dimensional theory except it has two times, double times rather than one single time parameter. Now, what would it be like to live in a universe with double time? Well, I remember a movie with David Niven. David Niven played a pilot, who was shot down over the Pacific, but the angels made a mistake, he was not supposed to die that day. And so the angels brought him back to life and said, “Oh, sorry about that. We killed you off by accident; you were not supposed to die today.”
So in a great scene, David Niven then walks through a city where time has stopped. Everyone looks like this. And there’s David Niven just wandering around looking at all these people. That’s a world with double time. David Niven has one clock, but everyone else has a separate clock and these two clocks are perpendicular to each other. So if there’s a double time universe, you could walk right into a room, see people frozen in time, while you beat to a different clock. That’s a double time universe.
Now this is called F-Theory, “F” for father, the father of strings. It’s not known whether F-Theory will survive or not; however, M-Theory in 11 dimension is the mother of all strings. And that theory works perfectly fine. So to answer your question, in other dimensions, dimensions beyond 11, we have problems with stability, these theories are unstable, they decay back down to 11 dimensions, they have what are called anomalies, singularities, which kill an ordinary theory. So the mathematics itself forces you to 11 dimensions.
Also because this is a Theory of Everything, there’s more room in higher dimensions to put all the forces together. When you put gravity, electromagnetism and the nuclear force together, four dimensions is not big enough to accommodate all these forces. When you expand to 11 dimensions, bingo, everything forms perfectly well.
The Most MYSTERIOUS Object in the Universe
Physics Girl astrophysics series - Brown Dwarfs are among the most recently observed objects in the universe. They have at MOST 8% the mass of the Sun. The lower mass boundary is not known! So they are halfway between stars and gas giant planets. Astrophysicist Daniella Bardalez Gagliuffi sits down with Dianna Cowern to discuss the latest research and the history of Brown Dwarfs
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Why is the universe flat?
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What is the Universe?
A video that explains the Universe, our Galaxy, the Big Bang and where we all fit in.
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Why Is There A Universe?
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What Is The Universe?
Are we living in a holographic universe, or possibly a computer simulation? Trace decided to break down a few of the theories of what the universe actually is.
What Is the Universe? Real Physics Has Some Mind-Blowing Answers
“The questions are as big as the universe and (almost) as old as time: Where did I come from, and why am I here?”
Big Bang’s Smoking Gun Found
“For the first time, scientists have found direct evidence of the expansion of the universe, a previously theoretical event that took place a fraction of a second after the Big Bang explosion nearly 14 billion years ago.”
The Origin of the Universe
“In 1959 a survey was conducted of scientists across America concerning their understanding of the physical sciences.”
Is Our Universe a Computer Simulation?
Are You Living In A Computer Simulation?
“Many works of science fiction as well as some forecasts by serious technologists and futurologists predict that enormous amounts of computing power will be available in the future.”
You’re living in a computer simulation, and math proves it
“Is your life really your life, or is it actually the dream of a butterfly?”
Holographic universe experiment begins
“A unique experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has started collecting data that will answer some mind-bending questions about our universe—including whether we live in a hologram.”
Can The US Still Call Itself A Wealthy Nation?
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What is the universe expanding into? - Sajan Saini
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The universe began in a Big Bang nearly fourteen billion years ago, and has been expanding ever since. But how does the universe expand and what is it expanding into? Sajan Saini explains the existing theories around the Big Bang and what, if anything, lies beyond our universe.
Lesson by Sajan Saini, directed by Wooden Plane Productions.
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The Universe in 4 Minutes
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What is the universe made of? | The Economist
The Earth, the sun, the stars, and everything we can see, only comprise five percent of the universe. But what about the other 95 percent? Scientists are puzzling over dark matter and dark energy, the mysterious components that make up the rest.
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What is the universe made of? Scientists have determined that normal matter, the stuff that makes up the earth, the stars and everything we can see, only makes up a small portion of the universe. The rest is made up of two mysterious components that are shaping our universe in profound ways. Much of the mass of the universe is made up of something called Dark Matter, which neither reflects nor emits light, but like the matter we can see, pulls things together with gravity in. Space itself seems to be permeated by an unusual force called Dark Energy which is driving things apart.
Based on current estimates scientists believe that only 5% of the universe is made up of normal matter, 27% is made up of Dark Matter, and a whopping 68% is made up of Dark Energy. So what are they and how do we know they exist?
Although we can't see Dark Matter we can tell it is out there from the effect it has on regular matter such as galaxies and stars. We can track where Dark Matter is located through an effect called gravitational lensing. According to General Relativity, massive bodies bend the fabric of space-time. That means they bend the paths of light. Astronomers can see this light bending in places where there are no visible chunks of matter, such as stars. It must be caused by Dark Matter. Through these observations, scientists have found a cosmic web of Dark Matter. Vast lumps of long threads of it. It is spread throughout the universe but tends to be concentrated in halos around galaxies. Indeed, it is considered to have been integral to the formation the large-scale structure of the universe.
So what is Dark Matter made of? No-one knows for sure yet but there are a number of theories.
There are a number of different experiments focused on finding Dark Matter, trying to catch it as it occasionally bumps into normal matter, but none of them has been successful so far. Dark Matter particles might just be created in earthly laboratories too. At the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland, where particles smashed together near the speed of light, there is some chance that Dark Matter particles will pop out and astronomers using some of the world's largest telescopes are observing the cosmos with ever more precision to learn about where Dark Matter is located. It was through their efforts in the late 1990s that scientists learned about the other mysterious force that is shaping our cosmos - Dark Energy.
Astronomers studying distant supernovae discovered it accidentally by observing that the expansion of the universe seemed to be speeding up. Michael Turner coined the term Dark Energy to describe the mysterious force that seemed to be pushing the universe apart.
The idea that the universe could expand or contract showed up in early drafts of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity but Einstein himself believed the universe was of a fixed size. To get things to add up correctly he fudged his equations by inserting a fixed value he called a cosmological constant. Only later when it was shown the universe was in fact expanding that had become apparent that his equations were right to begin with. Einsteins cosmological constant might also end up accounting for Dark Energy. No-one knows what Dark Energy is exactly, although many theories have been postulated.
One suggestion is that it is energy folded into the fabric of space itself. As space expands, so does the amount of Dark Energy, so there will be more of it to push the universe apart. What astronomers don't know yet is if the rate of acceleration of the expansion will change over time. If it does that could have profound implications.
But the dominance of Dark Matter and Dark Energy have shifted over the lifespan of the universe. With Dark Matter playing a stronger role in the early years and Dark Energy gaining traction more recently. What will happen to our universe depends on the interplay between these two dark titans. If Dark Energy becomes more dominant the universe may thin itself out of existence in what's called the big rip. but if Dark Matters influence should increase, that could collapse the universe back upon itself in a Big Crunch. And if neither force changes dramatically space may just continue expanding outward indefinitely.
For cosmologists trying to foresee the ultimate fate of the universe much remains in the dark.
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What is the Universe Expanding Into?
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By popular Space Fan request, I offer this video to help answer some of your questions regarding the expanding universe. Many of you consistently ask: If the universe is expanding, then what is it expanding into?
This concept is non-trivial to try and explain in a 5 minute YT video, but I do my best. I hope this helps!
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The Origin of The Universe - Space Documentary
Groundbreaking physicist Stephen Hawking left us one last shimmering piece of brilliance before he died: his final paper, detailing his last theory on the origin of the Universe, co-authored with Thomas Hertog from KU Leuven.
The paper, published in the Journal of High Energy Physics in May, puts forward that the Universe is far less complex than current multiverse theories suggest.
It's based around a concept called eternal inflation, first introduced in 1979 and published in 1981.
After the Big Bang, the Universe experienced a period of exponential inflation. Then it slowed down, and the energy converted into matter and radiation.
However, according to the theory of eternal inflation, some bubbles of space stopped inflating or slowed on a stopping trajectory, creating a small fractal dead-end of static space.
Meanwhile, in other bubbles of space, because of quantum effects, inflation never stops - leading to an infinite number of multiverses.
Everything we see in our observable Universe, according to this theory, is contained in just one of these bubbles - in which inflation has stopped, allowing for the formation of stars and galaxies.
The usual theory of eternal inflation predicts that globally our universe is like an infinite fractal, with a mosaic of different pocket universes, separated by an inflating ocean, Hawking explained.
The local laws of physics and chemistry can differ from one pocket universe to another, which together would form a multiverse. But I have never been a fan of the multiverse. If the scale of different universes in the multiverse is large or infinite the theory can't be tested.
Even one of the original architects of the eternal inflation model has disavowed it in recent years.
Paul Steinhardt, physicist at Princeton University, has gone on record saying that the theory took the problem it was meant to solve - to make the Universe, well, universally consistent with our observations - and just shifted it onto a new model.
Hawking and Hertog are now saying that the eternal inflation model is wrong. This is because Einstein's theory of general relativity breaks down on quantum scales.
The problem with the usual account of eternal inflation is that it assumes an existing background universe that evolves according to Einstein's theory of general relativity and treats the quantum effects as small fluctuations around this, Hertog explained.
However, the dynamics of eternal inflation wipes out the separation between classical and quantum physics. As a consequence, Einstein's theory breaks down in eternal inflation.
Hawking's last theory is based on string theory, one of the frameworks that attempts to reconcile general relativity with quantum theory by replacing the point-like particles in particle physics with tiny, vibrating one-dimensional strings.
In string theory, the holographic principle proposes that a volume of space can be described on a lower-dimensional boundary; so the universe is like a hologram, in which physical reality in 3D spaces can be mathematically reduced to 2D projections on their surfaces.
The researchers developed a variation of the holographic principle that projects the time dimension in eternal inflation, which allowed them to describe the concept without having to rely on general relativity.
This then allowed them to mathematically reduce eternal inflation to a timeless state on a spatial surface at the beginning of the Universe - a hologram of eternal inflation.
When we trace the evolution of our universe backwards in time, at some point we arrive at the threshold of eternal inflation, where our familiar notion of time ceases to have any meaning, said Hertog.
In 1983, Hawking and another researcher, physicist James Hartle, proposed what is known as the 'no boundary theory' or the 'Hartle-Hawking state'. They proposed that, prior to the Big Bang, there was space, but no time. So the Universe, when it began, expanded from a single point, but doesn't have a boundary.
According to the new theory, the early Universe did have a boundary, and that's allowed Hawking and Hertog to derive more reliable predictions about the structure of the Universe.
We predict that our universe, on the largest scales, is reasonably smooth and globally finite. So it is not a fractal structure, Hawking said.
It's a result that doesn't disprove multiverses, but reduces them to a much smaller range - which means that multiverse theory may be easier to test in the future, if the work can be replicated and confirmed by other physicists.
Hertog plans to test it by looking for gravitational waves that could have been generated by eternal inflation.
These waves are too large to be detected by LIGO, but future gravitational wave interferometers such as space-based LISA, and future studies of the cosmic microwave background, may reveal them.
What Is the Shape of the Universe?
Unlike the Earth, the universe might actually be flat! But how do scientists know that, if we can’t observe it?
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What is the Shape of the Universe?
“Scientists have calculated the ‘critical density’ of the universe. The critical density is proportional to the square of the Hubble constant, which is used in measuring the expansion rate of the universe.”
“Thus the universe was known to be flat to within about 15% accuracy prior to the WMAP results. WMAP has confirmed this result with very high accuracy and precision.”
Why is the Universe flat and not spherical?
“Why does the Universe look flat? This was one of the perplexing questions in cosmology for a long time. Today, most astronomers believe in the theory of inflation (and there are pieces of evidence supporting this).”
Elements is more than just a science show. It’s your science-loving best friend, tasked with keeping you updated and interested on all the compelling, innovative and groundbreaking science happening all around us. Join our passionate hosts as they help break down and present fascinating science, from quarks to quantum theory and beyond.
Seeker explains every aspect of our world through a lens of science, inspiring a new generation of curious minds who want to know how today’s discoveries in science, math, engineering and technology are impacting our lives, and shaping our future. Our stories parse meaning from the noise in a world of rapidly changing information.
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MINDBLOWING Theories About Our Universe!
Check out these MINDBLOWING Theories About Our Universe! From alternate realities to the big bang theory, this top 10 list of mysterious science discoveries will absolutely blow your mind!
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8. White Holes
White holes can’t be studied because they don’t necessarily exist. They are just a hypothetical region of space-time, but if you think about it, if there are black holes, why not white holes too?? Theoretically they would be the opposite of black holes and constitute a major portion of the mysterious dark matter that makes up most of the universe. (Or not, because maybe even dark matter doesn’t exist!).
7. Ekpyrotic Universe
Also known as the “cyclic universe” this theory was proposed by Professors Justin Khoury, Burt A Ovrut and several others in 2001. They propose that the universe was created by a hot big bang, produced by the collision of a brane, again b-r-a-n-e in space with another plane. Our universe is one of a pair of universes that collided, unlike the Big Bang theory which believes the universe began from a singularity.
The effect of the collision resets the universe.
6. The Universe is a Giant Supercomputer
The German scientist, Konrad Zuse, is credited with building the first programmable computer and to everyone’s surprise, in 1967 he proposed that the entire universe is a computer!! So did Ed Fredkin! They thought the universe could be a cellular automaton that uses black and white grids. They argued that the universe has a set of rules and precision such as planetary movements and natural cycles that make it seem like our universe is a programmed system.
5. Bullet-Time Theory
The Bullet Time effect is also known as the “frozen moment” and makes it seem like time has been suspended. Made super famous in the movie The Matrix, it is an expensive slow motion effect!! You can see complex karate kicks and flying bullets, shattering glass, all kinds of things so that the scene moves at a normal pace while other things are slowed. Ever since the Matrix, it has become a popular expression.
4. Biological SETI
SETI stands for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence and is a project that is doing just that, using technology like radio telescopes and signal detectors to search for alien life. There have been many SETI projects over the years but perhaps the most famous is the Wow! SIgnal. When Jerry Ehman, a project volunteer witnessed a strange signal by the telescope he circled the printout and and scribbled Wow! In red pen.
3. Simulation Theory
Also called the simulation hypothesis, this theory proposes that our reality is actually an artificial simulation run by an advanced supercomputer.
Many scientists, and pioneers in technology such as Elon Musk, argue that what we experience as reality is actually a giant computer simulation created by a more sophisticated intelligence.
2. The Universe is a Hologram
An international study has provided some evidence that our universe could actually be a very large hologram! Physicists studying the aftereffects of the bing bang trying to explain certain irregularities, determined that they could explain it as a hologram where all information that makes up our 3D reality (plus time) is contained on a 2D surface. It’s like watching a 3D film on a 2D screen. We can see height, width, and depth even though the back of things is no longer there.
1. We Are Living in a Black Hole
In theory, time began when the Big Bang happened 13.8 billion years ago. But before that? Usually you say there was nothing, but for some scientists there wasn’t nothing. There was an enormously dense speck or seed, trillions of times smaller than any we are able to observe. This particle most likely came from a black hole.
Like I mentioned before there may be more than one universe, creating black holes.
Origins Explained is the place to be to find all the answers to your questions, from mysterious events and unsolved mysteries to everything there is to know about the world and its amazing animals!
UNIVERSE के बारे में ये VIDEO नहीं देखा तो कुछ नहीं देखा | How Big is our Universe in Hindi?
The proper distance—the distance as would be measured at a specific time, including the present—between Earth and the edge of the observable universe is 46 billion light-years (14 billion parsecs), making the diameter of the observable universe about 91 billion light-years
Putting the Size of the Observable Universe in Perspective. The age of the universe is about 13.75 billion years. The diameter of the observable universe is estimated at about 28 billion parsecs (93 billion light-years).
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What Is the Universe Expanding Into?
The universe is constantly expanding but what is it expanding into? What's on the other side? Thoughty2 investigates!
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Thoughty2 (Arran) is a British YouTuber and gatekeeper of useless facts. Thoughty2 creates mind-blowing factual videos, on the weirdest, wackiest and most interesting topics. Combining fascinating lists with answers to life's biggest questions.
What is Space Time and How it Works | Documentary
The time scale of the universe is very long compared to that for human life. It was therefore not surprising that until recently, the universe was thought to be essentially static, and unchanging in time. On the other hand, it must have been obvious, that society is evolving in culture and technology. This indicates that the present phase of human history can not have been going for more than a few thousand years. Otherwise, we would be more advanced than we are. It was therefore natural to believe that the human race, and maybe the whole universe, had a beginning in the fairly recent past. However, many people were unhappy with the idea that the universe had a beginning, because it seemed to imply the existence of a supernatural being who created the universe. They preferred to believe that the universe, and the human race, had existed forever. Their explanation for human progress was that there had been periodic floods, or other natural disasters, which repeatedly set back the human race to a primitive state.
This argument about whether or not the universe had a beginning, persisted into the 19th and 20th centuries. It was conducted mainly on the basis of theology and philosophy, with little consideration of observational evidence. This may have been reasonable, given the notoriously unreliable character of cosmological observations, until fairly recently. The cosmologist, Sir Arthur Eddington, once said, 'Don't worry if your theory doesn't agree with the observations, because they are probably wrong.' But if your theory disagrees with the Second Law of Thermodynamics, it is in bad trouble. In fact, the theory that the universe has existed forever is in serious difficulty with the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Law, states that disorder always increases with time. Like the argument about human progress, it indicates that there must have been a beginning. Otherwise, the universe would be in a state of complete disorder by now, and everything would be at the same temperature. In an infinite and everlasting universe, every line of sight would end on the surface of a star. This would mean that the night sky would have been as bright as the surface of the Sun. The only way of avoiding this problem would be if, for some reason, the stars did not shine before a certain time.
In a universe that was essentially static, there would not have been any dynamical reason, why the stars should have suddenly turned on, at some time. Any such lighting up time would have to be imposed by an intervention from outside the universe. The situation was different, however, when it was realised that the universe is not static, but expanding. Galaxies are moving steadily apart from each other. This means that they were closer together in the past. One can plot the separation of two galaxies, as a function of time. If there were no acceleration due to gravity, the graph would be a straight line. It would go down to zero separation, about twenty billion years ago. One would expect gravity, to cause the galaxies to accelerate towards each other. This will mean that the graph of the separation of two galaxies will bend downwards, below the straight line. So the time of zero separation, would have been less than twenty billion years ago.
At this time, the Big Bang, all the matter in the universe, would have been on top of itself. The density would have been infinite. It would have been what is called, a singularity. At a singularity, all the laws of physics would have broken down. This means that the state of the universe, after the Big Bang, will not depend on anything that may have happened before, because the deterministic laws that govern the universe will break down in the Big Bang. The universe will evolve from the Big Bang, completely independently of what it was like before. Even the amount of matter in the universe, can be different to what it was before the Big Bang, as the Law of Conservation of Matter, will break down at the Big Bang.
Since events before the Big Bang have no observational consequences, one may as well cut them out of the theory, and say that time began at the Big Bang. Events before the Big Bang, are simply not defined, because there's no way one could measure what happened at them. This kind of beginning to the universe, and of time itself, is very different to the beginnings that had been considered earlier. These had to be imposed on the universe by some external agency. There is no dynamical reason why the motion of bodies in the solar system can not be extrapolated back in time, far beyond four thousand and four BC, the date for the creation of the universe, according to the book of Genesis. Thus it would require the direct intervention of God, if the universe began at that date. By contrast, the Big Bang is a beginning that is required by the dynamical laws that govern the universe. It is therefore intrinsic to the universe, and is not imposed on it from outside.
What is The Universe and Observable Universe
The universe is massive! For all we know it could go on forever, the total length of the universe could be infinite. When we look out into space we see what is called the observable universe. No matter where you are in the universe you will have your own observable universe around you.
Check out sciBRIGHT's latest video about the universe, laws of the universe, how long it would take to get to the nearest star, what earth would look like from the Andromeda galaxy and things about the observable universe.
What is the Universe expanding into?
Fine. The universe is expanding, but into what? That depends on whether the universe is infinite or not. Either way though, it's probably not the answer you're expecting.
Is The Universe Infinite:
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Veritasium on Observable Universe:
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Expanding Into What? - Rick Clark & Erick Lopes:
Expanding Into What? - Nikhil negi:
Earth/Moon Distance - Kevin James Stevens:
Infinite Universe, but Finite Time - PPanos1968:
Universe Density - Ibrahim Chahrour:
What's Wrong With Infinity? - Ira Sanborn:
Meaningless Question! - Joee Green:
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What Color is the Universe?
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When you stare up at the night sky, you might think that the universe is really black, but that's just because our eyes aren't sensitive enough to see the billions and billions of multicolored stars out there. Ever wonder why certain stars are certain colors? And what color is our sun, really? If we looked at enough stars, could we figure out the average color of the universe?
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Pay Attention to the Signs of the Universe | Jack Canfield
The universe works in mysterious ways. It is constantly working to make available to you the tools, the resources, the people, and the lessons you need to become the person you were meant to be. But it doesn’t always make these things totally obvious.
In this video I'll show you how to recognize when the universe is trying to tell you something or push you in a direction.
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The Divine Purpose Of The Universe
You are not IN the universe, you ARE the universe, an intrinsic part of it. Ultimately you are not a person, but a focal point where the universe is becoming conscious of itself. Subscribe to find greater fulfillment in life:
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Eckhart Tolle is widely recognized as one of the most original and inspiring spiritual teachers of our time. He travels and teaches throughout the world.
Eckhart is not aligned with any particular religion or tradition, but excludes none. His profound yet simple and practical teachings have helped thousands of people find inner peace, healing and greater fulfillment in their lives. At the core of his teachings lies the transformation of individual and collective human consciousness - a global spiritual awakening.
Eckhart Tolle is the author of The Power of Now, a #1 New York Times Bestseller, which has been translated into 32 languages and become one of the most influential spiritual books of our time.
In his most recent book, A New Earth, he shows how transcending our ego-based state of consciousness is not only essential to personal happiness, but also the key to ending conflict and suffering throughout the world.
#AskNASA┃ What is Hubble revealing about the universe?
This year, NASA is celebrating the Hubble Space Telescope's 30 years of unlocking the beauty and mystery of space.
Hubble is revolutionizing modern astronomy for scientists, while taking the public on a wondrous journey of exploration and discovery. Hubble's never-ending, breathtaking celestial snapshots provide a visual shorthand for Hubble's top scientific achievements. Unlike any space telescope before it, Hubble made astronomy relevant, engaging and accessible for people of all ages. The space telescope's iconic imagery has redefined our view of the universe and our place in time and space.
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How Old Is the Universe?
Have you ever gazed out at the night sky and been fascinated by a bright band of stars? That’s the Milky Way - the galaxy where our sun hangs out. And the sun is not the only star in the Milky Way, and the Milky Way is not the only galaxy in the universe. Astronomers have long since been in the quest to find out exactly how many galaxies there are in the universe, and you won’t believe the numbers they’ve come up with!
Today we have telescopes both on the ground, and in outer space, that regularly stare into the vast universe to detect the faintest and most distant galaxies. In 2016, a study conducted by a team of astronomers used 3D modeling of images collected over 20 years by the Hubble Space Telescope to determine the number of galaxies. What they found was amazing...
The variable stars ???? 0:54
125 billion galaxies? Well, it's not much 2:28
What the observable universe is 3:19
The farthest galaxy (it's really far, far away) 4:09
The star we're seeing 4 years in the past 4:44
How old is the universe? 5:52
The farthest individual star we’ve seen to date 7:13
So what about 300,000 new galaxies? 7:53
#space #planets #brightside
- With time, as humans progressed, the scope of what we considered the universe also advanced.
- For a large part of human history, we considered the Milky Way to be the only universe. We thought that all the stars that we see belong to it.
- This belief didn’t change until the 1900s, when scientists identified stars whose brightness seemed to change when observed from the earth.
- Then came Hubble, who, using the Hooker telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, California, identified several of these variable stars.
- Today we have telescopes both on the ground, and in outer space, that regularly stare into the vast universe to detect the faintest and most distant galaxies.
- Scientists determined that there are about 125 billion galaxies. But that large number appears faint compared to what scientists would discover a few years later.
- In 2016, a team of astronomers said there are over 2 trillion galaxies. These galaxies lie in what is known as the observable universe.
- The light from our Sun, which is just about 93 million miles away from the Earth, takes 8 minutes and 20 seconds to get here. And so, if the light from the nearest star, Alpha Centauri, takes more than 4 years to reach us, it means we're seeing that star 4 years in the past.
- It’s now generally accepted that the universe is about 13.8 billion years old.
- A very fascinating, and yet sometimes confusing, aspect of the universe is that its size is not permanent. Instead, it’s been growing ever since it was created by the Big Bang.
- The enormous blue star nicknamed Icarus is the farthest individual star we’ve seen to date.
- But even with such advanced systems, scientists say that they’ve only been able to chart 2 percent of the sky so far.
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Scientists Believe a Parallel Universe Exists
The theory of multiple or parallel universes is one that blurs the line between scientific reality and science fiction. It’s a pretty huge topic of debate in the scientific community, with big names on both sides. If you believe that multiple universes exist, then maybe you can feel a little better about having the great genius physicist Stephen Hawking in your camp! He had a pretty spectacular theory on multiple universes.
This is the idea that everything you thought you ever knew – our planet, the solar system, our galaxy, all the other stars and galaxies out there as far as our fancy telescopes can see – it’s just one itsy bitsy piece of a really giant puzzle!
What a “multiverse” really is 1:26
There are infinite me’s and you’s each in their own universe ???? 2:25
What these universes look like 3:17
What would a parallel version of our world look like? 4:45
How to prove that? 5:32
How could you possibly travel to a different universe? 8:24
#sciense #universe #brightside
- Up until recent years, scientists were sure there was only one universe that contained everything known to humankind – hence the whole “uni” thing.
- This is now known as the Multiple Worlds theory. So how does it work? You can mostly visualize it like a flow chart that keeps branching off continuously.
- Some believe these universes are like bubbles, totally unseen by each other because, well, we just don’t have that kind of technology! There’s also the model that shows universes looking kinda like sheets of paper stacked on top of each other.
- So, what would a parallel version of our world look like? Well, some attributes of our universe may be different, while some are the same! For example, perhaps this parallel version of our planet has grass and trees and birds flying in the sky and whatnot.
- Anyway, before we travel to these worlds, we have to know they’re actually real. Proving or disproving their existence is no easy task.
- The idea is to blast a handful of subatomic particles through a 50-foot tunnel, past a really strong magnet, and into a wall at the end. If some of those particles come out as a mirror image of themselves on the other side, that means science has made a breakthrough of galactic proportions.
- In theory, some scientists believe the Big Bang that started it all could’ve been two universes colliding and forming a new one!
- How could you possibly travel to a different universe? Of course, we’re talking theoretical physics here, so there are plenty of theories! First off, there’s always wormholes!
- And, well, there’s always Stephen Hawking’s theory of how you can travel to another universe: all you have to do is jump into a black hole!
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Is The Universe Finite?
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The universe is big, really, really big. Although according to a new paper, it may literally be infinitely smaller than we previously thought.
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Every time you walk out the door, light from the Big Bang strikes your face, enters your eyes. This is the cosmic microwave background radiation - the left-over heat-glow from the very early universe. We can’t see this microwave light with our eyes, but we can catch it with even a simple radio antenna. As soon as we became aware of its existence we’ve been feverishly building better and better devices to collect it. Why? Because it encodes so many secrets. And within this light, a group of scientists have just found evidence of the limits of space. A clue that our universe may be actually be finite in size. Today on Space Time Journal Club we’ll delve into the Nature Astronomy paper that just reported this: Planck evidence for a closed Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology by Eleonora Di Valentino, Alessandro Melchiorri, and Joe Silk.
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How The Universe Works - The Dr. binocs Show | 25 Minutes Animated Compilation Of The Universe
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Hi Kidz, Welcome to a brand new compilation of all the Universe topics that we have covered. Watch this video to go on a virtual journey through our universe.
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04:37 - What Is The Milky Way? -
09:35 - What Is A Solar Flare -
13:10 - What Is Supernova -
17:49 - What Is A Black hole -
20:56 - What Is A Worm Hole -
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Discovering Your Greatest Gifts From The Universe | Michael Beckwith
What is the purpose of life? ✨ There are a series of questions you can ask the Universe to find out...Join Michael Beckwith in his new Mindvalley Masterclass next to empower yourself and begin your spiritual journey to meaning ????
Michael Beckwith, Guest on the Oprah Winfrey Show and Spiritual Teacher starring in The Secret, has the best advice when it comes to raising consciousness and finding our lives purpose ????
We hope you enjoy this guided meditation ????
#MichaelBeckwith #Visioning #manifest
Life in the universe | The Economist
Does life exist anywhere else in the universe? And how did it get started? Scientists are seeking the answers in the cosmos, our solar system and right here on planet Earth.
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Is there life elsewhere in the universe? Anyone who has pondered the immensity of the cosmos has probably wondered at some time or another whether life exists beyond our planet?
The search for life beyond Earth has been buoyed by recent discoveries made by NASA's Kepler telescope - it's looking for planets outside our solar system known as exoplanets. Kepler measures the brightness of distant stars and tracks a stars dimming when a planet passes in front. Up until 1995, exoplanets were purely theoretical - but scientists have since identified thousands of them.
in July, NASA scientists announced the discovery of one of their most exciting exoplanets yet - Kepler-452B. Located some fourteen thousand light-years away the planet is in the habitable zone which means it's the right distance from its own Sun and also the right size to potentially be earth-like.
There is a limit to how much we can learn about Kepler-452B because of its distance. NASA is launching the James Webb telescope in 2018 to find earth-like planets closer to home so they can study their atmospheres for bio signatures that would indicate the presence of life. But there's another way to learn more about distant planets beyond what the Kepler telescope can tell us, and that is to look for signs of intelligent life.
Frank Drake has been listening out for signals of intelligent life elsewhere in the universe for over 50 years. Mr Drake came up with something called the Drake Equation which is a mathematical formula that estimates how many advanced civilizations capable of transmitting signals might exist in the universe. He co-founded the SETI Institute, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Scientists at the SETI Institute have been searching for intelligent life for the past few decades.
SETI researchers have not come across any signals yet but they say this is to be expected. SETI's efforts recently got a huge boost with a launch of breakthrough Listen, overseen by Martin Rees, Stephen Hawking, and Frank Drake and funded by Silicon Valley entrepreneur Yuri Milner. The project will greatly expand the organization's capacity to search and sift through data. But scientists aren't only interested in discovering life forms light-years away. At first glance our solar system seems like a rather unlikely place to find life beyond Earth but the reason scientists think it is plausible is because of the discovery of a group of organisms called extremophiles that live on earth.
Scientists are looking at the moons of Jupiter and Saturn as well as our nearest neighbor Mars. The hope is that if we find further life in our solar system on places like Mars, we will improve our understanding of how easily it might have started elsewhere. But there is another way to answer this question - determining how it started on earth.
One man who is trying to come up with an answer to this question is Jack Szostak. In his lab at Harvard University he's trying to determine how easy it is to create life by making it himself. Modern cells are intricate nano scale factories stuffed with thousands of different chemicals each taking part in a complicated and messy web of reactions. Long strands of DNA and codicils genetic information. Shorter strands of RNA carry that information around the cell telling it how to manufacture the proteins that run the chemical reactions it requires to live. It seems unlikely that these systems all evolved at the same time. At the Szostak lab they're focused on two experiments. One to work out how primitive cell membranes could grow and divide into daughter cells, and the other on RNA replication.
Dr Szostak and his team have already created a protocell from a blob of lipids which contains RNA. The sticking point at the moment is working out how to make RNA that can copy itself without relying on a helping hand from RNA enzymes. If it is a difficult process reliant upon various bits of luck or circumstance then it is possible that we are a cosmic fluke - one that isn't going to be repeated elsewhere. But if experiments like Dr Szostak show that life emerges easily, then the odds of life appearing elsewhere in the universe look more likely.
Perhaps one day when we're looking into the night sky we'll finally know the answer to the question are we alone?
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Why is the universe flat?
Cosmic inflation is a theory that was proposed in the 1980s by cosmologist Alan Guth to answer some of the most fundamental questions of the origins of our universe. It also solved the Horizon Problem and the Flatness Problem.
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