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Why you can't compare Covid-19 vaccines

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  • Why you cant compare Covid-19 vaccines

    7:02

    What a vaccine's efficacy rate actually means.

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    In the US, the first two available Covid-19 vaccines were the ones from Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna. Both vaccines have very high efficacy rates, of around 95%. But the third vaccine introduced in the US, from Johnson & Johnson, has a considerably lower efficacy rate: just 66%.

    Look at those numbers next to each other, and it's natural to conclude that one of them is considerably worse. Why settle for 66% when you can have 95%? But that isn't the right way to understand a vaccine's efficacy rate, or even to understand what a vaccine does. And public health experts say that if you really want to know which vaccine is the best one, efficacy isn't actually the most important number at all.

    Further reading from Vox:

    Why comparing Covid-19 vaccine efficacy numbers can be misleading:

    The vaccine metric that matters more than efficacy:

    The limits of what vaccine efficacy numbers can tell us:

    Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out

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  • Coronavirus Update 118: AstraZeneca DNA COVID 19 Vaccine Explained

    14:12

    Professor Roger Seheult, MD discusses the AstraZeneca and Oxford DNA COVID-19 Vaccine: How it works, and what we know about the safety, efficacy, and side effects at this time.

    Dr. Seheult illustrates the differences and similarities between the AstraZeneca / Oxford vaccine candidate and those from Moderna and Pfizer / BioNTech.

    The complete data from each of these SARS CoV 2 vaccine trials have not been released nor peer-reviewed at this time, and none of the COVID 19 vaccines have received FDA authorization to date.

    Dr. Sheult explains some of the potential advantages of the AstraZeneca Oxford vaccine candidate including a lower cost and that it only requires regular refrigeration. (This video was recorded on November 24, 2020).

    Roger Seheult, MD is the co-founder and lead professor at
    He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine and an Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    Johns Hopkins Tracker |

    Worldometer |

    AstraZeneca press release |

    AstraZeneca-Oxford Covid-19 Vaccine Up to 90% Effective in Late-Stage Trials (Wall Street Journal) |

    Why the AstraZeneca-Oxford Covid-19 vaccine is different (Vox) |

    Why the Pfizer and BioNTech vaccine is a cause for optimism — and skepticism (Vox) |

    AstraZeneca Registered Trial in US |

    Pfizer claims its Covid-19 vaccine is 90 percent effective so far. Here’s what we actually know. (Vox) |

    These Covid-19 vaccine candidates could change the way we make vaccines — if they work (Vox) |

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    Please visit MedCram.com for the full series:
    - Coronavirus Update 117: Moderna vs. Pfizer COVID 19 Vaccine (mRNA vaccines)
    - Coronavirus Update 116: Pfizer COVID 19 Vaccine Explained (Biontech)
    - Coronavirus Update 115: Convalescent Plasma vs Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID 19 Treatment
    - Coronavirus Update 114: COVID 19 Death Rate Drops; NAC (N acetylcysteine) Data
    - Coronavirus Update 113: Remdesivir May Not Work for COVID 19
    - Coronavirus Update 112: Linoleic Acid; Vaccines; UK COVID 19 Data
    - Coronavirus Update 111: Masks; New Vitamin D Data and COVID 19; NAC
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 110: Trump's Risk Factors and COVID-19 Prognosis; Interferon
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 109: New Data From Europe As COVID 19 Infections Rise
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 108: High Risk COVID 19 Behaviors; Cases Rise in Europe
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 107: Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID 19 Treatment and Prevention?

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com (including monoclonal antibody treatment vs convalescent plasma treatment, COVID vaccine, mRNA vaccine, COVID 19 prevention, Pfizer vaccine and Moderna vaccines, Biontech, AstraZeneca Oxford coronavirus vaccine, COVID 19 treatments, COVID-19 vaccine updates, and more).
    We offer over 60 medical topics (ECG Interpretation, DKA, influenza, measles, mechanical ventilation, etc.) on our website.


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    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2

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  • VERIFY: Why you cant fairly compare COVID-19 vaccines

    2:16

    Not only is it impractical to pass on an approved COVID-19 vaccine just because its efficacy was slightly lower than another vaccine, doctors say it is also misguided.

    It's not comparing apples to apples as you look at the data, said Dr. Jerome Williams, Senior Vice President of Consumer Engagement for Novant Health.

    According to experts, the only way to fairly compare vaccines' efficacy results head-to-head is to compare the vaccines head-to-head in a clinical trial.

    The only way that you can effectively compare to two different medications or two different vaccines is if you have a randomized controlled trial where some people are getting one vaccine and some people are getting the other, Dr. Meg Sullivan, Mecklenburg County Public Health's Medical Director, said. That didn't happen here.

    In fact, doctors say the conditions of the Pfizer, Moderna, and Johnson and Johnson trials were vastly different.

    They were tested in different points in time. They were tested in different populations of people when there were different strains circulating in those different populations of people, Dr. Linda Bell, State Epidemiologist for South Carolina's Department of Health and Environmental Control, said.

    MORE:

  • Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine: Effectiveness, Side Effects and Differences Between Vaccines

    2:45

    Dr. Dean Blumberg, Chief of Pediatric Infectious Diseases at UC Davis Children's Hospital, explains how the new Johnson and Johnson COVID-19 vaccine works and answers common questions, including why it's different from other coronavirus vaccines, how side effects compare to Pfizer and Moderna vaccines and more.

    For the latest information and resources on COVID-19, visit
    See the latest news from UC Davis Health:

    0:00 How is the Johnson & Johnson vaccine different?
    0:25 Why is it easier to distribute?
    1:00 Is it as effective as other COVID vaccines?
    1:44 Are the side effects different?
    2:01 Why is it important to have another vaccine available?

    #JohnsonandJohnson #covid19 #vaccine #coronavirus

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  • Which COVID-19 vaccine is the best? | DW News

    6:23

    The internet seems to know exactly which vaccines are the best - and the worst.
    But you can't compare vaccines that easily. And doing so might even be harmful in a pandemic.
    We tend to look at efficacy rates. Because they measure how likely you are to get COVID-19 after you’ve been vaccinated. The problem is that these numbers were not created equal. Instead they are determined by when and where the efficacy trials took place and who was included.
    So how do you determine which vaccine is best for you?


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    #Coronavirus #Vaccine #Pandemic

  • Singapore’s 3 COVID-19 Vaccines – And Is One Better Than The Others?

    3:40

    Singapore has ordered the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Sinovac vaccines as the first three of its portfolio in the fight against the coronavirus pandemic.

    ALSO WATCH: Is the vaccine safe? Your questions answered

    Both the Pfizer-BioNTech (also in use in Britain and the US) and Moderna (used in the US) vaccines use messenger RNA (mRNA) technology that involves injecting snippets of the COVID-19 genetic code, triggering an immune response without actually exposing the patient to the virus. Both vaccines are said to have an efficacy rate of about 95%.

    The China-made Sinovac vaccine uses an inactivated COVID-19 virus to trigger an immune response. There is a lack of specific results on its efficacy at the moment. As of January 7, 2020, the Sinovac vaccine has not been used in any country.

    Co-chair of the COVID-19 multi-ministry task force Lawrence Wong tells #TalkingPoint why the Singapore Government convened an expert panel as early as April 2020 to look into early purchases of COVID-19 vaccines based on early-stage clinical information.

    Director of communicable diseases at the Ministry of Health (MOH) Vernon Lee said “all the vaccines approved in Singapore are safe and efficacious”, but that some may be more suited to certain subpopulations. The Pfizer vaccine for instance - the only one in use in Singapore as of Jan 8 - is not for use in those with severe allergic reactions.

    ALSO WATCH:
    The Search For A COVID-19 Vaccine:
    Inside Coronavirus Human Vaccine Trials In Singapore:
    Is A Safe COVID-19 Vaccine By 2021 Really Possible?:


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  • Covid-19 vaccines: Moderna vs. Pfizer vs. Johnson & Johnson comparison

    8:24

    We asked Dr. Stephen Thomas, chief of Infectious Diseases at SUNY Upstate Medical University, what we need to know about the vaccines right now and what we could learn in the coming months.

    Watch the video for a deeper explanation about the three vaccines currently available in the U.S. — Moderna, Pfizer/BioNTech and Johnson & Johnson. Moderna and Pfizer are messenger RNA, or mRNA vaccines and Johnson & Johnson is a viral vector vaccine. All three are designed to protect against Covid-19.

    According to the CDC, rather than inject the body with a weakened version of the coronavirus, these vaccines teach the body to make a protein which triggers an immune response. It’s those antibodies that our bodies produce that help keep us safe when confronted with the actual virus.

    Side Effects
    The mRNA vaccines have been administered to over 80 million people in the United States and they are safe and effective, Thomas said. Thomas was the lead principal investigator for the worldwide Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine trial.

    In data from the trials, Thomas noted, “The safety profile of these vaccines are all pretty similar, most people will experience some kind of pain at the site the vaccine was injected and most people say the pain is mild to moderate.

    Dr. Thomas also mentioned these other common side effects:
    • Mild to moderate headache
    • Mild to moderate fatigue
    • 30 to 40 percent of people might have muscle aches or joint pain
    • About ten to fifteen percent of people might develop a fever

    “The good news is if it’s going to happen to you, because it doesn’t happen to everyone, it happens pretty soon after you get vaccinated and once it starts it goes away within a couple of days,” Thomas said.

    “With Pfizer and Moderna rolling out over 80 million doses of vaccine the side effects continue to be the same as the data from the trials and we aren’t seeing any new side effects or more severe side effects,” he added.

    What about the variants?
    Work is being done in laboratories with the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines, testing people’s antibodies to see if the antibodies will neutralize the variants.

    Thomas said, “They are not as good at neutralizing those variants as they are against the predominant strain in the United States which is from China. But experiments are continuing and there is some concerning data there, which is why it’s important that we vaccinate as many people as possible, because it’s a race against the variants.”

    Thomas noted that the vaccines are still working at fifty to sixty-percent efficacy against the new variants.

    “Just to put it in context, the annual flu vaccine is about forty-five percent efficacious,” he said.

    How important is the two-dose vaccine time schedule?
    Thomas said it’s important to get these vaccines as close to the schedule as possible as they were tested in the trials. If a change is unavoidable, Thomas recommends delaying the second dose rather than getting it ahead of schedule.

    What is herd immunity and when will we have it?
    Herd immunity is achieved when enough of the population has become immune to a disease (generally through vaccinations) that it makes it difficult for that disease to spread.

    That would mean even those who are not immune would be protected.

    “Right now, about fifteen percent of the country has received at least one dose of vaccine, but that’s a far cry from the 70 to 80-percent that we are going to need to achieve herd immunity,” Thomas said.

    Thomas doesn’t think it’s going to be a vaccine supply issue, but more of a willingness for people to be vaccinated. “We’re vaccinating 2 million people a day, if that were to go to 3 million, and we have 320 million people in the country, we could achieve herd immunity by late summer.”

  • Comparing the COVID-19 Vaccines

    3:33

    Tiffany Russo, an antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist at UTMC, describes the differences between the Moderna, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson vaccines, why the efficacy numbers differ, and why you shouldn’t “vaccine shop”.

  • There are four types of COVID-19 vaccines: here’s how they work

    4:10

    The fight against COVID-19 has seen vaccine development move at record speed, with more than 170 different vaccines in trials. But how are they different from each other and how will they protect us against the disease?

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  • Top 8 Vaccines for Covid-19 | Comparison

    3:29

    In this video we have discussed about the Vaccines globally present for the Covid-19.
    These 8 vaccines shows the efficacy of 60-90 % depending upon the variant we are targeting. The top 8 vaccines that we have currently present includes the :
    Pfizer BioNtech
    Moderna
    Johnson and Johnson
    Astrazeneca /Covisheild
    Sputnik V
    Novavax
    Covaxin
    Sinovac/Coronavac

  • Which COVID-19 vaccine is better?

    4:35

    Dr. Samir Gupta explains how the four COVID-19 vaccines now approved in Canada (Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca, Janssen) work and why efficacy rates aren’t the most important number to look at.

    #COVID19vaccines
    #Vaccines
    #COVID19

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  • Mayo Clinic Insights: What you should know about the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine

    3:16

    Mayo Clinic Insights: Dr. Swift discusses what you need to know about the new Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine. For more up to date information about COVID-19, visit

  • Why Pfizer And Moderna Cant Be Sued For Covid Vaccine Side Effects

    13:22

    The U.S. began vaccinating the population against the coronavirus earlier this month, but mass adoption is not a guarantee. Roughly four in ten Americans say they would definitely or probably not get a vaccine, according to a recent survey by the Pew Research Center. Watch this video to find out how major stakeholders plan to convince the entire country to trust a vaccine made in record time, using mRNA technology that's never before been licensed.

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    Why The U.S. Should Trust The Covid-19 Vaccine

  • mRNA vaccines, explained

    6:48

    Why some Covid-19 vaccines were developed faster than any vaccine ever.

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    Researchers working on Covid-19 vaccines have smashed speed records, bringing new vaccines from development to distribution in less than a year. They did this with the help of billions of dollars of unprecedented global investment -- but also, in some cases, with a new type of vaccine technology.

    There are four traditional types of vaccines, and they all require the growing and handling of live pathogens in a lab, a time-consuming process than can add months or years to development. But two new types of vaccines skip that step altogether by moving that work from the lab to our bodies. mRNA vaccines, like the ones from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna; and Adenovirus vaccines, like those from Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca; do this by sending genetic instructions directly into our cells, which then produce the harmless protein the body needs to learn to fight Covid-19. Because these proteins are produced from within cells rather than injected from the outside, they may be less likely to provoke adverse reactions in the recipient.

    The result has been a host of vaccines developed faster than ever. But it's also ushered us into a new age of vaccine technology, one in which we can send our own bodies the instructions on how to protect themselves. That technology is already being used to drive research on vaccines for HIV and cancer. These new types of vaccines are weapons we developed to fight the coronavirus - but their real impact is just beginning.

    Note: The headline on this video has been changed.
    Previous title: How the newest vaccines fight Covid-19

    Further reading:
    Our original article on Vox.com by Umair Irfan:

    A breakdown of the types of vaccines:

    Infographic on the differences between mRNA vaccines and traditional vaccines:

    The New York Times has a really wonderful in-depth breakdown of how each of the vaccines work:

    Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out

    Watch our full video catalog:
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  • Coronavirus Update 127: Delta Variant and Vaccines

    18:09

    Professor Roger Seheult, MD of MedCram with an update on the effectiveness of four major vaccines against the delta variant of COVID-19: Pfizer / BioNTech, Moderna, AstraZeneca, and Johnson and Johnson Vaccine (This video was recorded on July 19, 2021).

    See the video Dr. Seheult references: 10 Tips if you Get COVID-19 here:

    Please see our most recent video on Previous Infection vs. The Delta Variant:


    TOPICS IN THIS VIDEO INCLUDE:

    00:00 General overview of SARS-CoV-2 variants
    02:44 Characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant (B.1.617.2)
    03:21 Preliminary data on delta variant infection rates by age & risk of severe infection
    05:14 How delta variant is affecting COVID-19 case numbers in the UK, Israel, and United States
    06:55 How do the COVID-19 vaccines stack up against delta variant? Effectiveness of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine
    12:20 Data on the effectiveness of Moderna vaccine against the delta variant
    12:42 Data on effectiveness of Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine against the delta variant
    13:41 Information on Johnson & Johnson vaccine effectiveness against related SARS-CoV-2 variants (no current data on delta variant)
    15:29 Vaccination rates across the United States
    17:04 What to do if you’re infected with COVID-19?


    Roger Seheult, MD is the co-founder and lead professor at
    He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine and an Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    5 Things To Know About the Delta Variant (Yale Medicine) |

    REACT-1 round 12 report: resurgence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in England associated with increased frequency of the Delta variant (Imperial College) |

    SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC in Scotland: demographics, risk of hospital admission, and vaccine effectiveness (The Lancet) |

    Vaccines highly effective against B.1.617.2 variant after 2 doses (GOV.UK) |

    Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against hospital admission with the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant (Public Health England) |

    Moderna Provides a Clinical Update on the Neutralizing Activity of its COVID-19 Vaccine on Emerging Variants Including the Delta Variant First Identified in India (Moderna) |

    How much protection COVID-19 vaccines give you against the Delta variant, according to the best available data (Business Insider) |

    The total number and mass of SARS-CoV-2 virions (NIH) |

    Covid vaccine: How many people in the UK have been vaccinated so far? (BBC News) |

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com (including more discussion on delta variant covid, delta plus variant COVID, COVID delta variant, and more).


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    Video Produced by Kyle Allred


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    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2 #Coronavirus

  • Comparing Three Vaccines - Moderna, Pfizer, and Janssen

    14:49

    Please read and agree to the disclaimer before watching this video.
    . Comparing Three Vaccines - Moderna, Pfizer, and Janssen (J&J)

    Here is a comparative view of the efficacy and side effects of Moderna, Pfizer, and Johnson and Johnson vaccines as reported in their trial results in the FDA reports.

    This discussion does not include the efficacy and side effects from the vaccination campaigns.

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    #drbeen #koolbeens #COVID ...

    Disclaimer:
    This video is not intended to provide assessment, diagnosis, treatment, or medical advice; it also does not constitute provision of healthcare services. The content provided in this video is for informational and educational purposes only.
    Please consult with a physician or healthcare professional regarding any medical or mental health related diagnosis or treatment. No information in this video should ever be considered as a substitute for advice from a healthcare professional. ...
    Disclaimer:
    This video is not intended to provide assessment, diagnosis, treatment, or medical advice; it also does not constitute provision of healthcare services. The content provided in this video is for informational and educational purposes only.
    Please consult with a physician or healthcare professional regarding any medical or mental health related diagnosis or treatment. No information in this video should ever be considered as a substitute for advice from a healthcare professional.

  • Coronavirus Update 117: Moderna vs. Pfizer COVID 19 Vaccine

    14:41

    Professor Roger Seheult, MD discusses the Moderna COVID-19 mRNA vaccine: How it works and what we know about the safety, efficacy, and side effects at this time.

    No mRNA vaccine has ever been approved by the FDA, but Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech hope to receive emergency approval based on preliminary data from their ongoing vaccine trials.

    Moderna's two-dose vaccine regimen does not require special refrigeration (the Pfizer vaccine is supposed to be stored at -70 Celcius) but a variety of questions remain:
    Will the vaccine prevent transmission and asymptomatic spread?
    How long will immunity last?
    Will “94.5% effective” hold up to peer-review and additional data when it is gathered?

    (This video was recorded on November 17, 2020).

    Dr. Seheult is the co-founder and lead instructor at


    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    Johns Hopkins Tracker |

    Worldometer |

    Outcomes for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in the United States During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic (JAMA Cardiology) |

    Moderna’s Covid-19 vaccine is strongly effective, early look at data show (STAT) |

    mRNA Platform: Enabling Drug Discovery & Development (Moderna) |

    What is mRNA? (Moderna) |

    Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Meets its Primary Efficacy Endpoint in the First Interim Analysis of the Phase 3 COVE Study (Moderna) |


    THE MEDCRAM WEBSITE:

    Visit us for videos on over 60 medical topics and CME / CEs for medical professionals:


    SUBSCRIBE TO THE MEDCRAM YOUTUBE CHANNEL:


    Get notified of new videos by hitting the bell icon:


    RECENT PREVIOUS COVID-19 UPDATES:

    Please visit MedCram.com for the full series:
    - Coronavirus Update 116: Pfizer COVID 19 Vaccine Explained (Biontech)
    - Coronavirus Update 115: Convalescent Plasma vs Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID 19 Treatment
    - Coronavirus Update 114: COVID 19 Death Rate Drops; NAC (N acetylcysteine) Data
    - Coronavirus Update 113: Remdesivir May Not Work for COVID 19
    - Coronavirus Update 112: Linoleic Acid; Vaccines; UK COVID 19 Data
    - Coronavirus Update 111: Masks; New Vitamin D Data and COVID 19; NAC
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 110: Trump's Risk Factors and COVID-19 Prognosis; Interferon
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 109: New Data From Europe As COVID 19 Infections Rise
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 108: High Risk COVID 19 Behaviors; Cases Rise in Europe
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 107: Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID 19 Treatment and Prevention?
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 105: FDA Authorized Treatments; COVID 19 Vaccine Update
    - Coronavirus Pandemic Update 103: Convalescent Plasma Treatment & the FDA; College Campuses Close

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com (including monoclonal antibody treatment vs convalescent plasma treatment, COVID vaccine, mRNA vaccine, COVID 19 prevention, Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, Biontech, coronavirus vaccine, COVID 19 treatments, COVID-19 vaccine updates, and more).
    We offer over 60 medical topics (ECG Interpretation, DKA, influenza, measles, mechanical ventilation, etc.) on our website.


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    MEDIA CONTACT:

    Roger Seheult, MD
    Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine.
    Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine

    Media Contact: customers@medcram.com
    Media contact info:

    Video Produced by Kyle Allred

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    DISCLAIMER:

    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.
    #COVID19 #SARSCoV2

  • Whats the difference between the major Covid-19 vaccines?

    9:50

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    Covid-19 plagued the world for most of 2020, but at the end of the year, vaccines developed and approved at record speed started to become available for use. With the largest vaccination drive in history under way, what are the differences between the Covid-19 vaccines? How effective are they? What are the potential side effects of some of the vaccines, what are the dosage requirements and how will they get to you? Here’s what you need to know about the Covid-19 vaccine front-runners.


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  • Delta Variant Versus Previous COVID 19 Infection vs. Vaccines

    16:18

    Roger Seheult, MD of MedCram explains how natural immunity (from a previous COVID-19 infection) compares with vaccines (Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca) VS. the Delta coronavirus variant. (This video was recorded on July 24, 2021).

    Correction: Strasbourg is in France (near the German border), not in Germany.

    TOPICS IN THIS VIDEO INCLUDE:

    00:00 Is natural immunity from previous COVID-19 infection strong enough against Delta variant?
    00:32 Research study of 50,000+ patients from the Cleveland Clinic
    03:07 Qatar airport study shows previous infection with SARS-CoV gives reasonable immunity against reinfection
    05:46 UK data suggests low risk of COVID-19 reinfection among population
    07:04 Study on antibody response effectiveness (from vaccines and natural infection) at neutralizing several COVID-19 variants, including Delta
    13:33 Monoclonal antibodies shown to have little effectiveness against Delta variant
    14:31 Patients urged to get both doses of Pfizer or Moderna, especially for protection against Delta variant
    14:59 MedCram resources for medical providers treating COVID-19 patients and the case for lung ultrasounds

    Roger Seheult, MD is the co-founder and lead professor at
    He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine and an Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.

    See the video Dr. Seheult references about Lung Ultrasound in COVID 19:

    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    Can You Get Delta Variant if You Already Had COVID-19? (Healthline) |

    Necessity of COVID-19 vaccination in previously infected individuals (medRxiv) |

    Associations of Vaccination and of Prior Infection With Positive PCR Test Results for SARS-CoV-2 in Airline Passengers Arriving in Qatar (JAMA) |

    New national surveillance of possible COVID-19 reinfection, published by PHE (GOV.UK) |

    Study highlights need for full Covid vaccination to protect against Delta variant (STAT) |

    All coronavirus updates are at MedCram.com (including more discussion on delta variant covid, delta plus variant COVID, COVID delta variant, and more).


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    Video Produced by Kyle Allred


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    DISCLAIMER:

    MedCram medical videos are for medical education and exam preparation, and NOT intended to replace recommendations from your doctor.

    #COVID19 #Deltavariant #Coronavirus

  • COVID-19 Vaccines: MODERNA | PFIZER/BIONTECH | ASTRAZENECA

    43:41

    Official Ninja Nerd Website:
    Ninja Nerds!

    During this lecture Professor Zach Murphy will be discussing COVID-19 vaccines including Moderna, Pfizer/BioNTech, and Astrazeneca/Oxford.

    We are NOT sponsored and/or endorsed by Moderna, Pfizer/BioNTech, or Astrazeneca. We are presenting on RESEARCH and in no way is any of the information provided our own view or opinions.

    This will be a lecture packed with the process vaccine developers must go through; which includes a preclinical phase and phases I-III. Including information about OPERATION WARP SPEED and how this has expedited the normally lengthy vaccine process.

    We will then discuss how Moderna, Pfizer/BioNTech, and Astrazeneca vaccines work in the human body, preventing the SARS-CoV-2 virus and hopefully, ending this global pandemic.

    Finally-- Zach presents on all of the most current data that each of the vaccine companies have released outlining the vaccine procedure and how it will be administered, the vaccine efficacy (as a percentage), optimal storage temperature of the vaccine in order to remain viable, and the number of vaccine units these companies are capable of producing. We hope you enjoy this lecture and be sure to support us below!

    IMPORTANT INFO (MUST READ):
    One thing to emphasize that wasn’t harped on enough from this lecture is when these vaccines lead to an immunogenic reaction as we described above, which leads to formation of Memory B cells and Memory T cells. This is important because if we are exposed to the virus those memory cells are now primed and able to recognize and mount a powerful immune response against the virus.

    LASTLY, one additional point and clarification is when those cytotoxic T cells produce destructive molecules that damage host cells it’s important to realize that those are memory cytotoxic T cells primed by the Vaccine that damage host cells that ARE INFECTED with the SARS-COV-2 virus, NOT CELLS processing the vaccine.

    Big Takeaway:
    1. Vaccine stimulates antibody production to protect against virus IF INFECTED.
    2. Vaccine stimulates development of memory T and B cells to protect against virus IF INFECTED.

    References |
    Regulatory Affairs Professionals Society (RAPS) COVID-19 Tracker


    Outline:
    00:00 - Intro and Overview
    01:00 - Vaccine Development Phases Overview
    05:08 - Pre-Clinical Phase
    06:32 - Phase I
    08:29 - Phase II
    12:36 - How the Vaccines Work (Moderna and Pfizer/BionTech)
    21:16 - How the Vaccines Work (AstraZeneca/Oxford)
    25:33 - Vaccine Data (Moderna)
    30:30 - Vaccine Data (Pfizer/BionTech)
    35:21 - Vaccine Data (AstraZeneca)
    43:02 - Wrap-Up

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  • Which Covid vaccine is the best? | Vaccine Effectiveness and Variants Explained

    14:00

    Which Covid vaccine is the best? Which Covid vaccine is the most effective? How do we measure vaccine effectiveness? Do Covid vaccines work against new variants? Is it possible that Covid vaccines may make things worse in the future?

    I answer all of these questions in this video. First, we compare the seven vaccines that have published phase 3 trial data as of June 2021. Those include Pfizer, Moderna, Sputnik, Johnson & Johnson, Sinopharm, and AstraZeneca. I look at the phase 3 trial data published in peer-reviewed journals.

    I compare the vaccine effectiveness between each vaccine. I also look at the differences in the phase III studies and see that the SARS-CoV-2 variants probably explain the differences in the vaccines. Each vaccine becomes less effective against variants that have more mutations, especially mutations on the spike protein, such as the E484K mutation, which can cause immune escape. Important mutations discussed include the South African variant, B.1.351, the Brazil variant, P.1, the UK variant, B.1.1.7, and the Indian variant, B.1.167.

    Finally, I explain why this matters. Countries, such as Thailand, Vietnam, and Malaysia, that have not yet had widespread Covid outbreaks may not be able to effectively use vaccines to prevent future outbreaks, as the current vaccines have substantially reduced effectiveness against the variants in those countries. I also explore the possibility that vaccines may initiate antibody-dependent enhancement, or ADE, which may make future infections worse for some people.

    0:00 Introduction
    0:53 How do we measure the effectiveness of a vaccine?
    2:13 Which Covid vaccines have published phase 3 trial data?
    3:36 How effective were Covid vaccines in phase 3 trials?
    5:48 How much do virus variants reduce vaccine efficacy?
    9:46 Not all effectiveness results can be compared
    10:30 The most vaccinated country had a Covid outbreak
    12:11 Possibility of future antibody-dependent enhancement



    For further reading:

    Effect of 2 Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines on Symptomatic COVID-19 Infection in Adults
    A Randomized Clinical Trial |

    Efficacy and Safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine |

    Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine |

    Safety and Efficacy of Single-Dose Ad26.COV2.S Vaccine against Covid-19 |

    Safety and efficacy of an rAd26 and rAd5 vector-based heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccine: an interim analysis of a randomised controlled phase 3 trial in Russia |

    Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK |

    Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against the B.1.617.2 variant |

    Effectiveness of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 Variants |

    Antibody-dependent enhancement and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapies |

    Antibody-dependent Enhancement (ADE) and Vaccines |

  • All Types of COVID-19 Vaccines, How They Work, Animation.

    5:56

    How it works. mRNA vaccine (Pfizer, Moderna), DNA & Viral vector vaccines (Johnson & Johnson (J&J, JNJ), Oxford-AstraZeneca, Inovio, Sputnik V); protein/peptide vaccine (Novavax, EpiVacCorona), conventional inactivated (CoronaVac of Sinovac, Covaxin, Sinopharm). Mechanism of each type of coronavirus vaccines explained. Vaccine-induced immune response as compared to natural immunity.
    This video is available for instant download licensing here:
    ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved.
    Support us on Patreon and get early access to videos and free image downloads: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia
    During a natural viral infection, infected cells alert the immune system by displaying pieces of viral proteins on their surface. They are said to present the viral antigen to immune cells - cytotoxic T-cells, and activate them.
    Debris of dead cells and viral particles are picked up by professional antigen-presenting cells, (dendritic cells...). Dendritic cells patrol body tissues, sampling their environment for intruders. After capturing the antigen, dendritic cells leave the tissue for the nearest lymph node, where they present the antigen to another group of immune cells - helper T-cells. Viral particles also activate B-cells.
    These cells mount 2 types of immunity specific to the viral antigen: cell-mediated immunity and antibody-mediated immunity.
    Vaccines deliver viral antigens to trigger immune responses without causing the disease. The events of a vaccine-induced immune response are similar to that induced by a natural infection, although some types of vaccines may induce only antibody-mediated immunity (B cell immunity, not T cell (cellular) immunity).
    Many existing vaccines contain a weakened or an inactivated virus. Because the whole virus is used, these vaccines require extensive safety testing. Live attenuated vaccines may still cause disease in people with compromised immune systems. Inactivated vaccines (Sinovac/China, Covaxin/India) only induce humoral (B cell) immunity.
    Subunit vaccines contain only part of the virus, usually a spike protein (peptide - EpiVacCorona/Russia). These vaccines may not be seen as a threat to the immune system, and therefore may not elicit the desired immune response. For this reason, certain substances, called adjuvants, are usually added to stimulate the antigen-presenting cells to pick up the vaccine.
    Nucleic acid vaccines contain genetic information for making the viral antigen, instead of the antigen itself. Naked DNA vaccines (Inovio, phase 2/3 clinical trials) require a special delivery method to reach the cell’s nucleus (electroporation). Alternatively, a harmless, unrelated virus may be used as a vehicle to deliver the DNA. In this case, the vaccine is also known as viral-vector vaccine (Sputnik V/Russia, Oxford-AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson's). For example, the Oxford-AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine uses a chimpanzee adenovirus as a vector. The adenoviral genome is modified to remove viral genes, and the coronavirus spike gene is added. This way, the viral vector cannot replicate or cause disease, but it acts as a vehicle to deliver the DNA. Why a non-human adenovirus is used?
    Do DNA vaccines change human DNA?
    mRNA vaccines (Pfizer, Moderna) are delivered within a lipid covering that will fuse with the cell membrane. The mRNA is translated into viral antigen, which is then displayed on the cell surface. mRNA vaccines are extremely unlikely to integrate into human genome.
    All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

  • Pfizer, Moderna And J&J COVID-19 Vaccines: What Are The Differences? | TODAY

    4:15

    A third coronavirus vaccine from Johnson & Johnson could soon be on the way. What is the difference between the three coronavirus shots from Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer and Moderna? NBC senior medical correspondent Dr. John Torres joins Weekend TODAY to weigh in, and reminds reviewers that “any shot you can get at this point is the best shot for you to get.”
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    Pfizer, Moderna And J&J COVID-19 Vaccines: What Are The Differences? | TODAY

  • Comparing Johnson & Johnson Janssen Covid-19 Vaccine to Pfizer and Moderna

    2:19

    MCW associate professor Dr. Ben Weston shares his knowledge on the benefits, development technology, and the safety and efficacy of the Johnson & Johnson/Janssen COVID-19 vaccine.

    Find more information and resources regarding COVID-19 vaccines here:

    To read up-to-date and trustworthy news on the COVID-19 pandemic, visit:

    0:00 – Johnson & Johnson/Janssen Vaccine Overview and Benefits

    0:37 – Johnson & Johnson/Janssen Vaccine Development Technology

    1:23 – Johnson & Johnson/Janssen Vaccine Safety

  • Mayo Clinic Insights: Why do the COVID-19 vaccines cause side effects

    2:11

    Mayo Clinic Insights: Dr. Swift explains what you should know about common vaccine side effects. For more up to date information about COVID-19, visit

  • How Effective Is Sinovac? Inactivated Virus VS mRNA Vaccine | Talking Point | COVID-19

    22:29

    As of 9th August, over 81,000 in Singapore have gotten their first dose of the Sinovac vaccine. Why are some choosing it over the mRNA vaccines which have an efficacy of over 90%? Join Steven Chia as he speaks to experts to find out everything there is to know about Sinovac. Steven also follows a 32- year-old veterinarian on her Sinovac vaccine journey to find out why the vaccine’s 51% efficacy doesn’t concern her at all.

    Watch more #TalkingPoint:

    About the show: Talking Point investigates a current issue or event, offering different perspectives to local stories and revealing how it all affects you.
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  • Understanding COVID-19 vaccine side effects, why second dose could feel worse

    2:27

    All vaccines could cause some degree of reaction, and the same is true for COVID-19 vaccines. Post-vaccine symptoms are typically mild and resolve quickly without the need to use any medication.

    Common COVID-19 vaccine side effects include:

    Redness or soreness at injection site.
    Muscle aches.
    Fatigue.
    Headache.
    Fever or chills.
    For some people, the second dose in a COVID-19 vaccine series is causing a stronger reaction and more side effects than the initial dose. The same was true during clinical trials.
    ____________________________________________

    For the safety of its patients, staff and visitors, Mayo Clinic has strict masking policies in place. Anyone shown without a mask was recorded prior to COVID-19 or recorded in an area not designated for patient care, where social distancing and other safety protocols were followed.

    FOR THE PUBLIC: More health and medical news on the Mayo Clinic News Network.

    FOR THE MEDIA ONLY: Register at to access clean and nat sound versions of this video on the Mayo Clinic News Network.

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  • Comparing Johnson & Johnson Vaccine to Pfizer And Moderna | NBC News NOW

    3:27

    NBC News’ Erika Edwards compares and contrasts the Johnson & Johnson vaccine to those of Pfizer and Moderna, addressing concerns about efficacy rate and ingredients.
    » Subscribe to NBC News:
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    NBC News Digital is a collection of innovative and powerful news brands that deliver compelling, diverse and engaging news stories. NBC News Digital features NBCNews.com, MSNBC.com, TODAY.com, Nightly News, Meet the Press, Dateline, and the existing apps and digital extensions of these respective properties. We deliver the best in breaking news, live video coverage, original journalism and segments from your favorite NBC News Shows.

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    Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Fact-Check: Efficacy, Contents And Side Effects | NBC News NOW

  • Coronavirus Update 121: Johnson and Johnson Vaccine - Efficacy and Safety vs. Pfizer & Moderna

    11:49

    Professor Roger Seheult, MD explains the Johnson and Johnson / Janssen Pharmaceuticals vaccine candidate for COVID 19. Dr. Seheult illustrates how the Johnson & Johnson adenovirus vaccine works, the efficacy/safety (based on preliminary data), and how the vaccine compares to the Moderna vaccine and the Pfizer BioNTech vaccine. (This video was recorded on February 4, 2021).

    Roger Seheult, MD is the co-founder and lead professor at
    He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine and an Associate Professor at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.

    Interviewer: Kyle Allred, Physician Assistant, Producer / Co-Founder of MedCram.com

    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    A Study of Ad26.COV2.S for the Prevention of SARS-CoV-2-Mediated COVID-19 in Adult Participants (NIH) |

    Johnson & Johnson Announces Single-Shot Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Met Primary Endpoints in Interim Analysis of its Phase 3 ENSEMBLE Trial (Johnson & Johnson) |

    J&J one-dose Covid vaccine is 66% effective, a weapon but not a knockout punch (STAT) |

    One-shot COVID-19 vaccine is effective against severe disease (ScienceNews) |

    UK COVID Symptom Study |

    Doctor Explains The PREVENTION & TREATMENT For The Coronavirus | Roger Seheult & Lewis Howes (Lewis Howes YouTube Channel) |


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  • How the COVID-19 vaccines were created so quickly - Kaitlyn Sadtler and Elizabeth Wayne

    5:08

    Discover how mRNA vaccines help your immune system fight viral infections and how this decades-old technology was used to create COVID-19 vaccines.

    --

    In the 20th century, most vaccines took over a decade to research, test, and produce. But the vaccines for COVID-19 were cleared for emergency use in less than 11 months. The secret behind this speed is a medical technology that’s been developing for decades: the mRNA vaccine. So how do these revolutionary vaccines work? Kaitlyn Sadtler and Elizabeth Wayne dig into the science of mRNA technology.

    Lesson by Kaitlyn Sadtler and Elizabeth Wayne, directed by Igor Ćorić, Artrake Studio.

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    Thank you so much to our patrons for your support! Without you this video would not be possible! Vignan Velivela, Ana Maria, Exal Enrique Cisneros Tuch, Srikote Naewchampa, Tejas Dc, Khalifa Alhulail, Martin Stephen, Dan Paterniti, Jose Henrique Leopoldo e Silva, Elnathan Joshua Bangayan, Jayant Sahewal, Mandeep Singh, Abhijit Kiran Valluri, Morgan Williams, Kris Siverhus, Devin Harris, Pavel Zalevskiy, Karen Goepen-Wee, Filip Dabrowski, Barbara Smalley, Megan Douglas, Tim Leistikow, Renhe Ji, Maya Toll, Ka-Hei Law, Hiroshi Uchiyama, Mark Morris, Misaki Sato, EdoKun, Boytsov Ilya, SookKwan Loong, Bev Millar, Lex Azevedo, Noa Shore, sarim haq, Kyle Nguyen, Jason A Saslow, MJ Tan Mingjie, Dawn Jordan, Prasanth Mathialagan, Samuel Doerle, David Rosario, Siamak H, Manav parmar, David Lucsanyi, Anthony Kudolo, Ryohky Araya, Mayank Kaul, Eduardo Briceño and Christophe Dessalles.

  • What you need to know about serious COVID-19 vaccine side effects

    2:47

    Dr. Jen Ashton explains how severe vaccine incidents will be tracked and reported.

  • Vaccine Efficacy Explained

    1:45

    All approved vaccines are 100 per cent effective at preventing hospitalization and death from COVID-19. We should all take the first opportunity to be vaccinated. ????????

    Watch as Dr. Matthew Robinson, Medical Director of THP’s COVID-19 Vaccination Program, explains what is meant by vaccine efficacy in relation to the severity of symptoms caused by COVID-19.

    If you or someone you know is eligible to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, book or pre-register for your appointment: bit.ly/2OS1YGp

    #COVID19 #COVID19vaccine #PublicHealth

  • Post vaccine deaths

    30:21

    Correction

    58-year old immunocompetent male

    Immunocompromised

    Severe reinfection with South African SARS-CoV-2 variant 501Y.V2: A case report



    Antibody-dependent enhancement
    Also

    Convergent evolution

    Coevolution

    htttps://vaers.hhs.gov



    December 14, 2020, to February 7, 2021

    Over 41 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines administered in the United States

    VAERS received 1,170 reports of death (0.003%) among people who received a COVID-19 vaccine

    CDC and FDA physicians review each case report of death as soon as notified

    CDC requests medical records to further assess reports

    A review of available clinical information

    Death certificates

    Autopsy reports

    Medical records

    Revealed no link with vaccination

    CDC and FDA will continue to investigate reports of adverse events, including deaths, reported to VAERS.



    COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective.

    Millions of people in the United States have received COVID-19 vaccines, and these vaccines will undergo the most intensive safety monitoring in U.S. history.

    CDC recommends you get a COVID-19 vaccine as soon as you are eligible.

    CDC, FDA, and other federal partners will continue to monitor the safety of the COVID-19 vaccines

    Coronavirus vaccine – weekly summary of yellow card reporting



    Vaccination is the single most effective way to reduce deaths and severe illness from COVID-19.

    The number and nature of suspected adverse reactions reported so far are not unusual in comparison to other types of routinely used vaccines

    The overall safety experience with both vaccines is so far as expected from the clinical trials

    Based on current experience, the expected benefits of both COVID-19 vaccines in preventing COVID-19 and its serious complications far outweigh any known side effects

    As with all vaccines and medicines, the safety of COVID-19 vaccines is being continuously monitored

    Events with a fatal outcome

    Based on age-stratified all-cause mortality in England and Wales

    Several thousand deaths are expected to have occurred,

    naturally,

    within 7 days

    of the many millions of doses of vaccines administered so far

    MHRA

    Pfizer/BioNTech

    143 UK reports, patient died shortly after vaccination

    Oxford University/AstraZeneca

    90 reports of deaths

    Majority in elderly, underlying illness

    Review of individual reports, does not suggest the vaccine played a role in the death

    Australia vaccination

    Scott Morrison, 80,000 people a week from the end of February

    Greg Hunt, 1 million doses a week from the end of March

    Population, 26 million

    Pfizer approved last month

    Allowed to leave Europe

    20 million doses

    142,000 doses landed on Monday, starting next Monday, 22nd February

    Border Force officers, hotel quarantine workers, Aged Care residents and workers



    Approved Oxford AstraZeneca

    Secured 53.8 million doses

    Produced in Melbourne (50 million)

    Vaccine most Australians will get

    Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA)

    Approved for use over 18 years

    People over the age of 65 demonstrated a strong immune response

    Over 65s, case-by-case basis

    No upper age limit

    Two does, 12 weeks apart, minimum 4 weeks

    Five priority groups



    Green passports

  • RNA Vaccines - Basis of Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, Animation

    3:19

    The basis of upcoming Pfizer and Moderna coronavirus vaccines. How it works? Pluses and minuses. For comparison of different vaccines, as well as events of immune response, role of different immune cells (T-cells, B-cells, APC), see this video:
    This video is available for instant download licensing here:
    ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved.
    Support us on Patreon and get early access to videos and free image downloads: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia
    All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
    Vaccines prepare the immune system, getting it ready to fight disease-causing organisms, called pathogens. A vaccine is introduced to the body to mimic infection, triggering the body to produce antibodies against the pathogen, but without causing the illness. Conventional vaccines usually contain a weakened or inactivated pathogen; or a piece of a protein produced by the pathogen, called an antigen.
    RNA vaccines are a new generation of vaccines. Instead of the antigen itself, RNA vaccines contain a messenger RNA – mRNA - that encodes for the antigen. Once inside the body’s cells, the mRNA is translated into protein, the antigen, by the same process the cells use to make their own proteins. The antigen is then displayed on the cell surface where it is recognized by the immune system. From here, the sequence of events is similar to that of a conventional vaccine.
    Some RNA vaccines also contain additional mRNA coding for an enzyme, which, after being translated in host cells, can generate multiple copies of the antigen-encoding mRNA. This essentially amplifies the production of antigen from a small amount of vaccine, making the vaccine more effective. These are called self-amplifying RNA vaccines.
    RNA vaccines are easier and safer to produce than conventional vaccines. This is because mRNA molecules can be synthesized in a cell-free system using a DNA template with a sequence of the pathogen; while conventional vaccines usually require a more complicated and risk-prone process of growing large amounts of infectious pathogens in chicken eggs or other mammalian cells. Without the risks of being contaminated by infectious elements or allergens from egg cultures, RNA vaccines are also safer for patients.
    Because protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm, RNA molecules do not need to enter the nucleus, so the possibility of them integrating into the host cell genome is low. RNA strands are usually degraded by cellular enzymes once the protein is made.
    The relative simplicity of the production process makes it easier to standardize and scale, enabling rapid responses to emerging pandemics. Other advantages include lower production costs, and the ease of tweaking RNA sequences to adapt to rapidly-mutating pathogens.
    On the minus side, it can be challenging to deliver mRNA effectively to the cells, since RNA sequences and secondary structures may be recognized and destroyed by the innate immune system as soon as they are administered intravenously. These limitations can be overcome by optimizing codons, using modified nucleosides to avoid recognition, and packaging RNA into protective nanoparticles.
    Another disadvantage is that most RNA vaccines require uninterrupted refrigeration for transportation and storage, which can be a hurdle for vaccine distribution. Research is ongoing to engineer thermostable vaccines.

  • What Are the Long-term Side Effects of COVID-19 Vaccine?

    2:39

    Dr. Paul Offit explains why COVID-19 vaccines would not be expected to cause long-term side effects. For information about COVID-19, visit For information about vaccines and vaccine safety, visit

  • Should covid-19 vaccines be mandatory?

    8:50

    Most governments recognise that vaccination is the fastest way out of the pandemic, but in many places hesitancy is hindering the roll-out. Should employers—or even governments—force people to have the vaccine? We answer your questions.

    Read more of our covid-19 coverage:

    Listen to “The Jab” podcast from Economist Radio:

    Listen to our podcast about vaccine incentives:

    How uneven vaccination is affecting the global economy:

    How successful are vaccination incentives?

    Why might America lose the vaccination race?

    Why do vaccine certificates harm society?

    Why are Americans prone to vaccine hesitancy?

    Why is vaccine hesitancy putting covid vaccine progress at risk?

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    Are vaccine certificates becoming reality?

    How France is dealing with vaccine hesitancy:

  • If the COVID-19 Vaccines Interviewed for a Job

    2:53

    Late Night writer Jeff Wright illustrates the pros and cons of each coronavirus vaccine in development.

    Late Night with Seth Meyers. Stream now on Peacock:

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    If the COVID-19 Vaccines Interviewed for a Job- Late Night with Seth Meyers



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  • Covid-19 vaccines: what information can you trust? | The Economist

    7:59

    Factual and reliable information is vital to creating trust in vaccines and to overcoming the pandemic. Ed Carr, The Economist’s deputy editor, and Natasha Loder, our health policy editor, answer some of the big questions about the global vaccination drive.

    Chapters
    00:00 - Challenges in vaccinating the world
    00:45 - Trust in vaccines
    02:30 - mRNA vaccines
    03:23 - Impact of variants on vaccination
    04:29 - Time between vaccine doses
    06:09 - Mandatory vaccines for travel?

    Find all of our coverage on covid-19:

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    Listen to our Babbage podcast: what do vaccination data tell us about lifting lockdowns?

    Watch our film about why vaccine mistrust is growing:

    Conspiracy theories about covid-19 vaccines may prevent herd immunity:

    Katy Milkman on how to nudge people to accept a covid-19 vaccine:

    Why is Europe so riddled with vaccine scepticism?

    Vaccine nationalism means that poor countries will be left behind:

    Tedros Adhanom on why vaccine nationalism harms efforts to halt the pandemic:

    Europe needs quicker vaccinations and more stimulus:

    Read about Europe’s delays in covid-19 vaccine delivery:

    Why the EU should stop ignoring the vaccine race to try and win it:

    America’s vaccination roll-out will improve with practice:

    Bahrain and the UAE are relying on a Chinese-made vaccine:

    Read about the two arthritis medicines prove effective for covid-19:

  • Coronavirus Update 116: Pfizer COVID 19 Vaccine Explained

    22:32

    Professor Roger Seheult, MD discusses the Pfizer / Biontech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine: How it works and what we know about the safety and efficacy at this time.

    No mRNA vaccine has ever been approved by the FDA, but Pfizer and BioNTech hope to receive emergency approval based on preliminary data from their ongoing vaccine trial.

    This two-dose vaccine regimen has limitations including the need for -70 C refrigeration and many questions remain:
    Will the vaccine prevent transmission and asymptomatic spread?
    How long will immunity last?
    Will “90% effective” hold up to peer-review and additional data when it is gathered?

    (This video was recorded on November 12, 2020).

    Dr. Seheult is the co-founder and lead instructor at


    LINKS / REFERENCES:

    Johns Hopkins Tracker |

    Worldometer |

    COVID-19 vaccine tracker (RAPS) |

    Safety and Immunogenicity of Two RNA-Based Covid-19 Vaccine Candidates (NEJM) |

    A prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike RNA vaccine is highly immunogenic and prevents lung infection in non-human primates (bioRxiv) |

    Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Vaccine Candidate Against COVID-19 Achieved Success in First Interim Analysis from Phase 3 Study (BioNTech) |

    Why mRNA represents a disruptive new drug class {BioNTech) |


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  • COVID-19 vaccine side effects

    1:00

    Vaccines are designed to give you immunity without the dangers of getting the disease. It’s common to experience some mild to moderate side effects when receiving vaccinations. This is because your immune system instructs your body to increase blood flow so more immune cells can circulate, and it raises your body temperature to kill the virus. Vaccines help protect us against disease and feeling mild or moderate side effects after receiving one is a sign that the vaccine and our immune system is working.

  • Covid-19 vaccine side effects, explained

    1:51

    Vaccinations for Covid-19 are now underway in the U.S. Two vaccines – one from Pfizer and BioNTech, one from Moderna — have received emergency use authorizations by the Food and Drug Administration. Both vaccines have been deemed safe, but they can cause some short-term side effects. Vaccines are designed to invoke an immune response that builds protection without causing a serious infection. Traditionally, vaccines are made with viral material which prompts the immune system to mount a defense. This process releases chemicals that cause physical symptoms — such as pyrogens, which are inflammatory chemicals that can cause fever.

  • Was the COVID-19 vaccine made too quickly?

    4:29

    A conversation about COVID-19 vaccine concerns with Mount Sinai colleagues Bernard Camins, MD, and Gopi Patel, MD, from Infection Prevention; Jemilat Siju, DNP, Nursing; and Anne Dickerson, Administration.



    Disclaimer: All individuals in the video are fully vaccinated.

  • Infectious Disease Doctor Calls J&J COVID-19 Vaccine “A Game Changer”

    2:50

    #uvahealth #covidvaccine
    UVA Critical Care and Infectious Disease physician, Taison Bell, says he was excited about the availability of the one-dose COVID-19 vaccine from J&J. He explains how the vaccine works and addresses concerns that people may have about the vaccine’s efficacy numbers.

    Find out more about the vaccine at:

    Transcript

    TAISON BELL, MD: My name is Taison Bell. I'm a critical care and infectious disease physician at the University of Virginia.

    I was personally excited to see the Johnson & Johnson vaccine news, and then trial that came out and I expected it to be authorized by the FDA. It has a couple of advantages. So the first one is that it uses a slightly different platform. So instead of the messenger RNA that Moderna and Pfizer uses, this one uses a viral vector and adenovirus. And that's just a virus that causes the common cold, but it's modified so that it doesn't actually cause you to get sick. What it does do is allows a piece of DNA, so in opposed to RNA. It's a different vehicle, but the destination is the same.

    It’s teaching your body how to make the spike protein so that your body can make antibodies to it. And then later, if you get exposed to the coronavirus, you can rally the troops, get it out of there and prevent you from getting sick. So it works. The end game is the exact same.

    Now what I've gotten a lot of questions about is, well, what do I make of these different efficacy numbers? So, the 66% efficacy versus the 94-95%. Now you could sit back, and say, if I got the Johnson & Johnson, why would I want to take that? If I've got the Pfizer, Moderna, that I could just wait a little bit longer for? Now, this is what I want to talk about. You know, what does efficacy mean?

    If we dig down deeper into that data for Johnson & Johnson, and we think, you know, what are the things that we care about. People going to the hospital for COVID-19 with severe disease, people dying from COVID-19 from severe disease. They actually stack up pretty well against each other. So the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, for the 28 day period, before it takes for the vaccine to take full effect, from that point on, there were no people who went to the hospital with COVID-19. Absolutely zero. People who died from COVID-19, absolutely zero.

    So that 66% efficacy number is a little misleading because what this also is, is a life-saving vaccine. Now to put this in context, our flu vaccine is between 40 to 60% of efficacy. I take the flu shot every year, and it's something that we use as something to protect us from another deadly pandemic that happens on a global scale every single year. The Johnson & Johnson vaccine actually has higher efficacy than the influenza vaccine. And then when you combine that with the fact that if you look at people who've had the most severe illness and see that, you know, it really protects you against that with a one-dose regimen, that's easy to distribute, much easier to distribute. I think it's a game changer and personally for myself or my family members, if I had access to either one of them, that's the one that's going in my arm as quickly as possible, because I want the thing that's going to protect me from having a severe disease, from dying of COVID-19. And all three of these vaccines will do that.

  • How the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines compare l GMA

    2:23

    ABC News' Tom Llamas reports on how the two vaccines stack up on the key question of effectiveness.

    LEARN MORE:
    You may feel lousy after getting the COVID vaccine. Experts say that's OK:
    Pregnant? Allergies? Immunocompromised? You are still eligible for COVID-19 vaccine:

    #ABCNews #COVID19 #PfizerVaccine #ModernaVaccine #Pfizer #Moderna #COVID19Vaccine

  • How effective are COVID-19 vaccines against variants?

    2:13

    Dr. Darien Sutton shares some encouraging news about the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines’ efficacy against the delta variant.

  • Comparing three COVID vaccines

    54

    The Moderna and Pfizer vaccines are the current options but a Johnson and Johnson option is on the way.

  • Health Check: Comparing the 3 approved COVID-19 vaccines

    1:43

    Now that a new kind of COVID-19 vaccine has been approved, Sonia Azad is breaking down the basic differences between the Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer & Moderna vaccines

  • How are the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines different?

    2:08

    Moderna says as soon as it gets approval, 6 million doses will be distributed to more than 3,000 locations.

  • Canada OKs mixing COVID-19 vaccines

    2:00

    The National Advisory Committee on Immunization says AstraZeneca-Oxford COVID-19 vaccines can be swapped for Pfizer or Moderna for the second dose. Limited evidence suggests the immunity from mixing doses is just as good, and may be better than two of the same.

    Watch The National live on YouTube Sunday-Friday at 9 p.m. ET

    Subscribe to The National:


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    More from CBC News |

    The National is CBC's flagship nightly news program, featuring the day's top stories with in-depth and original journalism, with hosts Adrienne Arsenault and Andrew Chang in Toronto, Ian Hanomansing in Vancouver and the CBC's chief political correspondent, Rosemary Barton in Ottawa.

  • Canada to allow mixing COVID-19 vaccines

    2:21

    Dr. Jen Ashton explains why the country is allowing people to mix and match vaccine brands.

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